Two-color nanoscopy of organelles for extended times with HIDE probes.
ABSTRACT: Performing multi-color nanoscopy for extended times is challenging due to the rapid photobleaching rate of most fluorophores. Here we describe a new fluorophore (Yale-595) and a bio-orthogonal labeling strategy that enables two-color super-resolution (STED) and 3D confocal imaging of two organelles simultaneously for extended times using high-density environmentally sensitive (HIDE) probes. Because HIDE probes are small, cell-permeant molecules, they can visualize dual organelle dynamics in hard-to-transfect cell lines by super-resolution for over an order of magnitude longer than with tagged proteins. The extended time domain possible using these tools reveals dynamic nanoscale targeting between different organelles.
Project description:Imaging cellular structures and organelles in living cells by long time-lapse super-resolution microscopy is challenging, as it requires dense labeling, bright and highly photostable dyes, and non-toxic conditions. We introduce a set of high-density, environment-sensitive (HIDE) membrane probes, based on the membrane-permeable silicon-rhodamine dye HMSiR, that assemble in situ and enable long time-lapse, live-cell nanoscopy of discrete cellular structures and organelles with high spatiotemporal resolution. HIDE-enabled nanoscopy movies span tens of minutes, whereas movies obtained with labeled proteins span tens of seconds. Our data reveal 2D dynamics of the mitochondria, plasma membrane and filopodia, and the 2D and 3D dynamics of the endoplasmic reticulum, in living cells. HIDE probes also facilitate acquisition of live-cell, two-color, super-resolution images, expanding the utility of nanoscopy to visualize dynamic processes and structures in living cells.
Project description:The widely popular class of quantum-dot molecular labels could so far not be utilized as standard fluorescent probes in STED (stimulated emission depletion) nanoscopy. This is because broad quantum-dot excitation spectra extend deeply into the spectral bands used for STED, thus compromising the transient fluorescence silencing required for attaining super-resolution. Here we report the discovery that STED nanoscopy of several red-emitting commercially available quantum dots is in fact successfully realized by the increasingly popular 775 nm STED laser light. A resolution of presently ? 50 nm is demonstrated for single quantum dots, and sub-diffraction resolution is further shown for imaging of quantum-dot-labelled vimentin filaments in fibroblasts. The high quantum-dot photostability enables repeated STED recordings with >1,000 frames. In addition, we have evidence that the tendency of quantum-dot labels to blink is largely suppressed by combined action of excitation and STED beams. Quantum-dot STED significantly expands the realm of application of STED nanoscopy, and, given the high stability of these probes, holds promise for extended time-lapse imaging.
Project description:Super-resolution imaging of live cells over extended time periods with high temporal resolution requires high-density labeling and extraordinary fluorophore photostability. Herein, we achieve this goal by combining the attributes of the high-density plasma membrane probe DiI-TCO and the photostable STED dye SiR-Tz. These components undergo rapid tetrazine ligation within the plasma membrane to generate the HIDE probe DiI-SiR. Using DiI-SiR, we visualized filopodia dynamics in HeLa cells over 25?min at 0.5?s temporal resolution, and visualized dynamic contact-mediated repulsion events in primary mouse hippocampal neurons over 9?min at 2?s temporal resolution. HIDE probes such as DiI-SiR are non-toxic and do not require transfection, and their apparent photostability significantly improves the ability to monitor dynamic processes in live cells at super-resolution over biologically relevant timescales.
Project description:The near infrared (NIR) optical window between the cutoff for hemoglobin absorption at 650?nm and the onset of increased water absorption at 900?nm is an attractive, yet largely unexplored, spectral regime for diffraction-unlimited super-resolution fluorescence microscopy (nanoscopy). We developed the NIR fluorescent protein SNIFP, a bright and photostable bacteriophytochrome, and demonstrate its use as a fusion tag in live-cell microscopy and STED nanoscopy. We further demonstrate dual color red-confocal/NIR-STED imaging by co-expressing SNIFP with a conventional red fluorescent protein.
Project description:Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that exhibit a complex inner architecture. They exhibit a smooth outer membrane and a highly convoluted inner membrane that forms invaginations called cristae. Imaging cristae in living cells poses a formidable challenge for super-resolution light microscopy. Relying on a cell line stably expressing the mitochondrial protein COX8A fused to the SNAP-tag and using STED (stimulated emission depletion) nanoscopy, we demonstrate the visualization of cristae dynamics in cultivated human cells. We show that in human HeLa cells lamellar cristae are often arranged in groups separated by voids that are generally occupied by mitochondrial nucleoids.
Project description:We introduce MINSTED, a fluorophore localization and super-resolution microscopy concept based on stimulated emission depletion (STED) that provides spatial precision and resolution down to the molecular scale. In MINSTED, the intensity minimum of the STED doughnut, and hence the point of minimal STED, serves as a movable reference coordinate for fluorophore localization. As the STED rate, the background and the required number of fluorescence detections are low compared with most other STED microscopy and localization methods, MINSTED entails substantially less fluorophore bleaching. In our implementation, 200-1,000 detections per fluorophore provide a localization precision of 1-3nm in standard deviation, which in conjunction with independent single fluorophore switching translates to a -100-fold improvement in far-field microscopy resolution over the diffraction limit. The performance of MINSTED nanoscopy is demonstrated by imaging the distribution of Mic60 proteins in the mitochondrial inner membrane of human cells.
Project description:Multiphoton fluorescence microscopy (MPM), using near infrared excitation light, provides increased penetration depth, decreased detection background, and reduced phototoxicity. Using stimulated emission depletion (STED) approach, MPM can bypass the diffraction limitation, but it requires both spatial alignment and temporal synchronization of high power (femtosecond) lasers, which is limited by the inefficiency of the probes. Here, we report that upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) can unlock a new mode of near-infrared emission saturation (NIRES) nanoscopy for deep tissue super-resolution imaging with excitation intensity several orders of magnitude lower than that required by conventional MPM dyes. Using a doughnut beam excitation from a 980?nm diode laser and detecting at 800?nm, we achieve a resolution of sub 50?nm, 1/20th of the excitation wavelength, in imaging of single UCNP through 93??m thick liver tissue. This method offers a simple solution for deep tissue super resolution imaging and single molecule tracking.
Project description:Nanoscopy has now become a real procedure in fluorescence microscopy of living cells. The STED/RESOLFT family of nanoscopy approaches has the best prospects for delivering high speed imaging, but the history of STED includes a continuing struggle to reduce the deactivation power applied, along with difficulties in achieving simultaneous multicolor images. In this manuscript, we present a concept for a similar real-time nanoscopy, using a new class of bipartite probes that separate the luminescent and quenching functions into two coupled molecules. In particular, the STAQ (Superresolution via Transiently Activated Quencher) example we show herein employs the excited state absorbance (not ground state) of the partner to accept energy from and quench the luminescent dye. The result is that much less deactivation power is needed for superresolved (?50 nm) imaging. Moreover, the TAQ partner excited by the "donut" beam is shown to quench several different visible dyes via the same mechanism, opening the door to easier multicolor imaging. We demonstrate three dyes sharing the same deactivation and show examples of superresolved multicolor images. We suggest STAQ will facilitate the growth of real-time nanoscopy by reducing confounding photodamage within living cells while expanding the nanoscopist's palette.
Project description:We report new lipid-based, high-density, environmentally sensitive (HIDE) probes that accurately and selectively image endo-lysosomes and their dynamics at super-resolution for extended times. Treatment of live cells with the small molecules DiIC16TCO or DiIC16'TCO followed by in situ tetrazine ligation reaction with the silicon-rhodamine dye SiR-Tz generates the HIDE probes DiIC16-SiR and DiIC16'-SiR in the endo-lysosomal membrane. These new probes support the acquisition of super-resolution videos of organelle dynamics in primary cells for more than 7?min with no detectable change in endosome structure or function. Using DiIC16-SiR and DiIC16'-SiR, we describe direct evidence of endosome motility defects in cells from patients with Niemann-Pick Type-C disease. In wild-type fibroblasts, the probes reveal distinct but rare inter-endosome kiss-and-run events that cannot be observed using confocal methods. Our results shed new light on the role of NPC1 in organelle motility and cholesterol trafficking.
Project description:Malaria remains a major burden world-wide, but the disease-causing parasites from the genus Plasmodium are difficult to study in vitro. Owing to the small size of the parasites, subcellular imaging poses a major challenge and the use of super-resolution techniques has been hindered by the parasites' sensitivity to light. This is particularly apparent during the blood-stage of the Plasmodium life cycle, which presents an important target for drug research. The iron-rich food vacuole of the parasite undergoes disintegration when illuminated with high-power lasers such as those required for high resolution in Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy. This causes major damage to the sample precluding the use of this super-resolution technique. Here we present guided STED, a novel adaptive illumination (AI) STED approach, which takes advantage of the highly-reflective nature of the iron deposit in the cell to identify the most light-sensitive parts of the sample. Specifically in these parts, the high-power STED laser is deactivated automatically to prevent local damage. Guided STED nanoscopy finally allows super-resolution imaging of the whole Plasmodium life cycle, enabling multicolour imaging of blood-stage malaria parasites with resolutions down to 35?nm without sample destruction.