Evaluation of Newcastle Disease antibody titers in backyard poultry in Germany with a vaccination interval of twelve weeks.
ABSTRACT: Newcastle Disease (ND) is a viral disease spread worldwide with a high impact on economy and animal welfare. Vaccination against Newcastle Disease is one of the main control measures in countries such as Germany with endemic occurrence of Newcastle Disease virus in the free ranging bird population. The German Standing Veterinary Committee on Immunization (StIKo Vet) recommends to revaccinate chickens at intervals of six weeks against Newcastle Disease with attenuated live vaccines via drinking water or spray in line with the SPCs (Summary of Product Characteristics) of current vaccines. However, it is still common practice to revaccinate only every twelve weeks because the SPCs of former vaccines proposed a revaccination after checking the antibody titer which based on practical knowledge was typically sufficient for twelve weeks. The aim of this study was to evaluate if a vaccination interval of twelve weeks against Newcastle Disease under field conditions results in sufficient seroconversion to protect flocks. Antibody titers of 810 blood samples from 27 backyard flocks of chickens were analyzed by ELISA- and HI-tests between 69 and 111 days after vaccination of the flocks with attenuated live vaccines of the ND strain Clone 30. Furthermore, data on the flocks such as breed, sex and age were collected through a questionnaire. In this study a sufficient antibody titer was found in 26 of these flocks. Therefore, a vaccination interval of every twelve weeks with the live vaccines tested is suitable for a vaccination protocol against Newcastle Disease. The lack of seroconversion of one flock also emphasizes the need for regular vaccination monitoring by serological testing and re-evaluation of the vaccination process if needed.
Project description:Chickens are a key source of nutrition for rural Malagasy communities. Due to high endemic rates of Newcastle disease, it remains challenging to raise sustainable chicken flocks as a consistent food source. Here, we explore the impact of triannual Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine interventions on the growth and herd immunity acquisition of Malagasy chicken flocks. Between 2011 and 2018 we collected longitudinal data to assess the population dynamics of chicken populations in remote Malagasy communities. In 2016, we launched a pilot campaign for vaccination in six rural communities to determine the impacts on chicken survivorship and productivity. We used these data to specify a mathematical model of realistic Malagasy chicken population dynamics under a triannual vaccination regime. The mathematical model represents an extension to conventional SIR models that allows for modeling the impact of specific vaccinations on chicken flock dynamics, rather than estimation of parameters. Understanding chicken population dynamics is important for realizing the potential for domestic chicken flocks to serve as sustainable food sources. The results suggested that vaccination coverage of at least ~40% is necessary over 5+ years to achieve population doubling, while complete herd immunity may not be possible given the short duration of effectiveness of vaccination, and the high levels of births and deaths in the chicken flocks.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Newcastle disease (ND) causes severe economic losses in poultry industry worldwide. Egyptian poultry industry suffered from severe economic losses since the isolation of Velogenic Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) genotype VIId in 2011 and up till now despite the use of different vaccination programs. So, this study aimed to isolate and characterize the vNDV from a total of 120 poultry flocks from ten provinces in the Egyptian Delta region with a history of respiratory manifestation, high mortalities or a decrease in egg production between 2015 and 2019. Seventy-three samples' allantoic fluid (73/120, 60.8%) were positive for hemagglutination with chicken RBCs. These samples were submitted to molecular examination using qRT-PCR specific primers for AOAV-1, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI-H5), low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI-H9) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). RESULTS:Fifty samples (50/120: 41.6%) were confirmed positive for AOAV-1, based on genetic analysis of matrix and fusion protein. The co-infection rate of other respiratory viral diseases examined was 1.6, 14.1, and 4.1%, for HPAI-H5, LPAI-H9, and IBV, respectively. Biologically, the intracerebral pathogenicity index of ten selected AOAV-1 isolates ranged from 1.70 to 1.98, which indicated the velogenic nature of these isolates. All the sixteen sequenced isolates were AOAV-1 genotype VII.1.1. The full F gene sequence of six examined AOAV-1 VII.1.1 isolates contained the seven neutralizing epitopes, and the glycosylation motif of six-potential sites for N linked glycosylation at residues 85, 191, 366, 447, 471, and 541. CONCLUSION:It could be concluded that the high prevalence of AOAV-1 genotype VII.1.1 in the Egyptian chicken flocks despite the intensive vaccination with live and killed ND vaccines, as all the 16 isolates tested were belonged to this genotype. Homologous vaccination is badly needed to control and reduce the spread of AOAV-1 genotype VII.1.1infection in Egyptian poultry flocks.
Project description:Newcastle disease (ND) is a viral disease of poultry with global importance, responsible for the loss of a potential source of household nutrition and economic livelihood in many low-income food-deficit countries. Periodic outbreaks of this endemic disease result in high mortality amongst free-ranging chicken flocks and may serve as a disincentive for rural households to invest time or resources in poultry-keeping. Sustainable ND control can be achieved through vaccination using a thermotolerant vaccine administered via eyedrop by trained "community vaccinators". This article evaluates the uptake and outcomes of fee-for-service ND vaccination programs in eight rural villages in the semi-arid central zone of Tanzania. It represents part of an interdisciplinary program seeking to address chronic undernutrition in children through improvements to existing poultry and crop systems. Newcastle disease vaccination uptake was found to vary substantially across communities and seasons, with a significantly higher level of vaccination amongst households participating in a longitudinal study of children's growth compared with non-participating households (p = 0.009). Two multivariable model analyses were used to explore associations between vaccination and chicken numbers, allowing for clustered data and socioeconomic and cultural variation amongst the population. Results demonstrated that both (a) households that undertook ND vaccination had a significantly larger chicken flock size in the period between that vaccination campaign and the next compared with those that did not vaccinate (p = 0.018); and (b) households with larger chicken flocks at the time of vaccination were significantly more likely to participate in vaccination programs (p < 0.001). Additionally, households vaccinating in all three vaccination campaigns held over 12 months were identified to have significantly larger chicken flocks at the end of this period (p < 0.001). Opportunities to understand causality and complexity through quantitative analyses are limited, and there is a role for qualitative approaches to explore decisions made by poultry-keeping households and the motivations, challenges and priorities of community vaccinators. Evidence of a bi-directional relationship, however, whereby vaccination leads to greater chicken numbers, and larger flocks are more likely to be vaccinated, offers useful insights into the efficacy of fee-for-service animal health programs. This article concludes that attention should be focused on ways of supporting the participation of vulnerable households in ND vaccination campaigns, and encouraging regular vaccination throughout the year, as a pathway to strengthen food security, promote resilience and contribute to improved human nutrition.
Project description:Although intensive vaccination programs have been implemented, Newcastle disease (ND) outbreaks, accompanied by severe economic losses, are still reported in Egypt. The genetic characterization of ND virus (NDV) strains isolated from ND-vaccinated chicken flocks provides essential information for improving ND control strategies. Therefore, here, 38 NDV strains were isolated and identified from outbreaks among vaccinated flocks of broiler chickens located in the provinces of Qena, Luxor, and Aswan of Upper Egypt during 2011-2013. The investigated broiler chicken flocks (aged 28 to 40 days) had high mortality rates of up to 80%. All NDV isolates were genetically analyzed using next-generation DNA sequencing. From these isolates, 10 representative NDV strains were selected for further genetic analyses. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length coding genes revealed that the Egyptian NDV isolates belonged to a single sub-genotype, VII.1.1. These isolates were phylogenetically distant from the vaccine strains, including La Sota or Clone 30 (genotype II), which have been commonly used to vaccinate chicken flocks. Amino acid substitution K78R was observed in the neutralizing epitopes of the F proteins; whereas several mutations were found in the neutralizing epitopes of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins, notably, E347K. Overall, our results suggested that the occurrence of neutralizing epitope variants may be one of potential reasons for ND outbreaks. Further studies are needed to determine the protective effect of current vaccines against circulating virulent NDV strains.
Project description:Virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV, avian Avulavirus-1, APMV-1) induces a highly contagious and lethal systemic disease in gallinaceous poultry. APMV-1 antibody detection is used for surveillance and to control vaccination, but is hampered by cross-reactivity to other subtypes of avian Avulaviruses. Data are lacking concerning the applicability of NDV V proteins as differential diagnostic marker to distinguish vaccinated from virus-infected birds (DIVA strategy).Full length and C-terminally truncated nucleocapsid (NP) protein, and the unique C-terminal regions of the phospho- (P) and V proteins of the NDV LaSota strain were bacterially expressed as fusion proteins with the multimerization domain of the human C4 binding protein, and used as diagnostic antigens in indirect ELISA.When used as diagnostic antigen in indirect ELISAs, recombinant full-length proved to be a sensitive target to detect seroconversion in chickens after APMV-1 vaccination and infection, but revealed some degree of cross reactivity with sera raised against other APMV subtypes. Cross reactivity was abolished but also sensitivity decreased when employing a C-terminal fragment of the NP of NDV as diagnostic antigen. Antibodies to the NDV V protein were mounted in poultry following NDV infection but also, albeit at lower rates and titers, after vaccination with attenuated NDV vaccines. V-specific seroconversion within the flock was incomplete and titers in individual bird transient.Indirect ELISA based on bacterially expressed recombinant full-length NP compared favorably with a commercial NDV ELISA based on whole virus antigen, but cross reactivity between the NP proteins of different APMV subtypes could compromise specificity. However, specificity increased when using a less conserved C-terminal fragment of NP instead. Moreover, a serological DIVA strategy built on the NDV V protein was not feasible due to reduced immunogenicity of the V protein and frequent use of live-attenuated NDV vaccines.
Project description:Breast milk contains anti-rotavirus IgA antibodies and other innate immune factors that inhibit rotavirus replication in vitro. These factors could diminish the immunogenicity of oral rotavirus vaccines, particularly if breastfeeding occurs close to the time of vaccine administration.Between April 2011 and November 2012, we conducted an open label, randomized trial to compare the immunogenicity of Rotarix (RV1) in infants whose breastfeeding was withheld one hour before through one hour after vaccination with that in infants breastfed at the time of vaccination. The trial was conducted in the peri-urban area of Ibrahim Hyderi in Karachi, Pakistan. Both groups received three doses of RV1 at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. Seroconversion (anti-rotavirus IgA antibodies ? 20 U/mL in subjects seronegative at 6 weeks of age) following three vaccine doses (6, 10 and 14 weeks) was determined at 18 weeks of age (primary objective) and seroconversion following two doses (6 and 10 weeks) was determined at 14 weeks of age (secondary objective).Four hundred eligible infants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio between the withholding breastfeeding and immediate breastfeeding arms. Overall, 353 (88.3%) infants completed the study according to protocol; 181 in the withholding breastfeeding group and 172 in the immediate breastfeeding group. After three RV1 doses, anti-rotavirus IgA antibody seroconversion was 28.2% (95% CI: 22.1; 35.1) in the withholding arm and 37.8% (95% CI: 30.9; 45.2) in the immediate breastfeeding arm (difference: -9.6% [95% CI: -19.2; 0.2] p = 0.07). After two doses of RV1, seroconversion was 16.6% (95% CI: 11.9; 22.7) in the withholding arm and 29.1% (95% CI: 22.8, 36.3) in the immediate breastfeeding arm (difference: -12.5% [95% CI: -21.2,-3.8] p = 0.005).Withholding breastfeeding around the time of RV1 vaccine administration did not lead to increased anti-rotavirus IgA seroconversion compared with that seen with a breastfeed at the time of vaccination. On the contrary, IgA seroconversion in infants immediately breastfed tended to be higher than in those withheld from a feeding. Our findings suggest that breastfeeding should be continued adlib around the time of rotavirus vaccination and withholding breastfeeding at that time is unlikely to improve the vaccine immunogenicity.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01199874.
Project description:We investigated episodes of suspected highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)-like illness among 12 meat duck flocks in two districts in Tien Giang province (Mekong Delta, Vietnam) in November 2013. In total, duck samples from 8 of 12 farms tested positive for HPAI virus subtype A/haemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1 (H5N1) by real-time RT-PCR. Sequencing results confirmed clade of 126.96.36.199.c as the cause of the outbreaks. Most (7/8) laboratory-confirmed positive flocks had been vaccinated with inactivated HPAI H5N1 clade 2.3.4 vaccines <6 days prior to onset of clinical signs. A review of vaccination data in relation to estimated production in the area suggested that vaccination efforts were biased towards larger flocks and that vaccination coverage was low [21.2% ducks vaccinated with two shots (range by district 7.4-34.9%)]. The low-coverage data, the experimental evidence of lack of cross-protection conferred by the currently used vaccines based on clade 2.3.4 together with the short lifespan of meat duck flocks (60-70 days), suggest that vaccination is not likely to be effective as a tool for control of H5N1 infection in meat duck flocks in the area.
Project description:Newcastle disease, one of the most important health problems that affects the poultry industry around the world, is caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus. Newcastle disease virus is considered to be endemic in several countries in the Americas, including Mexico. In order to control Newcastle disease outbreaks and spread, intensive vaccination programs, which include vaccines formulated with strains isolated at least 60 years ago, have been established. These vaccines are dissimilar in genotype to the virulent Newcastle disease viruses that had been circulating in Mexico until 2008. Here, 28 isolates obtained between 2008 and 2011 from different regions of Mexico from free-living wild birds, captive wild birds, and poultry were phylogenetically and biologically characterized in order to study the recent epidemiology of Newcastle disease viruses in Mexico. Here we demonstrate that, until recently, virulent viruses from genotype V continued to circulate and evolve in the country. All of the Newcastle disease viruses of low virulence, mostly isolated from nonvaccinated free-living wild birds and captive wild birds, were highly similar to LaSota (genotype II) and PHY-LMV42 (genotype I) vaccine strains. These findings, together with the discovery of two virulent viruses at the Mexican zoo, suggest that Newcastle disease viruses may be escaping from poultry into the environment.
Project description:Contaminated vaccine is one unexpected and potential origin of virus infection. In order to investigate the most likely cause of disease in a broiler breeder company of Shandong Province, all 17 batches of live-virus vaccines used in the affected flocks and 478 tissue samples were tested by dot-blot hybridization, nested PCR, and IFA. The results suggested the outbreak of disease was most probably due to the vaccination of REV-contaminated MD-CVI988/Rispens vaccines and ND-LaSota+IB-H120 vaccines. Furthermore, the REV was probably transmitted to the commercial chickens through congenital transmission.
Project description:Vaccination is the single most effective way to control viral diseases. However, many currently used vaccines have safety concerns, efficacy issues or production problems. For other viral pathogens, classic approaches to vaccine development have, thus far, been unsuccessful. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are increasingly being considered as vaccine candidates because they offer significant advantages over many currently used vaccines or developing vaccine technologies. VLPs formed with structural proteins of Newcastle disease virus, an avian paramyxovirus, are a potential vaccine candidate for Newcastle disease in poultry. More importantly, these VLPs are a novel, uniquely versatile VLP platform for the rapid construction of effective vaccine candidates for many human pathogens, including genetically complex viruses and viruses for which no vaccines currently exist.