Reviewing the Reviewer: Medical Student Course Feedback as a Marker of Professional Identity Formation.
ABSTRACT: Professional identity formation refers to the process by which medical trainees develop and internalize their new roles. In this work, we analyze medical student evaluations of teaching (SETs) as a window into students' developing identities as physicians. Our data consisted of 389 open-ended comments written anonymously by first-year (pre-clerkship) students in mid- and end-of-semester evaluations of small group sessions (mandatory attendance) during one full academic year at Yale School of Medicine. Using a combination of existing frameworks on professional identity formation, the purpose of this project was to: (1) describe the characteristics of comments made by medical students about first-year courses and instructors; (2) categorize the student comments; and (3) explore the usefulness of comments as markers of students' professional identity formation as physicians. Having established baseline information, we hope to follow the same cohort of students through their medical school career to assess if and how their evaluative comments shed light on the development of their professional identities as physicians.
Project description:Introduction:Physicians and students of all backgrounds should be prepared to interact with patients of various socioeconomic, racial, ethnic, gender, religious, and sexual orientation identities. The approach described here emphasizes how important it is for physicians and physicians-in-training to develop self-awareness before engaging with patients. Methods:Over the course of 6 months, we conducted workshops on identity awareness for four groups: (1) fourth-year medical students (N = 6), (2) first-year medical students (N = 88), (3) faculty and staff (N = 11), and (4) residents/fellows (N = 4). Exercises in this workshop prompted learners to reflect on the development of social and professional identities through the use of an identity wheel activity, a group reading about professional identity formation, and a hands-on activity modeling social inequity. Results:Our analysis of responses to pre- and postsurveys indicated that learners in the first-year medical student group (N = 88) experienced increased awareness and acknowledgment of social identity, professional identity, professional relationships, and the concepts of privilege and difference following participation in this workshop. Discussion:These exercises guide learners toward critical thinking about privilege and identity to better prepare them for culturally inclusive patient interactions. These materials can be used with physicians at various levels of training. The earlier they are used, the more time learners will have to reflect on social and professional identities before interacting with patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Effective mentoring is an important component of medical student professional development. We provide a description of the mentoring program at our institution.<h4>Methods</h4>Our institution UTHSCSA implemented a student-advising program (Veritas) with clinical faculty mentors and senior students (MiMs). The MiMs provided vertical peer mentoring to more junior students as an adjunct to faculty advising. The MiMs lead small group discussions that foster camaraderie, share academic and career information and promote professional identity. An optional MiM elective more intensively develops mentorship and leadership skills through a formal curriculum. The authors used annual survey data of all students as well as student mentors to evaluate program effectiveness.<h4>Results</h4>Overall, student perception of the program improved each year across multiple domains, including feeling more prepared, supported and satisfied with their overall experience in medical school. Student mentors also found the process rewarding and helpful to their future careers as physicians.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The authors suggest implementing a vertical peer-mentoring program can be an effective adjunct to faculty mentoring.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Errors that harm patients often have many contributing factors and ideally should be disclosed by a team rather than an individual provider. However, most health professions students learn about errors and error disclosure in a single-profession class.<h4>Methods</h4>We developed a 2-hour small-group session in which our students practice discussing and disclosing a medical error that involves several professions, following a communication map. As they practice, students gain an understanding of the roles, skills, and perspectives of the other professions represented in the group.<h4>Results</h4>Over the last 5 years, student evaluations have been very positive. In 2016, our students strongly agreed that "The small group skills practice was a useful and interesting learning opportunity," "Learning with other professional students was valuable," and "Thinking about error disclosure from a team perspective was helpful." Student comments consistently indicated that they learned both about disclosing medical errors as well as other professionals' roles and perspectives.<h4>Discussion</h4>This activity has met both of our major goals. The first was to bring health professions students together to learn with, from, and about each other. The second was to practice a critical and challenging communication skill. This activity has been successfully implemented at other institutions, and can be adapted to fit other groups of students.
Project description:Introduction:Professionalism is a core competency of medical education. It impacts one's ability to generate rapport with patients, foster patient satisfaction, and enhance the overall well-being of the medical professional. Unprofessional attitudes among medical students have been associated with higher rates of career dissatisfaction and burnout. A group of faculty and medical students at our institution have developed a series of peer facilitated modules addressing a set of common themes relevant to medical professionalism: professionalism in the clinical setting, professional electronic communication, teamwork and community, and work-life integration. Methods:Student discussions on professionalism were facilitated by senior medical students. Using a 5-point Likert scale, electronic pre- and postsurveys assessed the impact of the workshop on first-year medical students' understanding of various professionalism topics. Results:Seventy-seven percent of first-year medical students (n = 131) felt the modules contributed to their learning. Pre- and postsurveys showed significant improvements in understanding of and comfort with the majority of topics discussed. Students felt that their knowledge improved as well. Narrative comments expressed approval of the modules and suggested they addressed unmet needs in the medical curriculum. Discussion:These modules were successfully incorporated into the first-year medical school curriculum and led to improved student understanding and comfort around these topics. Senior medical student facilitators also found the experience useful in their own career development. Although these modules were designed for medical students, they may also be useful for other professional students (e.g., dental, nursing, etc.) or for interprofessional educational experiences.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Participation in simulation-based interprofessional education (sim-IPE) may affect students' attitudes towards interprofessional learning (through gaining experience with others) and their professional identity (by increasing the 'fit' of group membership). We examined this in two questionnaire studies involving students from four universities in two areas of the UK. METHOD:Questionnaire data were collected before and after students took part in a sim-IPE session consisting of three acute scenarios. Questionnaires included the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) and measures of professional identity derived from the social identity theory literature. In Study 1, only identification with Professional Group (doctor or nurse) was measured, while in Study 2 identification with Student Group (medical or nursing student) and the immediate interprofessional Team worked with in the simulation were also measured. Linear mixed effects regression analysis examined the effect of the simulation session, and differences between medical and nursing students, sites and identity measures. RESULTS:A total of 194 medical and 266 nursing students completed questionnaires. A five-item subset of RIPLS (RIPLSCore) was used in analysis. In both studies RIPLSCore increased for all groups following participation in sim-IPE, although this was larger for nursing students in Study 1. Nursing students had consistently higher RIPLSCore scores than medical students at one site. Effects of the session on identity varied between sites, and dimensions of identity. Notably, while positive emotions associated with group membership (Ingroup Affect) increased for Student Group, Professional Group and Team, the sense of belonging (Ingroup Ties) and importance (Centrality) of the group increased only for Team. Nursing students had consistently higher identification scores than medical students. CONCLUSIONS:Participation in a sim-IPE session can improve attitudes towards interprofessional learning. It can also enhance professional identity, particularly as related to emotional aspects of group membership, with possible benefits for wellbeing. Changes in identification with the immediate Team suggest positive psychological consequences of ad hoc Team formation in the workplace. Differences between medical and nursing students suggest their differing opportunities to work with other professions during training may change baseline attitudes and identity. However, a single sim-IPE session can still have an additive effect.
Project description:Objectives:Community-based education (CBE) has an impact on the types of medical students produced at the end of medical training. However, its impact on professional identity development (PID) has not been clearly understood. This study thus explores the effect of the CBE program on PID. Methods:A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted on a group of Universiti Sains Malaysia medical students who had finished the Community and Family Case Study (CFCS) program. Data were gathered through focused group discussions and student reflective journals. Participants were sampled using the maximal variation technique of purposive sampling. Three steps of thematic analysis using the Atlasti software were employed to identify categories, subthemes, and themes. Results:Personal, role, social, and research identities were generated that contribute to the PID of medical students through the CFCS program. The results indicate that the CFCS program nurtured personal identity through the development of professional skills, soft skills, and personal values. Pertaining to role identity, this is related to patient care in terms of primary care and interprofessional awareness. Pertaining to social identity, the obvious feature was community awareness related to culture, society, and politics. A positive outcome of the CFCS program was found to be its fostering of research skills, which is related to the use of epidemiology and research methods. Conclusion:The findings indicate that the CFCS program promotes PID among medical students. The current data highlight and provide insights into the importance of integrating CBE into medical curricula to prepare future doctors for their entry into the profession.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Medical school serves as a critical developmental period for future physicians, during which students begin to form a professional identity. Just as personal appearance, particularly clothing, is an important external expression of one's personal identity, 'uniforms' in healthcare, including white coats and scrubs, symbolise status and a group identity. There are, however, limited studies on the impact of physician attire on medical students' formation of professional identity. Accordingly, through qualitative analysis of written narratives, we sought to analyse medical students' experiences of wearing professional physician attire, namely scrubs, and how the uniform impacted their confidence level, performance and behaviours, as well as their identity as future physicians. DESIGN:Qualitative analysis of medical student's written narratives. SETTING:Khalifa University College of Medicine and Health Sciences (KU CMHS) is a new medical school in the United Arab Emirates, with an inaugural class of 30 students admitted in August 2019. It is the only medical school in the city of Abu Dhabi, and the only school in the country that follows a postgraduate medical curriculum. PARTICIPANTS:All first year medical students at KU CMHS were purposively sampled. METHODS:Students completed a voluntary online anonymous questionnaire. We employed a social identity approach to data analysis. Thematic content analysis was conducted on their narratives to identify themes. RESULTS:We identified three major themes, namely (1) emotions, (2) logistics and (3) interpersonal relationships. CONCLUSIONS:Medical students form early perceptions regarding physician attire and its impact on their professional identity. Engaging in conversations regarding professional attire with educators or mentors could provide an important opportunity for students to discuss and explore professional identity early in training.
Project description:PURPOSE:Although medical students will influence the future U.S. health care system, their opinions on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) have not been assessed since the 2016 presidential election and elimination of key ACA provisions. Understanding medical students' views on health care policy and professional obligations can provide insight into issues that will be shaped by the next generation of physicians. METHOD:From October 2017 to November 2017, the authors conducted an electronic survey of medical students from seven U.S. institutions to elicit opinions regarding the ACA and their professional responsibility to address health policy. Participant demographics and responses were tabulated, and multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of demographic characteristics with student opinions. RESULTS:Completed surveys were returned by 1,660/4,503 (36.9%) eligible medical students. Respondent demographics were similar to national estimates. In total, 89.1% (1,475/1,660) supported the ACA, and 82.0% (1,362/1,660) reported that they understood the health care law. Knowledge of the law's provisions was positively associated with support for the ACA (P < .001). Most students (85.8%; 1,423/1,660) reported addressing health policy to be a professional responsibility. Political affiliation was consistently associated with student opinions. CONCLUSIONS:Most medical students support the ACA, with greater levels of support among medical students who demonstrated higher levels of objective knowledge about the law. Furthermore, students indicated a professional responsibility to engage in health policy, suggesting that tomorrow's physicians are likely to participate in future health care reform efforts.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Giving and receiving feedback are critical skills and should be taught early in the process of medical education, yet few studies discuss the effect of feedback curricula for first-year medical students. OBJECTIVES: To study short-term and long-term skills and attitudes of first-year medical students after a multidisciplinary feedback curriculum. DESIGN: Prospective pre- vs. post-course evaluation using mixed-methods data analysis. PARTICIPANTS: First-year students at a public university medical school. INTERVENTIONS: We collected anonymous student feedback to faculty before, immediately after, and 8 months after the curriculum and classified comments by recommendation (reinforcing/corrective) and specificity (global/specific). Students also self-rated their comfort with and quality of feedback. We assessed changes in comments (skills) and self-rated abilities (attitudes) across the three time points. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Across the three time points, students' evaluation contained more corrective specific comments per evaluation [pre-curriculum mean (SD) 0.48 (0.99); post-curriculum 1.20 (1.7); year-end 0.95 (1.5); p = 0.006]. Students reported increased skill and comfort in giving and receiving feedback and at providing constructive feedback (p < 0.001). However, the number of specific comments on year-end evaluations declined [pre 3.35 (2.0); post 3.49 (2.3); year-end 2.8 (2.1)]; p = 0.008], as did students' self-rated ability to give specific comments. CONCLUSION: Teaching feedback to early medical students resulted in improved skills of delivering corrective specific feedback and enhanced comfort with feedback. However, students' overall ability to deliver specific feedback decreased over time.
Project description:Developing professional identity is a vital part of health professionals' education. In Auckland four tertiary institutions have partnered to run an interprofessional simulation training course called Urgent and Immediate Patient Care Week (UIPCW) which is compulsory for Year Five medical, Year Four pharmacy, Year Three paramedicine and Year Three nursing students. We sought to understand student experiences of UIPCW and how those experiences informed student ideas about professional identity and their emergent practice as health professionals within multidisciplinary teams. In 2018, we commenced ethnographic research involving participant observation, field notes, interviews, photography and observational ethnographic film. A total of 115 students participated in this research. The emergent findings concern the potentially transformative learning opportunity presented within high fidelity multi-disciplinary simulations for students to develop their professional identity in relation to peers from other professions. Our work also exposes the heightened anxiety and stress which can be experienced by students in such interdisciplinary simulations. Student experience suggests this is due to a range of factors including students having to perform in front of peers and staff in such simulation scenarios when their own professional identity and capabilities are still in emergent stages. Staff-led simulation debriefs form a critical success factor for transformative learning to be able to occur in any such simulations so that students can reflect on, and move beyond, the emotion and uncertainty of such experiences to develop future-focused concepts of professional identity and strategies to support effective interprofessional teamwork.