Pediatric Emergency Medicine Simulation Curriculum: Bacterial Tracheitis.
ABSTRACT: Introduction:Pediatric bacterial tracheitis is a rare but life-threatening upper airway infection with mortality rates estimated as high as 20%, typically affecting children between 6 months and 12 years old. Given such high mortality rates, we felt it was important to train medical personnel to evaluate and manage this condition. Methods:This simulation-based curriculum was developed for health care professionals involving the evaluation and management of an 8-year-old male with symptoms of fever, stridor, worsening barking cough, and increased work of breathing. Critical actions included identifying stridor and airway respiratory distress; monitoring and supporting airway, breathing, and circulation; administering racemic epinephrine and dexamethasone; and identifying and treating bacterial tracheitis as the underlying cause. Scenario-specific debriefing tools were put together to elicit scenario feedback and aid in formative learning. Results:The scenario was conducted with six fellows and 12 residents and medical students. Per the survey data, the case was rated as highly relevant (median = 5) and highly realistic (median = 5) by participants on a 5-point Likert scale. Discussion:Pediatric bacterial tracheitis is a low frequency, but high-risk scenario that was amenable to simulation as an educational modality and was well-received by participants. The debriefing tools were implemented as a means of helping instructors customize the scenario for learners based on respective educational backgrounds and learning styles.
Project description:Introduction:Bupropion is a commonly used antidepressant, and overdose can lead to both neurologic and cardiovascular toxicity, including agitation, seizure, tachycardia, QT and QRS prolongation, and rhythm disturbances. Methods:We developed this simulation case for attendings, fellows, nurse practitioners, and nurses in the pediatric emergency department (ED). The scenario involved a 13-year-old male presenting to the ED with altered mental status and a generalized tonic-clonic seizure shortly after arrival. The team needed to quickly perform primary and secondary surveys, manage his airway and breathing, and initiate treatment for seizure. The team had to obtain an abbreviated history and include ingestion in the differential. The patient then developed pulseless ventricular tachycardia, and the team needed to respond with high-quality CPR, defibrillation, and advanced airway management. Preparatory materials, a debriefing guide, and scenario evaluation forms assisted with facilitation. Results:Twenty-eight physicians, 56 nurses, 10 nurse practitioners, four pharmacists, two students, and one respiratory therapist completed this simulation in 13 sessions. On a 5-point Likert scale, participants agreed with the stated objective of ability to manage a patient with a bupropion overdose (M = 4.09; range, 2-5). The scenario was rated as highly relevant (M = 4.93) and the debriefing as very effective (M = 4.85). Discussion:This scenario is a complete educational resource for setting up, implementing, and debriefing in an interprofessional setting. It was well received by learners from diverse professional backgrounds working together in actual care teams in the pediatric ED.
Project description:Introduction:Submersion injury or drowning is a leading preventable cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity. Submersion injuries are often accompanied by hypothermia and asphyxia that can lead to inadequate oxygen delivery to tissues and subsequent cardiac arrhythmias. Methods:This simulation-based curriculum involves the identification and management of a submersion injury in a 4-year-old boy who was rescued from a cold-water submersion. The simulated patient is apneic, pulseless, bradycardic, and hypothermic; he is being bag-mask ventilated on arrival without intravenous access. He ultimately develops ventricular fibrillation. Providers must recognize the degree of submersion injury, initiate early airway protection, adequately address circulation, and be alert to developing hypothermia and cardiac arrhythmias to prevent further decompensation. This scenario can be modified based on trainee level (pediatric residents vs. pediatric emergency medicine fellows). Results:A total of 22 trainees (PGY 1-PGY 6 pediatric residents and pediatric emergency medicine fellows) participated in this simulation curriculum on separate occasions and rated it as an overall positive learning experience. The curriculum's goal is to provide learners with an opportunity to manage life-threatening pediatric submersion injuries, where the correct steps need to be taken in a limited period of time. Discussion:We have provided preparatory materials to help instructors set up, run, and debrief the scenario in a standardized fashion. The debriefing tools allow for adaptation depending on learners' needs and individual experiences during the simulated scenario. Also included are supporting educational materials and a learner feedback form that can be used to evaluate the session.
Project description:Pseudomembranous necrotizing tracheitis is a rare, but life-threatening cause of central airway obstruction. Here, we reported three cases of pediatric pseudomembranous necrotizing tracheitis. The infectious etiologies were Staphylococcus aureus secondary to influenza A virus and Aspergillus fumigatus. Endoscopy was used in diagnosis and management of all patients and two patients survived. The improvement in mortality rate of these diseases need early recognition and prompt treatment with mechanical debridement by endoscope and early initiation of broad spectrum antibiotics. Endoscopy is a promising tool to diagnose and remove the pseudomembrane, therefore relieving central airway obstruction.
Project description:C-MAC® video-laryngoscope is often used by anesthetists in difficult intubation scenarios primarily in adults. Using this C-MAC® device in two of our pediatric cases, we successfully removed the laryngeal foreign body, while the anesthetist provided the apneic technique. A systematic review of PubMed and Google Scholar for similar cases was conducted. We found only one such case report of pediatric airway foreign body removal via video-laryngoscope in the English literature. The use of this high-quality, magnified video-laryngoscope in children in an emergency scenario is often not adequately applied. This procedure provides continuous real-time visualization to both the operating surgeon as well as the anesthetist in respect to the airway and thereby reduces the chance of any untoward complications. Here, we present two interesting case reports of C-MAC® video-laryngoscope assisted removal of laryngeal foreign body via apneic technique with spontaneous ventilation performed on two different children in our facility. Both these children had clinical symptoms of upper airway obstruction with fluctuating stridor simulating croup or asthma.
Project description:Background While the results of previous meta-analyses have shown beneficial effects of corticosteroid therapy on post-extubation stridor and extubation failure in adults, these results might not be generalizable to children because of the differences in anatomy and structure. We aimed to determine the benefits of corticosteroids on those outcomes in pediatric populations. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and reference lists of articles from inception until February 2019. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies on the efficacy of systemic corticosteroid administration given prior to elective extubation in mechanically ventilated pediatrics were eligible. Outcomes included post-extubation stridor indicating laryngeal edema and extubation failures. Results A total of ten randomized controlled trials with 591 pediatric patients were included: seven of the ten studies for post-extubation stridor/suspected upper airway obstruction and nine of the ten studies for extubation failure. The estimate of pooled odds ratios (ORs) for post-extubation stridor/suspected upper airway obstruction was 0.40 (95% CI: 0.21–0.79). When analysis was restricted to trials that had explicit data for infants and explicit data for pediatric patients under 5 years old excluding infants, the estimates of pooled ORs were 0.53 (95% CI: 0.20–1.40) and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.38–1.22), respectively. For pediatric patients who received corticosteroids, there was a 0.37-fold lower odds of extubation failure than that in pediatric patients who did not receive corticosteroids (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.22–0.61). While three observational studies were included in this review, their estimates have a potential for bias and we did not perform a meta-analysis. Conclusions Despite a relatively small sample size in each randomized controlled trial and wide ranges of ages and steroid administration regimens, our results suggest that the use of corticosteroids for prevention of post-extubation stridor and extubation failure could be considered to be acceptable in pediatric patients.
Project description:Introduction:Pediatric trauma management is a high-stress, high-risk, low-frequency event, and exposure through simulation can help identify and address knowledge gaps. Pediatric residents are likely to provide care for children with traumatic injuries, and it is important they are skilled in performing a rapid trauma assessment. Methods:We developed a simulation-based rapid pediatric trauma assessment curriculum for pediatric residents in the setting of a mass casualty disaster. The patients were 5-year-olds portrayed by mannequins with varying injuries including intracranial hemorrhage, solid organ injury, and open extremity fractures. Critical actions included assigning roles, completing primary assessment within 2 minutes, and giving summary statement and management priorities within 5 minutes using clear communication techniques. We created a badge-sized reference card as well as scenario-specific debriefing tools to facilitate assessment and discussion of learning objectives following the simulation. Results:We conducted two sessions with a total of 49 participants. The case was rated as highly relevant (session 1, m = 4.7; session 2, m = 4.9) and realistic (session 1, m = 4.8; session 2, m = 4.4) by participants on a 5-point Likert scale. During the two sessions participants completed the primary survey in an average of 2.46 and 2.29 minutes, respectively, and the secondary survey with summary statement in an average of 5.08 and 4.27 minutes, respectively. Discussion:This educational resource supports the setup, production, and debriefing of a low-fidelity simulation focused on the pediatric trauma assessment for the novice learner. Also included are educational reference materials and a participant evaluation form.
Project description:Introduction:This 3-hour simulation module provides a safe situation for neonatal-perinatal fellows to learn communication techniques and develop skills for delivering difficult news to patients' families. These skills are critical for a practicing neonatologist in an academic or private-practice setting yet are often underrepresented in the educational content of training programs. This module is intended for fellows who have had basic communication skills instruction, as well as interactions with parents as part of their pediatric residency training. Methods:The fellows practice delivering difficult news by interacting with standardized parents in scenarios designed for one to three learners at a time. Each scenario runs for approximately 10 to 15 minutes and is followed by a 25- to 30-minute debriefing. Those not participating in the scenario view the simulation in real-time video broadcast from another room so they can learn from the scenario and participate in the debriefing. The module also includes 10 to 15 minutes for discussion of literature. This publication includes an introductory slide presentation and a comprehensive compilation of communication recommendations from attending neonatologists. Also included are scripts for the standardized parents, background information for learners, guidelines and suggestions for discussion during the debriefing, and an evaluation form. Results:This module has been incorporated into the yearly simulation curriculum for our neonatal-perinatal fellowship. After completing the module, fellows have reported feeling more comfortable with delivering difficult news. The average score in fellows' comfort level for having these conversations rose from 5.8 to 7.5 on a 10-point scale. Discussion:This module was designed for use in a perinatal-neonatal fellowship training program, but it could be used in all pediatric residencies, as well as for support staff training (social work, nursing, chaplaincy) with the use of a confederate physician.
Project description:Background:Traditional simulation-based education prioritizes participation in simulated scenarios. The educational impact of observation in simulation-based education compared with participation remains uncertain. Our objective was to compare the performances of observers and participants in a standardized simulation scenario. Methods:We assessed learning differences between simulation-based scenario participation and observation using a convergent, parallel, quasi-experimental, mixed-methods study of 15 participants and 15 observers (N = 30). Fifteen first-year residents from six medical specialties were evaluated during a simulated scenario (cardiac arrest due to critical hyperkalemia). Evaluation included predefined critical actions and performance assessments. In the first exposure to the simulation scenario, participants and observers underwent a shared postevent debriefing with predetermined learning objectives. Three months later, a follow-up assessment using the same case scenario evaluated all 30 learners as participants. Wilcoxon signed rank and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare participants and observers at 3-month follow-up. In addition, we used case study methodology to explore the nature of learning for participants and observers. Data were triangulated using direct observations, reflective field notes, and a focus group. Results:Quantitative data analysis comparing the learners' first and second exposure to the investigation scenario demonstrated participants' time to calcium administration as the only statistically significant difference between participant and observer roles (316 seconds vs. 200 seconds, p = 0.0004). Qualitative analysis revealed that both participation and observation improved learning, debriefing was an important component to learning, and debriefing closed the learning gap between observers and participants. Conclusions:Participants and observers had similar performances in simulation-based learning in an isolated scenario of cardiac arrest due to hyperkalemia. Findings support current limited literature that observation should not be underestimated as an important opportunity to enhance simulation-based education. When paired with postevent debriefing, scenario observers and participants may reap similar educational benefits.
Project description:Goal setting is used in education to promote learning and performance. Debriefing after clinical scenario-based simulation is a well-established practice that provides learners a defined structure to review and improve performance. Our objective was to integrate formal learning goal generation, using the SMART framework (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time-bound), into standard debriefing processes (i.e., "SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing") and subsequently measure the impact on the development of learning goals and execution of educational actions.This was a prospective multicenter randomized controlled study of 80 emergency medicine residents at three academic hospitals comparing the effectiveness of SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing to a standard debriefing. Residents were block randomized on a rolling basis following a simulation case. SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing included five minutes of formal instruction on the development of SMART learning goals during the summary/application phase of the debrief. Outcome measures included the number of recalled learning goals, self-reported executed educational actions, and quality of each learning goal and educational action after a two-week follow-up period.The mean number of reported learning goals was similar in the standard debriefing group (mean 2.05 goals, SD 1.13, n=37 residents), and in the SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing group (mean 1.93, SD 0.96, n=43), with no difference in learning goal quality. Residents receiving SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing completed more educational actions on average (Control group actions completed 0.97 (SD 0.87), SMART debrief group 1.44 (SD 1.03) p=0.03).The number and quality of learning goals reported by residents was not improved as a result of SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing. Residents did, however, execute more educational actions, which is consistent with the overarching intent of any educational intervention.
Project description:Introduction:Electrical injuries are rare but potentially life-threatening medical emergencies that require providers to manage a critically ill patient while recognizing and treating the unique sequelae associated with the diagnosis. This simulation case is designed to give pediatric and emergency medicine residents, fellows, attendings, and nurses the opportunity to practice these skills in a realistic setting. Methods:This simulation-based curriculum was designed for a high-fidelity mannequin in an emergency department resuscitation room but can be adapted to fit a variety of learning environments. The case featured a 16-year-old boy presenting to the emergency department after arresting in the field after sustaining an electrical injury. He developed ventricular tachycardia during the simulation and had significant hyperkalemia, requiring emergent management. The included debriefing tools assisted instructors in providing formative feedback to learners. Results:A total of 40 residents, medical students, and fellows participated in this scenario and provided overwhelmingly positive feedback about the learning experience. Mean Likert scores for participant confidence related to learning objectives after the simulation were 4 or greater on a 5-point scale. Discussion:This case was developed to help learners at various levels of training recognize and manage a low-frequency, high-acuity scenario in a standardized environment. Participants specifically had the opportunity to perform airway management, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, defibrillation, and management of hyperkalemia, which may present in real life from a multitude of etiologies. The included materials helped prepare and assist facilitators with debriefing, supplemental education, and bidirectional feedback.