Molecular mechanism of mitochondrial phosphatidate transfer by Ups1.
ABSTRACT: Cardiolipin, an essential mitochondrial physiological regulator, is synthesized from phosphatidic acid (PA) in the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). PA is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and transferred to the IMM via the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) under mediation by the Ups1/Mdm35 protein family. Despite the availability of numerous crystal structures, the detailed mechanism underlying PA transfer between mitochondrial membranes remains unclear. Here, a model of Ups1/Mdm35-membrane interaction is established using combined crystallographic data, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, extensive structural comparisons, and biophysical assays. The ?2-loop, L2-loop, and ?3 helix of Ups1 mediate membrane interactions. Moreover, non-complexed Ups1 on membranes is found to be a key transition state for PA transfer. The membrane-bound non-complexed Ups1/ membrane-bound Ups1 ratio, which can be regulated by environmental pH, is inversely correlated with the PA transfer activity of Ups1/Mdm35. These results demonstrate a new model of the fine conformational changes of Ups1/Mdm35 during PA transfer.
Project description:Eukaryotic cells are compartmentalized into membrane-bounded organelles whose functions rely on lipid trafficking to achieve membrane-specific compositions of lipids. Here we focused on the Ups1-Mdm35 system, which mediates phosphatidic acid (PA) transfer between the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes, and determined the X-ray structures of Mdm35 and Ups1-Mdm35 with and without PA. The Ups1-Mdm35 complex constitutes a single domain that has a deep pocket and flexible ?-loop lid. Structure-based mutational analyses revealed that a basic residue at the pocket bottom and the ?-loop lid are important for PA extraction from the membrane following Ups1 binding. Ups1 binding to the membrane is enhanced by the dissociation of Mdm35. We also show that basic residues around the pocket entrance are important for Ups1 binding to the membrane and PA extraction. These results provide a structural basis for understanding the mechanism of PA transfer between mitochondrial membranes.
Project description:Ups1 forms a complex with Mdm35 and is critical for the transport of phosphatidic acid (PA) from the mitochondrial outer membrane to the inner membrane. We report the crystal structure of the Ups1-Mdm35-PA complex and the functional characterization of Ups1-Mdm35 in PA binding and transfer. Ups1 features a barrel-like structure consisting of an antiparallel ?-sheet and three ?-helices. Mdm35 adopts a three-helical clamp-like structure to wrap around Ups1 to form a stable complex. The ?-sheet and ?-helices of Ups1 form a long tunnel-like pocket to accommodate the substrate PA, and a short helix ?2 acts as a lid to cover the pocket. The hydrophobic residues lining the pocket and helix ?2 are critical for PA binding and transfer. In addition, a hydrophilic patch on the surface of Ups1 near the PA phosphate-binding site also plays an important role in the function of Ups1-Mdm35. Our study reveals the molecular basis of the function of Ups1-Mdm35 and sheds new light on the mechanism of intramitochondrial phospholipid transport by the MSF1/PRELI family proteins.
Project description:Cardiolipin (CL) is synthesized from phosphatidic acid (PA) through a series of enzymatic reactions occurring at the mitochondrial inner membrane (MIM). Ups1-Mdm35 mediates PA transfer from the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) to the MIM in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletion of UPS1 leads to a ~80% decrease in the cellular CL level. However, the CL accumulation in ups1? cells is enhanced by the depletion of Ups2, which forms a protein complex with Mdm35 and mediates phosphatidylserine (PS) transfer from the MOM to the MIM for phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) synthesis by a PS decarboxylase, Psd1. In this study, we found that the accumulation of CL in ups1? cells was enhanced by deletion of not only UPS2, but also PSD1 and CHO1 encoding a PS synthase, suggesting that low PE levels in mitochondria were relevant to the enhancement of CL accumulation in ups1? cells. Furthermore, the Ups1-independent and low-level PE-enhanced CL accumulation was shown to depend on the functions of FMP30, MDM31, and MDM32. In addition, the physical interactions of Fmp30 with Mdm31 and Mdm32 were revealed. Thus, when the mitochondrial PE level is reduced, Fmp30, Mdm31, and Mdm32 seem to function cooperatively for the accumulation of CL in a UPS1-independent manner.
Project description:The mitochondrial phospholipid metabolism critically depends on members of the conserved Ups1/PRELI-like protein family in the intermembrane space. Ups1 and Ups2 (also termed Gep1) were shown to regulate the accumulation of cardiolipin (CL) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), respectively, in a lipid-specific but coordinated manner. It remained enigmatic, however, how the relative abundance of both phospholipids in mitochondrial membranes is adjusted on the molecular level. Here, we describe a novel regulatory circuit determining the accumulation of Ups1 and Ups2 in the intermembrane space. Ups1 and Ups2 are intrinsically unstable proteins, which are degraded by distinct mitochondrial peptidases. The turnover of Ups2 is mediated by the i-AAA protease Yme1, whereas Ups1 is degraded by both Yme1 and the metallopeptidase Atp23. We identified Mdm35, a member of the twin Cx(9)C protein family, as a novel interaction partner of Ups1 and Ups2. Binding to Mdm35 ensures import and protects both proteins against proteolysis. Homologues to all components of this pathway are present in higher eukaryotes, suggesting that the regulation of mitochondrial CL and PE levels is conserved in evolution.
Project description:Mitochondrial synthesis of cardiolipin (CL) and phosphatidylethanolamine requires the transport of their precursors, phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine, respectively, to the mitochondrial inner membrane. In yeast, the Ups1-Mdm35 and Ups2-Mdm35 complexes transfer phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine, respectively, between the mitochondrial outer and inner membranes. Moreover, a Ups1-independent CL accumulation pathway requires several mitochondrial proteins with unknown functions including Mdm31. Here, we identified a mitochondrial porin, Por1, as a protein that interacts with both Mdm31 and Mdm35 in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Depletion of the porins Por1 and Por2 destabilized Ups1 and Ups2, decreased CL levels by ∼90%, and caused loss of Ups2-dependent phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis, but did not affect Ups2-independent phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis in mitochondria. Por1 mutations that affected its interactions with Mdm31 and Mdm35, but not respiratory growth, also decreased CL levels. Using HeLa cells, we show that mammalian porins also function in mitochondrial CL metabolism. We conclude that yeast porins have specific and critical functions in mitochondrial phospholipid metabolism and that porin-mediated regulation of CL metabolism appears to be evolutionarily conserved.
Project description:The composition of the mitochondrial membrane is important for its architecture and proper function. Mitochondria depend on a tightly regulated supply of phospholipid via intra-mitochondrial synthesis and by direct import from the endoplasmic reticulum. The Ups1/PRELI-like family together with its mitochondrial chaperones (TRIAP1/Mdm35) represent a unique heterodimeric lipid transfer system that is evolutionary conserved from yeast to man. Work presented here provides new atomic resolution insight into the function of a human member of this system. Crystal structures of free TRIAP1 and the TRIAP1-SLMO1 complex reveal how the PRELI domain is chaperoned during import into the intermembrane mitochondrial space. The structural resemblance of PRELI-like domain of SLMO1 with that of mammalian phoshatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITPs) suggest that they share similar lipid transfer mechanisms, in which access to a buried phospholipid-binding cavity is regulated by conformationally adaptable loops.
Project description:Lipid transfer proteins of the Ups1/PRELID1 family facilitate the transport of phospholipids across the intermembrane space of mitochondria in a lipid-specific manner. Heterodimeric complexes of yeast Ups1/Mdm35 or human PRELID1/TRIAP1 shuttle phosphatidic acid (PA) synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the inner membrane, where it is converted to cardiolipin (CL), the signature phospholipid of mitochondria. Loss of Ups1/PRELID1 proteins impairs the accumulation of CL and broadly affects mitochondrial structure and function. Unexpectedly and unlike yeast cells lacking the cardiolipin synthase Crd1, Ups1 deficient yeast cells exhibit glycolytic growth defects, pointing to functions of Ups1-mediated PA transfer beyond CL synthesis. Here, we show that the disturbed intramitochondrial transport of PA in ups1 cells leads to altered phospholipid composition of the ER membrane, independent of disturbances in CL synthesis. The impaired flux of PA into mitochondria is associated with the increased synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and a reduced phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)/PC ratio in the ER of ups1 cells which suppresses the unfolded protein response (UPR). Moreover, we observed inhibition of TORC1 signaling in these cells. Activation of either UPR by ER protein stress or of TORC1 signaling by disruption of its negative regulator, the SEACIT complex, increased cytosolic protein synthesis and restored glycolytic growth of ups1 cells. These results demonstrate that PA influx into mitochondria is required to preserve ER membrane homeostasis and that its disturbance is associated with impaired glycolytic growth and cellular stress signaling.
Project description:Mitochondria exert critical functions in cellular lipid metabolism and promote the synthesis of major constituents of cellular membranes, such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine. Here, we demonstrate that the phosphatidylserine decarboxylase Psd1, located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, promotes mitochondrial PE synthesis via two pathways. First, Ups2-Mdm35 complexes (SLMO2-TRIAP1 in humans) serve as phosphatidylserine (PS)-specific lipid transfer proteins in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, allowing formation of PE by Psd1 in the inner membrane. Second, Psd1 decarboxylates PS in the outer membrane in trans, independently of PS transfer by Ups2-Mdm35. This latter pathway requires close apposition between both mitochondrial membranes and the mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS). In MICOS-deficient cells, limiting PS transfer by Ups2-Mdm35 and reducing mitochondrial PE accumulation preserves mitochondrial respiration and cristae formation. These results link mitochondrial PE metabolism to MICOS, combining functions in protein and lipid homeostasis to preserve mitochondrial structure and function.
Project description:Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is an essential phospholipid for mitochondrial functions and is synthesized mainly by phosphatidylserine (PS) decarboxylase at the mitochondrial inner membrane. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PS is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), such that mitochondrial PE synthesis requires PS transport from the ER to the mitochondrial inner membrane. Here, we provide evidence that Ups2-Mdm35, a protein complex localized at the mitochondrial intermembrane space, mediates PS transport for PE synthesis in respiration-active mitochondria. UPS2- and MDM35-null mutations greatly attenuated conversion of PS to PE in yeast cells growing logarithmically under nonfermentable conditions, but not fermentable conditions. A recombinant Ups2-Mdm35 fusion protein exhibited phospholipid-transfer activity between liposomes in vitro. Furthermore, UPS2 expression was elevated under nonfermentable conditions and at the diauxic shift, the metabolic transition from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that Ups2-Mdm35 functions as a PS transfer protein and enhances mitochondrial PE synthesis in response to the cellular metabolic state.
Project description:Import and assembly of mitochondrial proteins depend on a complex interplay of proteinaceous translocation machineries. The role of lipids in this process has been studied only marginally and so far no direct role for a specific lipid in mitochondrial protein biogenesis has been shown. Here we analyzed a potential role of phosphatidic acid (PA) in biogenesis of mitochondrial proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In vivo remodeling of the mitochondrial lipid composition by lithocholic acid treatment or by ablation of the lipid transport protein Ups1, both leading to an increase of mitochondrial PA levels, specifically stimulated the biogenesis of the outer membrane protein Ugo1, a component of the mitochondrial fusion machinery. We reconstituted the import and assembly pathway of Ugo1 in protein-free liposomes, mimicking the outer membrane phospholipid composition, and found a direct dependency of Ugo1 biogenesis on PA. Thus, PA represents the first lipid that is directly involved in the biogenesis pathway of a mitochondrial membrane protein.