Small extracellular vesicles modulated by ?V?3 integrin induce neuroendocrine differentiation in recipient cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: The ability of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) to reprogram cancer cells is well established. However, the specific sEV components able to mediate aberrant effects in cancer cells have not been characterized. Integrins are major players in mediating sEV functions. We have previously reported that the ?V?3 integrin is detected in sEVs of prostate cancer (PrCa) cells and transferred into recipient cells. Here, we investigate whether sEVs from ?V?3-expressing cells affect tumour growth differently than sEVs from control cells that do not express ?V?3. We compared the ability of sEVs to stimulate tumour growth, using sEVs isolated from PrCa C4-2B cells by iodixanol density gradient and characterized with immunoblotting, nanoparticle tracking analysis, immunocapturing and single vesicle analysis. We incubated PrCa cells with sEVs and injected them subcutaneously into nude mice to measure in vivo tumour growth or analysed in vitro their anchorage-independent growth. Our results demonstrate that a single treatment with sEVs shed from C4-2B cells that express ?V?3, but not from control cells, stimulates tumour growth and induces differentiation of PrCa cells towards a neuroendocrine phenotype, as quantified by increased levels of neuroendocrine markers. In conclusion, the expression of ?V?3 integrin generates sEVs capable of reprogramming cells towards an aggressive phenotype.
Project description:The ?1 integrins, known to promote cancer progression, are abundant in extracellular vesicles (EVs). We investigated whether prostate cancer (PrCa) EVs affect anchorage-independent growth and whether ?1 integrins are required for this effect. Specifically using a cell-line-based genetic rescue and an in vivo PrCa model, we show that gradient-purified small EVs (sEVs) from either cancer cells or blood from tumor-bearing TRAMP (transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate) mice promote anchorage-independent growth of PrCa cells. In contrast, sEVs from cultured PrCa cells harboring a short hairpin RNA to ?1, from wild-type mice or from TRAMP mice carrying a ?1 conditional ablation in the prostatic epithelium (?1pc-/-), do not. We find that sEVs, from cancer cells or TRAMP blood, are functional and co-express ?1 and sEV markers; in contrast, sEVs from ?1pc-/-/TRAMP or wild-type mice lack ?1 and sEV markers. Our results demonstrate that ?1 integrins in tumor-cell-derived sEVs are required for stimulation of anchorage-independent growth.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PrCa) cells crosstalk with the tumour microenvironment by releasing small extracellular vesicles (sEVs). sEVs, as well as large extracellular vesicles (LEVs), isolated via iodixanol density gradients from PrCa cell culture media, express the epithelial-specific ?v?6 integrin, which is known to be induced in cancer. In this study, we show sEV-mediated protein transfer of ?v?6 integrin to microvascular endothelial cells (human microvascular endothelial cells 1 - HMEC1) and demonstrate that de novo ?v?6 integrin expression is not caused by increased mRNA levels. Incubation of HMEC1 with sEVs isolated from PrCa PC3 cells that express the ?v?6 integrin results in a highly significant increase in the number of nodes, junctions and tubules. In contrast, incubation of HMEC1 with sEVs isolated from ?6 negative PC3 cells, generated by shRNA against ?6, results in a reduction in the number of nodes, junctions and tubules, a decrease in survivin levels and an increase in a negative regulator of angiogenesis, pSTAT1. Furthermore, treatment of HMEC1 with sEVs generated by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated down-regulation of ?6, causes up-regulation of pSTAT1. Overall, our findings suggest that ?v?6 integrin in cancer sEVs regulates angiogenesis during PrCa progression.
Project description:Abstract There are no effective treatments for chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) facilitate intercellular communication and mediate nerve function and tumour progression. We found that the treatment of mice bearing ovarian tumour with sEVs derived from cerebral endothelial cells (CEC?sEVs) in combination with a chemo?drug, oxaliplatin, robustly reduced oxaliplatin?induced CIPN by decreasing oxaliplatin?damaged myelination and nerve fibres of the sciatic nerve and significantly amplified chemotherapy of oxaliplatin by reducing tumour size. The combination therapy substantially increased a set of sEV cargo?enriched miRNAs, but significantly reduced oxaliplatin?increased proteins in the sciatic nerve and tumour tissues. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the altered miRNAs and proteins formed two distinct networks that regulate neuropathy and tumour growth, respectively. Intravenously administered CEC?sEVs were internalized by axons of the sciatic nerve and cancer cells. Reduction of CEC?sEV cargo miRNAs abolished the effects of CEC?sEVs on oxaliplatin?inhibited axonal growth and on amplification of the anti?cancer effect in ovarian cancer cells, suggesting that alterations in the networks of miRNAs and proteins in recipient cells contribute to the therapeutic effect of CEC?sEVs on CIPN. Together, the present study demonstrates that CEC?sEVs suppressed CIPN and enhanced chemotherapy of oxaliplatin in the mouse bearing ovarian tumour.
Project description:Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), playing a crucial role in the intercellular communication in physiological as well as pathological processes. Here, we aimed to study whether the melanoma-derived sEV-mediated communication could adapt to microenvironmental stresses. We compared B16F1 cell-derived sEVs released under normal and stress conditions, including cytostatic, heat and oxidative stress. The miRNome and proteome showed substantial differences across the sEV groups and bioinformatics analysis of the obtained data by the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis also revealed significant functional differences. The in silico predicted functional alterations of sEVs were validated by in vitro assays. For instance, melanoma-derived sEVs elicited by oxidative stress increased Ki-67 expression of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); cytostatic stress-resulted sEVs facilitated melanoma cell migration; all sEV groups supported microtissue generation of MSC-B16F1 co-cultures in a 3D tumour matrix model. Based on this study, we concluded that (i) molecular patterns of tumour-derived sEVs, dictated by the microenvironmental conditions, resulted in specific response patterns in the recipient cells; (ii) in silico analyses could be useful tools to predict different stress responses; (iii) alteration of the sEV-mediated communication of tumour cells might be a therapy-induced host response, with a potential influence on treatment efficacy.
Project description:Exosomes, or small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), serve as intercellular messengers with key roles in normal and pathological processes. Our previous work had demonstrated that Dsg2 expression in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells enhanced both sEV secretion and loading of pro-mitogenic cargo. In this study, using wild-type Dsg2 and a mutant form that is unable to be palmitoylated (Dsg2cacs), we investigated the mechanism by which Dsg2 modulates SCC tumour development and progression through sEVs. We demonstrate that palmitoylation was required for Dsg2 to regulate sub-cellular localisation of lipid raft and endosomal proteins necessary for sEV biogenesis. Pharmacological inhibition of the endosomal pathway abrogated Dsg2-mediated sEV release. In murine xenograft models, Dsg2-expressing cells generated larger xenograft tumours as compared to cells expressing GFP or Dsg2cacs. Co-treatment with sEVs derived from Dsg2-over-expressing cells increased xenograft size. Cytokine profiling revealed, Dsg2 enhanced both soluble and sEV-associated IL-8 and miRNA profiling revealed, Dsg2 down-regulated both cellular and sEV-loaded miR-146a. miR-146a targets IRAK1, a serine-threonine kinase involved in IL-8 signalling. Treatment with a miR-146a inhibitor up-regulated both IRAK1 and IL-8 expression. RNAseq analysis of HNSCC tumours revealed a correlation between Dsg2 and IL-8. Finally, elevated IL-8 plasma levels were detected in a subset of HNSCC patients who did not respond to immune checkpoint therapy, suggesting that these patients may benefit from prior anti-IL-8 treatment. In summary, these results suggest that intercellular communication through cell-cell adhesion, cytokine release and secretion of EVs are coordinated, and critical for tumour growth and development, and may serve as potential prognostic markers to inform treatment options. Abbreviations:Basal cell carcinomas, BCC; Betacellulin, BTC; 2-bromopalmitate, 2-Bromo; Cluster of differentiation, CD; Cytochrome c oxidase IV, COX IV; Desmoglein 2, Dsg2; Early endosome antigen 1, EEA1; Epidermal growth factor receptor substrate 15, EPS15; Extracellular vesicle, EV; Flotillin 1, Flot1; Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, GAPH; Green fluorescent protein, GFP; Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, HNSCC; Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1, IRAK1; Interleukin 8, IL-8; Large EV, lEV; MicroRNA, miR; Palmitoylacyltransferase, PAT; Ras-related protein 7 Rab7; Small EV, sEV; Squamous cell carcinoma, SCC; Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, TIMP; Tumour microenvironment, TME.
Project description:Cancer-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) induce stromal cells to become permissive for tumor growth. However, it is unclear whether this induction solely occurs through transfer of vesicular cargo into recipient cells. Here we show that cancer-derived sEVs can stimulate endothelial cell migration and tube formation independently of uptake. These responses were mediated by the 189 amino acid isoform of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on the surface of sEVs. Unlike other common VEGF isoforms, VEGF189 preferentially localized to sEVs through its high affinity for heparin. Interaction of VEGF189 with the surface of sEVs profoundly increased ligand half-life and reduced its recognition by the therapeutic VEGF antibody bevacizumab. sEV-associated VEGF (sEV-VEGF) stimulated tumor xenograft growth but was not neutralized by bevacizumab. Furthermore, high levels of sEV-VEGF were associated with disease progression in bevacizumab-treated cancer patients, raising the possibility that resistance to bevacizumab might stem in part from elevated levels of sEV-VEGF.
Project description:Phosphatidylserine (PS) has skewed distributions in the plasma membrane and is preferentially located in the inner leaflet of normal cells. Tumour cells, however, expose PS at the outer leaflet of cell surfaces, thereby potentially modulating the bio-signalling of cells. Interestingly, exosomes - or, more properly, small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) - which are secreted from tumour cells, are enriched with externalized PS, have been proposed as being involved in the progression of cancers, and could be used as a marker for tumour diagnostics. However, the sEV fractions prepared from various methods are composed of different subtypes of vesicles, and knowledge about the subtypes enriched with exposed PS is still limited. Here, we differentiated sEVs from cancer cell lines by density gradient centrifugation and characterized the separated fractions by using gold-labelling of PS in atomic force microscopy, thrombin generation assay, size and zeta potential measurements, and western blot analysis. These analyses revealed a previously unreported PS+-enriched sEV subtype, which is characterized by a lower density than that of canonical exosomes (1.06 g/ml vs. 1.08 g/ml), larger size (122 nm vs. 105 nm), more negative zeta potential (-28 mV vs. -21 mV), and lower abundance of canonical exosomal markers. The identification of the PS-exposed subtype of sEVs will provide deeper insight into the role of EVs in tumour biology and enhance the development of EV-based tumour diagnosis and therapy.
Project description:Viral infections are a common cause of asthma exacerbations, with human rhinoviruses (RV) the most common trigger. RV signals through a number of different receptors, including toll-like receptor (TLR)3. Tenascin-C (TN-C) is an immunomodulatory extracellular matrix protein present in high quantities in the airway of people with asthma, and expression is also upregulated in nasal lavage fluid in response to RV infection. Respiratory viral infection has been demonstrated to induce the release of small extracellular vesicles (sEV) such as exosomes, whilst exosomal cargo can also be modified in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of people with asthma. These sEVs may potentiate airway inflammation and regulate the immune response to infection. This study characterizes the relationship between RV infection of bronchial epithelial cells and the release of TN-C, and the release of sEVs following stimulation with the TLR3 agonist and synthetic viral mimic, poly(I:C), as well as the function of the released protein/vesicles. The BEAS-2B airway epithelial cell line and primary human bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) from asthmatic and non-asthmatic donors were infected with RV or treated with poly(I:C). TN-C expression, release and localization to sEVs was quantified. TN-C expression was also assessed following intra-nasal challenge of C57BL/6 mice with poly(I:C). BEAS-2B cells and macrophages were subsequently challenged with TN-C, or with sEVs generated from BEAS-2B cells pre-treated with siRNA targeted to TN-C or control. The results revealed that poly(I:C) stimulation induced TN-C release in vivo, whilst both poly(I:C) stimulation and RV infection promoted release in vitro, with elevated TN-C release from PBECs obtained from people with asthma. Poly(I:C) also induced the release of TN-C-rich sEVs from BEAS-2B cells. TN-C, and sEVs from poly(I:C) challenged cells, induced cytokine synthesis in macrophages and BEAS-2B cells, whilst sEVs from control cells did not. Moreover, sEVs with ~75% reduced TN-C content did not alter the capacity of sEVs to induce inflammation. This study identifies two novel components of the inflammatory pathway that regulates the immune response following RV infection and TLR3 stimulation, highlighting TN-C release and pro-inflammatory sEVs in the airway as relevant to the biology of virally induced exacerbations of asthma.
Project description:Interest in small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) as functional carriers of proteins and nucleic acids is growing continuously. There are large numbers of sEVs in the blood, but lack of standardised methods for sEV isolation greatly limits our ability to study them. In this report, we use rat plasma to systematically compare two commonly used techniques for isolation of sEVs: ultracentrifugation (UC-sEVs) and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC-sEVs). SEC-sEVs had higher particle number, protein content, particle/protein ratios and sEV marker signal than UC-sEVs. However, SEC-sEVs also contained greater amounts of APOB+ lipoproteins and large quantities of non-sEV protein. sEV marker signal correlated very well with both particle number and protein content in UC-sEVs but not in all of the SEC-sEV fractions. Functionally, both UC-sEVs and SEC-sEVs isolates contained a variety of proangiogenic factors (with endothelin-1 being the most abundant) and stimulated migration of endothelial cells. However, there was no evident correlation between the promigratory potential and the quantity of sEVs added, indicating that non-vesicular co-isolates may contribute to the promigratory effects. Overall, our findings suggest that UC provides plasma sEVs of lower yields, but markedly higher purity compared to SEC. Furthermore, we show that the functional activity of sEVs can depend on the isolation method used and does not solely reflect the sEV quantity. These findings are of importance when working with sEVs isolated from plasma- or serum-containing conditioned medium.
Project description:Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme involved in the conversion of arachadonic acid to prostaglandins and other eicosaniods. Persistent COX-2 expression is associated with multiple forms of cancer.Therefore, there is much interest in COX-2 specific, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use for cancer chemotherapy. The mechanism by which these drugs inhibit tumor growth and progression is unclear, and our knowledge about their potential to prevent or treat prostate cancer is inadequate.The effects of NS-398, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, on human prostate carcinoma cell line LNCaP and the LNCaP subline C4-2b were investigated in this study. NS-398 effects on apoptosis were examined by caspase-3 activity increase, as well as internucleosomal cleavage. ELISA and PCR were used to determine inhibitor effects on macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and COX-2 production.At 10 microM, NS-398 treatment resulted in increased production of COX-2 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine, MIF by the C4-2b LNCaP subline. NS-398 (10 microM) induces apoptosis in LNCaP cells, but not in the more aggressive, androgen-unresponsive C4-2b cells. The C4-2b cells were observed to continue to proliferate when treated with NS-398 and continued to retain malignant phenotype characteristics. NS-398 treatment resulted in C4-2b cell differentiation into an unusual neuroendocrine-like cell. These neuroendocrine-like cells produced both epithelial (cytokeratin 18 and prostate specific antigen) and neuronal (neuron-specific enolase and chromogranin A) proteins. Furthermore, this C4-2b cellular response to NS-398 was mediated by NF-kappa beta transcription factor activation.These data suggest that COX-2 inhibition induces NF-kappa beta transcription factor activation, which subsequently induces pro-inflammatory protein expression (COX-2 and MIF) and neuroendocrine differentiation in the LNCaP C4-2b subline. These data provide further evidence that pro-inflammatory protein expression may play an important role in prostate cancer progression.