The autophagy adaptor NDP52 and the FIP200 coiled-coil allosterically activate ULK1 complex membrane recruitment.
ABSTRACT: The selective autophagy pathways of xenophagy and mitophagy are initiated when the adaptor NDP52 recruits the ULK1 complex to autophagic cargo. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) was used to map the membrane and NDP52 binding sites of the ULK1 complex to unique regions of the coiled coil of the FIP200 subunit. Electron microscopy of the full-length ULK1 complex shows that the FIP200 coiled coil projects away from the crescent-shaped FIP200 N-terminal domain dimer. NDP52 allosterically stimulates membrane-binding by FIP200 and the ULK1 complex by promoting a more dynamic conformation of the membrane-binding portion of the FIP200 coiled coil. Giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) reconstitution confirmed that membrane recruitment by the ULK1 complex is triggered by NDP52 engagement. These data reveal how the allosteric linkage between NDP52 and the ULK1 complex could drive the first membrane recruitment event of phagophore biogenesis in xenophagy and mitophagy.
Project description:Selective autophagy recycles damaged organelles?and clears intracellular pathogens to prevent their aberrant accumulation. How ULK1 kinase is targeted and activated during selective autophagic events remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used chemically inducible dimerization?(CID) assays in tandem with CRISPR KO lines to systematically analyze the molecular basis of selective autophagosome biogenesis. We demonstrate that ectopic placement of NDP52 on mitochondria or peroxisomes is sufficient to initiate selective autophagy by focally localizing and activating the ULK1 complex. The capability of NDP52 to induce mitophagy is dependent on its interaction with the FIP200/ULK1 complex, which is facilitated by TBK1. Ectopically tethering ULK1 to cargo bypasses the requirement for autophagy receptors and TBK1. Focal activation of ULK1 occurs independently of AMPK and mTOR. Our findings provide a parsimonious model of selective autophagy, which highlights the coordination of ULK1 complex localization by autophagy receptors and TBK1 as principal drivers of targeted autophagosome biogenesis.
Project description:Xenophagy, a selective autophagy pathway that protects the cytosol against bacterial invasion, relies on cargo receptors that juxtapose bacteria and phagophore membranes. Whether phagophores are recruited from a constitutive pool or are generated de novo at prospective cargo remains unknown. Phagophore formation in situ would require recruitment of the upstream autophagy machinery to prospective cargo. Here, we show that, essential for anti-bacterial autophagy, the cargo receptor NDP52 forms a trimeric complex with FIP200 and SINTBAD/NAP1, which are subunits of the autophagy-initiating ULK and the TBK1 kinase complex, respectively. FIP200 and SINTBAD/NAP1 are each recruited independently to bacteria via NDP52, as revealed by selective point mutations in their respective binding sites, but only in their combined presence does xenophagy proceed. Such recruitment of the upstream autophagy machinery by NDP52 reveals how detection of cargo-associated "eat me" signals, induction of autophagy, and juxtaposition of cargo and phagophores are integrated in higher eukaryotes.
Project description:In innate immunity, multiple autophagic processes eliminate intracellular pathogens, but it remains unclear whether noncanonical autophagy and xenophagy are coordinated, and whether they occur concomitantly or sequentially. Here, we show that Streptococcus pneumoniae, a causative of invasive pneumococcal disease, can trigger FIP200-, PI3P-, and ROS-independent pneumococcus-containing LC3-associated phagosome (LAPosome)-like vacuoles (PcLVs) in an early stage of infection, and that PcLVs are indispensable for subsequent formation of bactericidal pneumococcus-containing autophagic vacuoles (PcAVs). Specifically, we identified LC3- and NDP52-delocalized PcLV, which are intermediates between PcLV and PcAV. Atg14L, Beclin1, and FIP200 were responsible for delocalizing LC3 and NDP52 from PcLVs. Thus, multiple noncanonical and canonical autophagic processes are deployed sequentially against intracellular S. pneumoniae. The Atg16L1 WD domain, p62, NDP52, and poly-Ub contributed to PcLV formation. These findings reveal a previously unidentified hierarchical autophagy mechanism during bactericidal xenophagy against intracellular bacterial pathogens, and should improve our ability to control life-threating pneumococcal diseases.
Project description:Protein aggregates and damaged organelles are tagged with ubiquitin chains to trigger selective autophagy. To initiate mitophagy, the ubiquitin kinase PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin to activate the ubiquitin ligase parkin, which builds ubiquitin chains on mitochondrial outer membrane proteins, where they act to recruit autophagy receptors. Using genome editing to knockout five autophagy receptors in HeLa cells, here we show that two receptors previously linked to xenophagy, NDP52 and optineurin, are the primary receptors for PINK1- and parkin-mediated mitophagy. PINK1 recruits NDP52 and optineurin, but not p62, to mitochondria to activate mitophagy directly, independently of parkin. Once recruited to mitochondria, NDP52 and optineurin recruit the autophagy factors ULK1, DFCP1 and WIPI1 to focal spots proximal to mitochondria, revealing a function for these autophagy receptors upstream of LC3. This supports a new model in which PINK1-generated phospho-ubiquitin serves as the autophagy signal on mitochondria, and parkin then acts to amplify this signal. This work also suggests direct and broader roles for ubiquitin phosphorylation in other autophagy pathways.
Project description:Autophagy targets intracellular molecules, damaged organelles, and invading pathogens for degradation in lysosomes. Recent studies have identified autophagy receptors that facilitate this process by binding to ubiquitinated targets, including NDP52. Here, we demonstrate that the small guanosine triphosphatase Rab35 directs NDP52 to the corresponding targets of multiple forms of autophagy. The active GTP-bound form of Rab35 accumulates on bacteria-containing endosomes, and Rab35 directly binds and recruits NDP52 to internalized bacteria. Additionally, Rab35 promotes interaction of NDP52 with ubiquitin. This process is inhibited by TBC1D10A, a GAP that inactivates Rab35, but stimulated by autophagic activation via TBK1 kinase, which associates with NDP52. Rab35, TBC1D10A, and TBK1 regulate NDP52 recruitment to damaged mitochondria and to autophagosomes to promote mitophagy and maturation of autophagosomes, respectively. We propose that Rab35-GTP is a critical regulator of autophagy through recruiting autophagy receptor NDP52.
Project description:Current models of selective autophagy dictate that autophagy receptors, including Optineurin and NDP52, link cargo to autophagosomal membranes. This is thought to occur via autophagy receptor binding to Atg8 homologs (LC3/GABARAPs) through an LC3 interacting region (LIR). The LIR motif within autophagy receptors is therefore widely recognised as being essential for selective sequestration of cargo. Here we show that the LIR motif within OPTN and NDP52 is dispensable for Atg8 recruitment and selectivity during PINK1/Parkin mitophagy. Instead, Atg8s play a critical role in mediating ubiquitin-independent recruitment of OPTN and NDP52 to growing phagophore membranes via the LIR motif. The additional recruitment of OPTN and NDP52 amplifies mitophagy through an Atg8-dependent positive feedback loop. Rather than functioning in selectivity, our discovery of a role for the LIR motif in mitophagy amplification points toward a general mechanism by which Atg8s can recruit autophagy factors to drive autophagosome growth and amplify selective autophagy.
Project description:Autophagy-related 1 (Atg1)/Unc-51-like protein kinases (ULKs) are evolutionarily conserved proteins that play critical physiological roles in controlling autophagy, cell growth and neurodevelopment. RB1-inducible coiled-coil 1 (RB1CC1), also known as PTK2/FAK family-interacting protein of 200 kDa (FIP200) is a recently discovered binding partner of ULK1. Here we isolated the Drosophila RB1CC1/FIP200 homolog (Fip200/CG1347) and showed that it mediates Atg1-induced autophagy as a genetically downstream component in diverse physiological contexts. Fip200 loss-of-function mutants experienced severe mobility loss associated with neuronal autophagy defects and neurodegeneration. The Fip200 mutants were also devoid of both developmental and starvation-induced autophagy in salivary gland and fat body, while having no defects in axonal transport and projection in developing neurons. Interestingly, moderate downregulation of Fip200 accelerated both developmental growth and aging, accompanied by target of rapamycin (Tor) signaling upregulation. These results suggest that Fip200 is a critical downstream component of Atg1 and specifically mediates Atg1's autophagy-, aging- and growth-regulating functions.
Project description:Invading microbial pathogens can be eliminated selectively by xenophagy. Ubiquitin-mediated autophagy receptors are phosphorylated by TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and recruited to ubiquitinated bacteria to facilitate autophagosome formation during xenophagy, but the molecular mechanism underlying TBK1 activation in response to microbial infection is not clear. Here, we show that bacterial infection increases Ca2+ levels to activate TBK1 for xenophagy via the Ca2+-binding protein TBC1 domain family member 9 (TBC1D9). Mechanistically, the ubiquitin-binding region (UBR) and Ca2+-binding motif of TBC1D9 mediate its binding with ubiquitin-positive bacteria, and TBC1D9 knockout suppresses TBK1 activation and subsequent recruitment of the ULK1 complex. Treatment with a Ca2+ chelator impairs TBC1D9-ubiquitin interactions and TBK1 activation during xenophagy. TBC1D9 is also recruited to damaged mitochondria through its UBR and Ca2+-binding motif, and is required for TBK1 activation during mitophagy. These results indicate that TBC1D9 controls TBK1 activation during xenophagy and mitophagy through Ca2+-dependent ubiquitin-recognition.
Project description:Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system, by which cytoplasmic contents are degraded in lysosomes. Autophagy is dynamically induced by nutrient depletion to provide necessary amino acids within cells, thus helping them adapt to starvation. Although it has been suggested that mTOR is a major negative regulator of autophagy, how it controls autophagy has not yet been determined. Here, we report a novel mammalian autophagy factor, Atg13, which forms a stable approximately 3-MDa protein complex with ULK1 and FIP200. Atg13 localizes on the autophagic isolation membrane and is essential for autophagosome formation. In contrast to yeast counterparts, formation of the ULK1-Atg13-FIP200 complex is not altered by nutrient conditions. Importantly, mTORC1 is incorporated into the ULK1-Atg13-FIP200 complex through ULK1 in a nutrient-dependent manner and mTOR phosphorylates ULK1 and Atg13. ULK1 is dephosphorylated by rapamycin treatment or starvation. These data suggest that mTORC1 suppresses autophagy through direct regulation of the approximately 3-MDa ULK1-Atg13-FIP200 complex.
Project description:The nuclear domain (ND)10 also described as POD or Kr bodies is involved in the development of acute promyelocytic leukemia and virus-host interactions. Immunofluorescence analysis using a variety of human autoimmune sera and monoclonal antibodies showed a typical dot like nuclear staining for ND10, suggesting that this structure consists of several proteins. Two of the ND10 proteins, Sp100 and PML are genetically characterized and show homology with several transcription factors. Here we describe NDP52, an additional novel protein of the ND10. We raised a new mAb C8A2, that specifically recognizes NDP52. Immunofluorescence analysis using this mAb showed a typical nuclear dot staining as it was described for ND10. Isolation and sequencing of the corresponding cDNA revealed that NDP52 has a predicted molecular mass of 52 kD. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibits an extended central coiled coil domain containing a leucine zipper motif. The COOH terminus of NDP52 shows homology with LIM domains, that have recently been described to mediate protein interactions, which let NDP52 appear as a suitable candidate for mediating interactions between ND10 proteins. In vivo, NDP52 is transcribed in all human tissues analyzed. Furthermore, we show that NDP52 colocalizes with the ND10 protein PML and can be redistributed upon viral infection and interferon treatment. These data suggest that ND10 proteins play an important role in the viral life cycle.