Shared Decision Making for the Emergency Provider: Engaging Patients When Seconds Count.
ABSTRACT: Introduction:Physicians need to be able to communicate the myriad of management options clearly to patients and engage them in their health care decisions, even in the fast-paced environment of the emergency department. Shared decision making (SDM) is an effective communication strategy for physicians to share diagnostic uncertainty, avoid potentially harmful tests, and solicit patients' preferences for their care. Role-playing with just-in-time feedback is an effective method to learn and practice SDM before having these conversations with patients. Methods:This flipped classroom workshop featured precourse materials and an in-class session incorporating a short lecture outlining a framework for SDM, followed by role-playing through patient scenarios. Learners took turns playing the physician or patient role and received feedback on their communication skills while in the physician role. A faculty examiner subsequently assessed skill attainment using a simulated patient encounter and checklist of critical actions. Results:The workshop was an interactive and effective way to teach SDM to 28 PGY 1 and PGY 2 emergency medicine residents. Two months after attending the workshop, over 75% of the first-year residents were able to complete all the elements of the SDM process in a simulated patient encounter; four residents required no prompting by the examiner. Discussion:A communications workshop that incorporates role-playing with different patient encounters is an interactive way to teach SDM for the emergency setting. Residents early in their clinical training can benefit from learning and practicing SDM in a simulated setting.
Project description:Objective The six core competencies designated by Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) are essential for establishing a patient centre holistic medical system. The authors developed a faculty programme to promote the postgraduate year 1 (PGY(1)) resident, ACGME six core competencies. The study aims to assess the clinical instructors' perception, attitudes and subjective impression towards the various sessions of the 'faculty development programme for teaching ACGME competencies.' Methods During 2009 and 2010, 134 clinical instructors participated in the programme to establish their ability to teach and assess PGY(1) residents about ACGME competencies. Results The participants in the faculty development programme reported that the skills most often used while teaching were learnt during circuit and itinerant bedside, physical examination teaching, mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) evaluation demonstration, training workshop and videotapes of 'how to teach ACGME competencies.' Participants reported that circuit bedside teaching and mini-CEX evaluation demonstrations helped them in the interpersonal and communication skills domain, and that the itinerant teaching demonstrations helped them in the professionalism domain, while physical examination teaching and mini-CEX evaluation demonstrations helped them in the patients' care domain. Both the training workshop and videotape session increase familiarity with teaching and assessing skills. Participants who applied the skills learnt from the faculty development programme the most in their teaching and assessment came from internal medicine departments, were young attending physician and had experience as PGY(1) clinical instructors. Conclusions According to the clinical instructors' response, our faculty development programme effectively increased their familiarity with various teaching and assessment skills needed to teach PGY(1) residents and ACGME competencies, and these clinical instructors also then subsequently apply these skills.
Project description:Goal-directed ultrasound protocols have been developed to facilitate efficiency, throughput, and patient care. Hands-on instruction and training workshops have been shown to positively impact ultrasound training.We describe a novel undifferentiated chest pain goal-directed ultrasound algorithm-focused education workshop for the purpose of enhancing emergency medicine resident training in ultrasound milestones competencies.This was a cross-sectional study performed at an academic medical center. A novel goal-directed ultrasound algorithm was developed and implemented as a model for teaching and learning the sonographic approach to a patient with undifferentiated chest pain. This algorithm was incorporated into all components of the 1-day workshop: asynchronous learning, didactic lecture, case-based learning, and hands-on stations. Performance comparisons were made between postgraduate year (PGY) levels.A total of 38 of the 40 (95%) residents who attended the event participated in the chest pain objective standardized clinical exam, and 26 of the 40 (65%) completed the entire questionnaire. The average number of ultrasounds performed by resident class year at the time of our study was as follows: 19 (standard deviation [SD]=19) PGY-1, 238 (SD=37) PGY-2, and 289 (SD=73) PGY-3. Performance on the knowledge-based questions improved between PGY-1 and PGY-3. The application of the novel algorithm was noted to be more prevalent among the PGY-1 class.The 1-day algorithm-based ultrasound educational workshop was an engaging learning technique at our institution.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Effective communication during patient care transitions is essential for high-quality patient care. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was (1) to objectively assess patient handoff skills of internal medicine residents, and (2) to evaluate correlations between clinical experience and patient handoff skill self-assessment with directly observed skill. METHODS: We studied simulated patient handoffs in postgraduate year (PGY)-1 and PGY-2 residents between July 2011 and September 2011, using a standardized scenario in an observed structured handoff exam (OSHE). Our design was a posttest-only, with nonequivalent groups. Assessment used a previously published checklist for evaluating handoff skills. Residents were asked about clinical experience with patient handoffs and about their self-confidence in performing a patient handoff independently. We evaluated between-group differences on OSHE checklist performance, patient handoff experience, and self-confidence and used multiple regression analyses to assess the association between performance, experience, and confidence. RESULTS: Forty-seven PGY-1 residents and 38 PGY-2 residents completed the study. Interrater reliability was substantial (intraclass correlation = 0.68). There was no significant difference in OSHE performance by PGY-1 residents (mean = 79%, SD = 4.6) and PGY-2 residents (mean = 82%; SD = 7.6; P = .07). The PGY-2 residents were significantly more experienced (P < .001) and confident (P < .001) than PGY-1 residents were, yet clinical experience and self-confidence did not significantly predict OSHE performance. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical experience and self-assessment do not predict skills in simulated patient handoffs, and residents with substantial clinical experience still benefit from further skills development.
Project description:Introduction:Focused training in care transitions is an ACGME-required component of resident education. However, there are limited published curricular resources specific to trainees in psychiatry to help develop this crucial skill. Methods:We developed a 90-minute interactive workshop on care transitions in psychiatry for general adult psychiatry residents (PGY 2-PGY 4), child and adolescent fellows, and consult-liaison fellows. Trainees collaborated in interdisciplinary teams to explore a vignette in which a patient moved through four different venues of care (outpatient, emergency department, inpatient medical, and inpatient psychiatric). Guiding questions prompted discussions of critical issues related to logistics and clinical communication for each transition between care environments. Results:In a postworkshop anonymous survey, 100% of trainee participants (n = 30) felt the workshop was successful in creating the opportunity to develop relationships with, and learn from, colleagues at other levels of psychiatry training. Ninety percent responded affirmatively that they were able to identify key elements of an effective handoff for an acute psychiatric patient. Eighty-three percent identified being able to describe logistical steps for transferring the care of patients between mental health services at their institution. Discussion:Trainee participants found the workshop beneficial for understanding the steps needed to transfer patients between levels of care safely, discussing and debating gray areas with peers and faculty, and developing interdisciplinary relationships within psychiatry. Faculty participants described an interest in using the workshop as a faculty development exercise. This workshop fills a critical gap in available curricula on transitions in care in psychiatry.
Project description:Objectives:Provider efficiency has been reported in the literature but there is a lack of efficiency analysis among emergency medicine (EM) residents. We aim to compare efficiency of EM residents of different training levels and determine if EM resident efficiency is affected by emergency department (ED) crowding. Methods:We conducted a single-center retrospective observation study from July 1, 2014, to June 30, 2017. The number of new patients per resident per hour and provider-to-disposition (PTD) time of each patient were used as resident efficiency markers. A crowding score was assigned to each patient upon the patient's arrival to the ED. We compared efficiency among EM residents of different training levels under different ED crowding statuses. Dynamic efficiency changes were compared monthly through the entire academic year (July to next June). Results:The study enrolled a total of 150,920 patients. A mean of 1.9 patients/hour was seen by PGY-1 EM residents in comparison to 2.6 patients/hour by PGY-2 and -3 EM residents. Median PTD was 2.8 hours in PGY-1 EM residents versus 2.6 hours in PGY-2 and -3 EM residents. There were no significant differences in acuity across all patients seen by EM residents. When crowded conditions existed, residency efficiency increased, but such changes were minimized when the ED became overcrowded. A linear increase of resident efficiency was observed only in PGY-1 EM residents throughout the entire academic year. Conclusion:Resident efficiency improved significantly only during their first year of EM training. This efficiency can be affected by ED crowding.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Simulation training has emerged as an effective method of educating residents in cardiac emergencies. Few studies have used emergency simulation scenarios as an outcome measure to identify training deficiencies within residency programs. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate postgraduate year-1 (PGY-1) residents on their ability to manage an acute coronary syndrome and cardiac arrest scenario before and after internship in order to provide outcome data to improve program performance. METHODS: A total of 58 PGY-1 residents from 10 medical specialties were evaluated using a human patient simulator before and after internship. They were given 12 minutes to manage a patient with acute coronary syndrome and ventricular fibrillation due to hyperkalemia. An objective checklist following basic and advanced cardiac life support guidelines was used to assess performance. RESULTS: A total of 58 interns (age, 25 to 44 years [mean, 29.1]; 38 [65.6%] men; 41 [70.7%] allopathic medical school graduates) participated in both the incoming and outgoing examination. Overall chest pain scores increased from a mean of 60.0% to 76.1% (P < .01). Medical knowledge performance improved from 51.1% to 76.1% (P < .01). Systems-based practice performance improved from 40.9% to 71.0% (P < .01). However, patient care performance declined from 93.4% to 80.2% (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: A simulated acute coronary syndrome and cardiac arrest scenario can evaluate incoming PGY-1 competency performance and test for interval improvement. This assessment tool can measure resident competency performance and evaluate program effectiveness.
Project description:Introduction:Although studies surveying internal medicine (IM) residency program directors identify geriatric women's health as an essential curriculum topic, there are limited published women's health curricula for IM residents. Our IM residency program performed a needs assessment, which revealed that the majority of residents were unsatisfied with our current curricula and most were not confident managing geriatric women's health. We developed and assessed a structured curriculum to improve IM residents' knowledge and confidence in addressing geriatric women's health. Methods:This 2-hour interactive workshop used the jigsaw teaching method (a cooperative learning strategy where peers deliver specific content in teams) to teach 84 categorical IM residents of all PGY levels about the diagnosis and management of menopause, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, and abnormal uterine bleeding. Participants completed a pretest and immediate posttest to assess knowledge and confidence about the targeted topics. We compared baseline and postworkshop responses using chi-square and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Results:Seventy-four (88%) IM residents completed the pretest, and 62 (74%) completed the posttest. Mean knowledge scores improved from 51% to 69% (p < .0001). Residents who reported feeling somewhat confident or confident in addressing women's health topics increased from 14% to 44% (p < .0001). The majority were satisfied or very satisfied with the workshop (94%) and requested additional women's health education (92%). Discussion:Our results suggest that workshops using the jigsaw teaching method can effectively increase IM resident knowledge and confidence in managing geriatric women's health.
Project description:Emergency clinicians are on the frontlines of identifying and caring for trafficked persons. However, most emergency providers have never received training on trafficking, and studies report a significant knowledge gap involving this important topic. Workshops often employ a "train-the-trainer" model to address clinicians' knowledge gaps involving various topics (including trafficking). By offering participants knowledge and skills needed to both understand relevant content and teach this content to future learners, this model aims at promoting widespread dissemination of essential information. However, current train-the-trainer workshops typically involve full or multiday sessions and employ multimodal instructional techniques, making them time and resource intensive for both participants and facilitators. To address these challenges, we created a 50-minute train-the-trainer workshop to teach emergency clinicians the knowledge and skills needed to recognize and care for trafficked patients while providing instructional techniques to teach learners this content in the clinical environment. Learning theory and principles informed the choice of instructional methods and were employed when designing the paper-based learning guides that functioned as this intervention's primary instructional resource. Guides contained detailed scripts used to perform role-playing exercises. These "scripted guides" were designed for participants to learn important content while simultaneously practicing techniques to teach this content to one another. They provided the scaffolding necessary to independently direct learning during the workshop (with minimal facilitator intervention), while also being carefully formatted and organized to create an accessible tool for future use during clinical teaching. The session was implemented at the 2018 Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Annual Meeting in Indianapolis, Indiana. Based on participants' self-assessment using a retrospective pre-post test, the workshop was successful in creating a train-the-trainer model that is brief, requiring minimal facilitator resources and offers instruction on both content knowledge and instructional methods to disseminate this knowledge to future learners.
Project description:Introduction:An expanding neck hematoma following thyroidectomy is a rare complication requiring urgent airway management and potential bedside evacuation before definitive surgical intervention. Due to its rare occurrence and life-threatening consequences, appropriate crisis resource management and a systematic approach are critical for patient safety. Methods:In this simulation scenario using a high-fidelity mannequin, a 68-year-old male presented with an expanding cervical hematoma 2 hours after a total thyroidectomy. The target audience was junior residents (PGY 1, PGY 2) in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. Residents were given a case stem to encourage active information gathering through history and physical examination. Setup and flow of the scenario were designed for residents to prioritize establishing an airway through bedside decompression of the hematoma prior to making operating room arrangements for definitive management. Standardized patients playing a ward nurse and patient family member added complexity to the case. Results:Since 2012, the simulation has been used with a total of 96 residents as part of an annual boot camp. Surveys conducted after the boot camp verified the effectiveness of simulations in learning and, specifically, the usefulness of this scenario. Discussion:Simulation-based training is an effective learning modality for critical cases in health care disciplines involving emergency airway management. A well-developed simulation that closely resembles a real-life scenario is essential in creating a rich learning environment for trainees. Our scenario can be a valuable resource for other institutions implementing simulation-based training as part of their medical education.
Project description:Introduction:Submersion injury or drowning is a leading preventable cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity. Submersion injuries are often accompanied by hypothermia and asphyxia that can lead to inadequate oxygen delivery to tissues and subsequent cardiac arrhythmias. Methods:This simulation-based curriculum involves the identification and management of a submersion injury in a 4-year-old boy who was rescued from a cold-water submersion. The simulated patient is apneic, pulseless, bradycardic, and hypothermic; he is being bag-mask ventilated on arrival without intravenous access. He ultimately develops ventricular fibrillation. Providers must recognize the degree of submersion injury, initiate early airway protection, adequately address circulation, and be alert to developing hypothermia and cardiac arrhythmias to prevent further decompensation. This scenario can be modified based on trainee level (pediatric residents vs. pediatric emergency medicine fellows). Results:A total of 22 trainees (PGY 1-PGY 6 pediatric residents and pediatric emergency medicine fellows) participated in this simulation curriculum on separate occasions and rated it as an overall positive learning experience. The curriculum's goal is to provide learners with an opportunity to manage life-threatening pediatric submersion injuries, where the correct steps need to be taken in a limited period of time. Discussion:We have provided preparatory materials to help instructors set up, run, and debrief the scenario in a standardized fashion. The debriefing tools allow for adaptation depending on learners' needs and individual experiences during the simulated scenario. Also included are supporting educational materials and a learner feedback form that can be used to evaluate the session.