Using Web-Based Social Media to Recruit Heavy-Drinking Young Adults for Sleep Intervention: Prospective Observational Study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Novel alcohol prevention strategies are needed for heavy-drinking young adults. Sleep problems are common among young adults who drink heavily and are a risk factor for developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Young adults, interested in the connection between sleep and alcohol, are open to getting help with their sleep. Therefore, sleep interventions may offer an innovative solution. This study evaluates social media advertising for reaching young adults and recruiting them for a new alcohol prevention program focused on sleep. OBJECTIVE:This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost of using Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat advertising to reach young adults who drink heavily for a sleep intervention; characterize responders' sleep, alcohol use, and related concerns and interests; and identify the most appealing advertising content. METHODS:In study 1, advertisements targeting young adults with sleep concerns, heavy alcohol use, or interest in participating in a sleep program ran over 3 months. Advertisements directed volunteers to a brief web-based survey to determine initial sleep program eligibility and characterize the concerns or interests that attracted them to click the advertisement. In study 2, three advertisements ran simultaneously for 2 days to enable us to compare the effectiveness of specific advertising themes. RESULTS:In study 1, advertisements generated 13,638 clicks, 909 surveys, and 27 enrolled volunteers in 3 months across the social media platforms. Fees averaged US $0.27 per click, US $3.99 per completed survey, US $11.43 per volunteer meeting initial screening eligibility, and US $106.59 per study enrollee. On average, those who completed the web-based survey were 21.1 (SD 2.3) years of age, and 69.4% (631/909) were female. Most reported sleep concerns (725/909, 79.8%) and an interest in the connection between sleep and alcohol use (547/909, 60.2%), but few had drinking concerns (49/909, 5.4%). About one-third (317/909, 34.9%) were identified as being at risk for developing an AUD based on a validated alcohol screener. Among this subsample, 8.5% (27/317) met the final criteria and were enrolled in the trial. Some volunteers also referred additional volunteers by word of mouth. In study 2, advertisements targeting sleep yielded a higher response rate than advertisements targeting alcohol use (0.91% vs 0.56% click rate, respectively; P<.001). CONCLUSIONS:Social media advertisements designed to target young adults with sleep concerns reached those who also drank alcohol heavily, despite few being concerned about their drinking. Moreover, advertisements focused on sleep were more effective than those focused on drinking. Compared with previous studies, cost-effectiveness was moderate for engagement (impressions to clicks), excellent for conversion (clicks to survey completion), and reasonable for enrollment. These data demonstrate the utility of social media advertising focused on sleep to reach young adults who drink heavily and recruit them for intervention.
Project description:There is sparse evidence regarding the effect of alcohol-advertising exposure on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers. This study aimed to assess the immediate effects of alcohol-promoting and alcohol-warning video advertising on objective alcohol consumption in heavy-drinking young adults, and to examine underlying processes.Between-participants randomized controlled trial with three conditions.Two hundred and four young adults (aged 18-25) who self-reported as heavy drinkers were randomized to view one of three sets of 10 video advertisements that included either (1) alcohol-promoting, (2) alcohol-warning, or (3) non-alcohol advertisements. The primary outcome was the proportion of alcoholic beverages consumed in a sham taste test. Affective responses to advertisements, implicit alcohol approach bias, and alcohol attentional bias were assessed as secondary outcomes and possible mediators. Typical alcohol consumption, Internet use, and television use were measured as covariates.There was no main effect of condition on alcohol consumption. Participants exposed to alcohol-promoting advertisements showed increased positive affect and an increased approach/reduced avoidance bias towards alcohol relative to those exposed to non-alcohol advertisements. There was an indirect effect of exposure to alcohol-warning advertisements on reduced alcohol consumption via negative affect experienced in response to these advertisements.Restricting alcohol-promoting advertising could remove a potential influence on positive alcohol-related emotions and cognitions among heavy-drinking young adults. Producing alcohol-warning advertising that generates negative emotion may be an effective strategy to reduce alcohol consumption. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Exposure to alcohol advertising has immediate and distal effects on alcohol consumption. There is some evidence that effects may be larger in heavy drinkers. Alcohol-warning advertising has been found to have mixed effects on alcohol-related cognitions. What does this study add? Among heavy-drinking young adults: Alcohol advertising does not appear to have an immediate impact on alcohol consumption. Alcohol advertising generates positive affect and increases alcohol approach bias. Alcohol-warning advertising that generates displeasure reduces alcohol consumption.
Project description:Tobacco counter-advertising is effective at promoting smoking cessation. Few studies have evaluated the impact of alcohol warning advertising on alcohol consumption and possible mechanisms of effect. This pilot study aimed to assess whether alcohol warning advertising is effective in reducing urges to drink alcohol, if emotional responses to advertising explain any such effect or perceived effectiveness, and whether effects differ among heavier drinkers.One hundred fifty-two young adult (aged 18-25) alcohol users completed an online experiment in which they were randomly assigned to view one of three sets of six advertisements: (i) alcohol warning; (ii) alcohol promoting; or (iii) advertisements for non-alcohol products. Urges to drink alcohol were self-reported post-exposure. Affective responses (pleasure and arousal) to each advertisement and perceived effectiveness of each advertisement were recorded. Typical level of alcohol consumption was measured as a potential effect modifier.Participants exposed to alcohol warning advertisements reported significantly lower urges to drink alcohol than those who viewed either alcohol promoting or non-alcohol advertisements. This effect was fully mediated by negative affective responses (displeasure) to the alcohol warning advertisements. Perceived effectiveness of alcohol warning advertisements was associated with high arousal responses. Impact of the advertisements was unaffected by typical level of alcohol consumption, although the study was not powered to detect anything other than large effects.In line with findings from the tobacco literature, alcohol warning advertisements that elicit negative affect reduce urges to drink alcohol. Their impact upon actual consumption awaits investigation.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Young adulthood (aged 18-24) is a crucial period in the development of long-term tobacco use patterns. Tobacco advertising and promotion lead to the initiation and continuation of smoking among young adults. We examined whether vulnerability factors moderated the association between tobacco advertisement liking and tobacco use in the United States. METHODS:Analyses were conducted among 9109 US young adults in the nationally representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study wave 1 (2013-14). Participants viewed 20 randomly selected sets of tobacco advertisements (five each for cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco) and indicated whether they liked each ad. The outcome variables were past 30-day cigarette, e-cigarette, cigar, and smokeless tobacco use. Covariates included tobacco advertisement liking, age, sex, race or ethnicity, sexual orientation, education, poverty level, military service, and internalizing and externalizing mental health symptoms. RESULTS:Liking tobacco advertisements was associated with tobacco use, and this association was particularly strong among those with lower educational attainment (cigarettes, cigars) and living below the poverty level (e-cigarettes, smokeless tobacco). CONCLUSIONS:The association between tobacco advertisement liking and tobacco use was stronger among young adults with lower educational attainment and those living below the poverty level. Policies that restrict advertising exposure and promote counter-marketing messages in this population could reduce their risk. IMPLICATIONS:This study shows that liking tobacco advertisements is associated with current tobacco use among young adults, with stronger associations for vulnerable young adults (ie, lower education levels and living below the poverty level). Findings suggest a need for counter-marketing messages, policies that restrict advertising exposure, and educational interventions such as health and media literacy interventions to address the negative influences of tobacco advertisements, especially among young adults with a high school education or less and those living below the poverty level.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cigarette lifestyle marketing with psychographic targeting has been well documented, but few studies address non-cigarette tobacco products. This study examined how young adults respond to e-cigarette advertisements featuring diverse peer crowds - peer groups with shared identities and lifestyles - to inform tobacco counter-marketing design. METHODS:Fifty-nine young adult tobacco users in California participated in interviews and viewed four to five e-cigarette advertisements that featured characters from various peer crowd groups. For each participant, half of the advertisements they viewed showed characters from the same peer crowd as their own, and the other half of the advertisements featured characters from a different peer crowd. Advertisements were presented in random order. Questions probed what types of cues are noticed in the advertisements, and whether and how much participants liked or disliked the advertisements. RESULTS:Results suggest that participants liked and provided richer descriptions of characters and social situations in the advertisements featuring their own peer crowd more than the advertisements featuring a different peer crowd. Mismatching age or device type was also noted: participants reported advertisements showing older adults were not intended for them. Participants who used larger vaporizers tended to dislike cigalike advertisements even if they featured a matching peer crowd. CONCLUSION:Peer crowd and lifestyle cues, age and device type are all salient features of e-cigarette advertising for young adults. Similarly, educational campaigns about e-cigarettes should employ peer crowd-based targeting to engage young adults, though messages should be carefully tested to ensure authentic and realistic portrayals.
Project description:Young adults in the military are aggressively targeted by tobacco companies and are at high risk of tobacco use. Existing antismoking advertisements developed for the general population might be effective in educating young adults in the military. This study evaluated the effects of different themes of existing antismoking advertisements on perceived harm and intentions to use cigarettes and other tobacco products among Air Force trainees.In a pretest-post-test experiment, 782 Airmen were randomised to view antismoking advertisements in 1 of 6 conditions: anti-industry, health effects+anti-industry, sexual health, secondhand smoke, environment+anti-industry or control. We assessed the effect of different conditions on changes in perceived harm and intentions to use cigarettes, electronic cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, hookah and cigarillos from pretest to post-test with multivariable linear regression models (perceived harm) and zero-inflated Poisson regression model (intentions).Antismoking advertisements increased perceived harm of various tobacco products and reduced intentions to use. Advertisements featuring negative effects of tobacco on health and sexual performance coupled with revealing tobacco industry manipulations had the most consistent pattern of effects on perceived harm and intentions.Antismoking advertisements produced for the general public might also be effective with a young adult military population and could have spillover effects on perceptions of harm and intentions to use other tobacco products besides cigarettes. Existing antismoking advertising may be a cost-effective tool to educate young adults in the military.
Project description:The effect of alcohol portrayals and advertising on the drinking behaviour of young people is a matter of much debate. We evaluated the relationship between exposure to alcohol advertising, marketing and portrayal on subsequent drinking behaviour in young people by systematic review of cohort (longitudinal) studies.studies were identified in October 2006 by searches of electronic databases, with no date restriction, supplemented with hand searches of reference lists of retrieved articles. Cohort studies that evaluated exposure to advertising or marketing or alcohol portrayals and drinking at baseline and assessed drinking behaviour at follow-up in young people were selected and reviewed.seven cohort studies that followed up more than 13,000 young people aged 10 to 26 years old were reviewed. The studies evaluated a range of different alcohol advertisement and marketing exposures including print and broadcast media. Two studies measured the hours of TV and music video viewing. All measured drinking behaviour using a variety of outcome measures. Two studies evaluated drinkers and non-drinkers separately. Baseline non-drinkers were significantly more likely to have become a drinker at follow-up with greater exposure to alcohol advertisements. There was little difference in drinking frequency at follow-up in baseline drinkers. In studies that included drinkers and non-drinkers, increased exposure at baseline led to significant increased risk of drinking at follow-up. The strength of the relationship varied between studies but effect sizes were generally modest. All studies controlled for age and gender, however potential confounding factors adjusted for in analyses varied from study to study. Important risk factors such as peer drinking and parental attitudes and behaviour were not adequately accounted for in some studies.data from prospective cohort studies suggest there is an association between exposure to alcohol advertising or promotional activity and subsequent alcohol consumption in young people. Inferences about the modest effect sizes found are limited by the potential influence of residual or unmeasured confounding.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>This paper describes the research protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a multimodal mobile sleep intervention for heavy-drinking young adults. Young adults report the highest rates of heavy, risky alcohol consumption and are a priority population for alcohol prevention and intervention efforts. Alcohol strategies that leverage other health concerns and use technology may offer an innovative solution. Poor sleep is common among young adults and is a risk factor for developing an alcohol use disorder. Moreover, young adults are interested in information to help them sleep better, and behavioral sleep interventions address alcohol use as a standard practice.<h4>Objective</h4>The primary aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a 2-week multimodal mobile sleep intervention for reducing drinks consumed per week among heavy-drinking young adults. We will explore the effects on alcohol-related consequences, assessing quantitative and qualitative sleep characteristics as secondary aims. The study's goals are to identify the optimal combination of sleep intervention components for improving drinking outcomes, the feasibility and acceptability of these components, and the potential mechanisms by which these components may promote alcohol behavior change.<h4>Methods</h4>Young adults (aged 18-25 years) who report recent heavy drinking will be randomly assigned to one of three conditions: mobile sleep hygiene advice (n=30), mobile sleep hygiene advice and sleep and alcohol diary self-monitoring (n=30), or mobile sleep hygiene advice, sleep and alcohol diary self-monitoring, and sleep and alcohol data feedback (n=60). For the feedback component, participants will complete two web-based sessions with a health coach during which they will receive summaries of their sleep and alcohol data, and the potential association between them along with brief advice tailored to their data. All participants will wear sleep and alcohol biosensors daily for 2 weeks for objective assessments of these outcomes.<h4>Results</h4>The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health in May 2018. Recruitment began in December 2018 and will be concluded in Spring 2021. As of February 4, 2021, we have enrolled 110 participants.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Ultimately, this research could result in an efficacious, low-cost intervention with broad population reach through the use of technology. In addition, this intervention may substantially impact public health by reducing alcohol use disorder risk at a crucial developmental stage.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03658954; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03658954.<h4>International registered report identifier (irrid)</h4>DERR1-10.2196/26557.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Exposure to alcohol imagery is associated with subsequent alcohol use among young people, and UK broadcasting regulations protect young people from advertising alcohol content in UK television. However, alcohol promotion during sporting events, a significant potential medium of advertising to children, is exempt. We report an analysis and estimate the UK population exposure to, alcohol content, including branding, in UK broadcasts of the 2018?Formula 1 (F1) Championship. SETTING:UK. PARTICIPANTS:None. Content analysis of broadcast footage of 21 2018?F1 Championship races on Channel 4, using 1-minute interval coding of any alcohol content, actual or implied use, other related content or branding. Census data and viewing figures were used to estimate gross and per capita alcohol impressions. RESULTS:Alcohol content occurred in all races, in 1613 (56%) 1-minute intervals of race footage and 44 (9%) of intervals across 28% of advertisement breaks. The most prominent content was branding, occurring in 51% of race intervals and 7% of advertisement break intervals, appearing predominantly on billboard advertisements around the track, with the Heineken and Johnnie Walker brands being particularly prominent. The 21 races delivered an estimated 3.9?billion alcohol gross impressions (95%?CI 3.6 to 4.3) to the UK population, including 154?million (95%?CI 124 to 184) to children, and 3.6?billion alcohol gross impressions of alcohol branding, including 141?million impressions to children. Branding was also shown in race footage from countries where alcohol promotion is prohibited. CONCLUSIONS:Alcohol content was highly prevalent in the 2018?F1 Championship broadcasts, delivering millions of alcohol impressions to young viewers. This exposure is likely to represent a significant driver of alcohol consumption among young people.
Project description:Television advertising has been a primary method for marketing new health plans available under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) to consumers. Data from Kantar Media's Campaign Media Analysis Group were used to analyze advertising content during three ACA open enrollment periods (fall 2013 to spring 2016). Few advertisement airings featured people who were elderly, disabled, or receiving care in a medical setting, and over time airings increasingly featured children, young adults, and people exercising. The most common informational messages focused on plan choice and availability of low-cost plans, but messages shifted over open enrollment cycles to emphasize avoidance of tax penalties and availability of financial assistance. Over the three open enrollment periods, there was a sharp decline in explicit mentions of the ACA or Obamacare in advertisements. Overall, television advertisements have increasingly targeted young, healthy consumers, and informational appeals have shifted toward a focus on financial factors in persuading individuals to enroll in marketplace plans. These advertising approaches make sense in the context of pressures to market plans to appeal to a sufficiently large, diverse group. Importantly, dramatic declines over time in explicit mention of the law mean that citizens may fail to understand the connection between the actions of government and the benefits they are receiving.
Project description:The progressive rise in Canadian child obesity has paralleled trends in unhealthy food consumption. Industry has contributed to these trends through aggressive food and beverage marketing in various media and child settings. This study aimed to assess the extent of food and beverage advertising on television in Canada and compare the frequency of food advertising broadcasted during programs targeted to preschoolers, children, adolescents and adults. Annual advertising from 2018 was drawn from publicly available television program logs. Food and beverage advertisement rates and frequencies were compared by, target age group, television station, month and food category, using linear regression modelling and chi-square tests, in SAS version 9.4. Rates of food and beverage advertising differed significantly between the four target age groups, and varied significantly by television station and time of the year, in 2018. The proportion of advertisements for food and beverage products was significantly greater during preschooler-, child-, and adult-programming [5432 (54%), 142,451 (74%) and 2,886,628 (48%), respectively; p < 0.0001] compared to adolescent-programming [27,268 (42%)]. The proportion of advertisements promoting fast food was significantly greater among adolescent-programming [33,475 (51%), p < 0.0001] compared to other age groups. Legislation restricting food and beverage advertising is needed in Canada as current self-regulatory practices are failing to protect young people from unhealthy food advertising and its potential negative health effects.