Menthol Smoking Patterns and Smoking Perceptions Among Youth: Findings From the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Youth may be attracted to menthol cigarettes because they are perceived as less harmful and harsh to smoke relative to non-menthol cigarettes. This study examined demographic factors and menthol cigarette smoking patterns as correlates of youth harm perceptions of cigarette smoking and ease of smoking menthol versus non-menthol cigarettes. METHODS:Data were from the Wave 1 (2013-2014) youth sample of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine correlations between demographic factors and menthol cigarette smoking patterns (menthol initiation, past 30-day menthol cigarette smoking, and menthol cigarette brand preference), with harm perceptions of cigarette smoking and ease of smoking a menthol cigarette. RESULTS:Nearly half of ever cigarette smoking youth (43%) first used a menthol cigarette; 21% reported past 30-day menthol cigarette smoking; and 42% of past 30-day smokers providing brand information used a menthol cigarette as their preferred brand. In bivariate analyses, initiation with a menthol cigarette and menthol brand preference (versus non-menthol) were correlated with black race, older age at initiation, and past 30-day menthol cigarette smoking. In adjusted models, past 30-day menthol cigarette smoking and menthol cigarette brand preference, but not menthol initiation, were correlated with the perception that menthol cigarettes are easier to smoke. CONCLUSIONS:Youth who smoke menthol cigarettes perceive them as easier to smoke, even after adjusting for other factors. Age of initiation and black race emerged as correlates of menthol cigarette initiation, brand preference, and cigarette harm perceptions, and may inform future prevention campaigns.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Given the exponential increase in the use of e-cigarettes among younger age groups and in the growth in research on e-cigarette flavours, we conducted a systematic review examining the impact of non-menthol flavoured e-cigarettes on e-cigarette perceptions and use among youth and adults. DESIGN:PubMed, Embase, PyscINFO and CINAHL were systematically searched for studies published and indexed through March 2018. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA:Quantitative observational and experimental studies that assessed the effect of non-menthol flavours in e-cigarettes on perceptions and use behaviours were included. Specific outcome measures assessed are appeal, reasons for use, risk perceptions, susceptibility, intention to try, initiation, preference, current use, quit intentions and cessation. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS:Three authors independently extracted data related to the impact of flavours in tobacco products. Data from a previous review were then combined with those from the updated review for final analysis. Results were then grouped and analysed by outcome measure. RESULTS:The review included 51 articles for synthesis, including 17 published up to 2016 and an additional 34 published between 2016 and 2018. Results indicate that non-menthol flavours in e-cigarettes decrease harm perceptions (five studies) and increase willingness to try and initiation of e-cigarettes (six studies). Among adults, e-cigarette flavours increase product appeal (seven studies) and are a primary reason many adults use the product (five studies). The role of flavoured e-cigarettes on smoking cessation remains unclear (six studies). CONCLUSION:This review provides summary data on the role of non-menthol flavours in e-cigarette perceptions and use. Consistent evidence shows that flavours attract both youth and adults to use e-cigarettes. Given the clear findings that such flavours increase product appeal, willingness to try and initiation among youth, banning non-menthol flavours in e-cigarettes may reduce youth e-cigarette use. Longitudinal research is needed to examine any role flavours may play in quit behaviours among adults.
Project description:RATIONALE:We previously reported that following a short-term product use period, use of non-menthol Vuse Solo electronic cigarettes (ECs) resulted in product effect-related subjective responses and nicotine uptake between those of combustible cigarettes (high-abuse liability comparator) and nicotine gum (low-abuse liability comparator); the results were generally closer to those of nicotine gum. OBJECTIVE:Using a similar design to the previous study, we evaluated the abuse liability of three menthol-flavored Vuse Solo ECs with the same nicotine contents (14, 29, and 36 mg) in a group of EC-naïve, menthol cigarette smokers, relative to comparator products. METHODS:Six-hour nicotine uptake and ratings of subjective effects were used to determine abuse liability and pharmacokinetics. RESULTS:Use of menthol Vuse Solo resulted in significantly lower responses to subjective measurements (product liking, intent to use product again, and liking of positive product effects), higher urge to smoke responses, and a lower peak (Cmax) and overall extent (AUC0-360) of nicotine uptake compared to smoking the usual brand menthol cigarette. When compared with use of nicotine gum, subjective responses to use of menthol Vuse ECs were in the same direction as those resulting from smoking cigarettes but were more similar to nicotine gum use in magnitude than they were to cigarettes. CONCLUSION:These findings are concordant with our previous results and provide evidence that menthol Vuse Solo ECs have abuse liability that is lower than menthol cigarettes and potentially greater than that of nicotine gum. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02664012.
Project description:Although menthol was not banned under the Tobacco Control Act, the law made it clear that this did not prevent the Food and Drug Administration from issuing a product standard to ban menthol to protect public health. The purpose of this review was to update the evidence synthesis regarding the role of menthol in initiation, dependence and cessation.A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature on menthol cigarettes via a PubMed search through May 9, 2017. The National Cancer Institute's Bibliography of Literature on Menthol and Tobacco and the FDA's 2011 report and 2013 addendum were reviewed for additional publications. Included articles addressing initiation, dependence, and cessation were synthesized based on study design and quality, consistency of evidence across populations and over time, coherence of findings across studies, and plausibility of the findings.Eighty-two studies on menthol cigarette initiation (n?=?46), dependence (n?=?14), and cessation (n?=?34) were included. Large, representative studies show an association between menthol and youth smoking that is consistent in magnitude and direction. One longitudinal and eight cross-sectional studies demonstrate that menthol smokers report increased nicotine dependence compared to non-menthol smokers. Ten studies support the temporal relationship between menthol and reduced smoking cessation, as they measure cessation success at follow-up.The strength and consistency of the associations in these studies support that the removal of menthol from cigarettes is likely to reduce youth smoking initiation, improve smoking cessation outcomes in adult smokers, and in turn, benefit public health.
Project description:Menthol cigarettes are likely associated with greater risks of smoking dependence than non-menthol cigarettes. We sought to test the hypothesis that menthol increases the rate of brain nicotine accumulation (BNA) during smoking and thereby enhances its addictive effects. In a counter-balanced cross-over design, 10 menthol and 9 non-menthol smokers (10 females and 9 males; mean age 44.3) underwent two study phases. In each phase, the participant smoked exclusively either menthol or non-menthol research cigarettes for approximately 1 week prior to a positron emission tomography (PET) scan session, during which the subject's head was scanned following inhalation of a single puff of smoke from a cigarette containing (11)C-nicotine. No differences in initial slope, Cmax, area under curve (AUC), and T1/2 of BNA were found between menthol and non-menthol cigarettes across all subjects; however, menthol relative to non-menthol cigarettes were associated with steeper initial slopes in men (p=0.008). Unexpectedly, women had faster BNA as indicated by greater values of the initial slope, Cmax, AUC, and shorter T1/2 than men (all ps<0.04). The rates of BNA were significantly correlated with ratings of smoking motivations of getting a 'rush', getting relaxing effects and marginally with alleviation of craving. These results do not provide strong support for the putative role of menthol in enhancing BNA, although further studies should explore the apparent effect of menthol on BNA in men. Fast BNA during smoking and preference of sensory properties of menthol cigarettes may independently or jointly contribute to smoking dependence among women.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Exposure and receptivity to cigarette advertising are well-established predictors of cigarette use overall. However, less is known about whether exposure and receptivity to advertising for specific brands of cigarettes (ie, Marlboro, Camel, and Newport) are longitudinally associated with any subsequent cigarette use and subsequent use of those specific brands. METHODS:We analyzed data from a US sample of 7325 young adults aged 18-24 years who completed both Wave 1 and Wave 2 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health study. Weighted logistic regression models were used to examine (1) among Wave 1 never-smokers, associations between Wave 1 exposure and receptivity to advertising for Marlboro, Camel, and Newport and subsequent overall and brand-specific smoking initiation at Wave 2, and (2) among Wave 1 ever-smokers, associations between Wave 1 exposure and receptivity to advertising for Marlboro, Camel, and Newport and subsequent preference of those brands at Wave 2. RESULTS:Among Wave 1 young-adult never-smokers, exposure to Camel advertising, but not Marlboro or Newport, was associated with smoking initiation with any brand of cigarettes at Wave 2. Among Wave 1 young-adult ever-smokers, receptivity to Marlboro, Camel, and Newport advertising was associated with subsequent preference for each brand, respectively, at Wave 2. CONCLUSIONS:This study found evidence for the association between receptivity to branded cigarette marketing and subsequent use of that brand. These findings provide evidence regarding the pathways through which cigarette marketing attracts young adults to use cigarettes and can inform tobacco prevention and counter-marketing efforts. IMPLICATIONS:This study extends prior work on the effects of cigarette advertising exposure and receptivity by illustrating the brand specificity of this advertising. These findings provide evidence that receptivity to branded cigarette advertising is longitudinally associated with preference for those specific cigarette brands.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Menthol, a flavoring compound added to cigarettes, makes cigarettes more appealing to youth and inexperienced smokers and increases cigarettes' abuse liability. However, limited studies are available on menthol's role in smoking progression. METHODS:To assess the association between menthol in cigarettes and progression to established smoking, we used five waves of data from the Evaluation of Public Education Campaign on Teen Tobacco Cohort Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of U.S. youth conducted as part of "The Real Cost" evaluation. We used discrete time survival analysis to model the occurrence of two event outcomes-progression to established, current smoking and progression to established, frequent smoking-using a logit model with a menthol use indicator as the key explanatory variable. Based on this framework, we estimated the effect of prior menthol use on the odds of smoking progression. RESULTS:In the progression to established, current smoking model, prior menthol use was significantly associated with progression [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)?=?1.80, p?<?.05, confidence interval (CI)?=?(1.03-3.16)]. While results were in a similar direction for the model of progression to established, frequent smoking, the association between prior menthol use and this progression model did not reach significance [aOR?=?1.56, CI?=?(0.80-3.03)]. CONCLUSION:The results suggest a relationship between using menthol cigarettes and progression from experimental to established, current smoking among youth. This study adds to a growing literature base that supports that menthol cigarettes, compared to nonmenthol cigarettes, put youth at increased risk for regular cigarette use.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:In the USA, Food and Drug Administration regulations prohibit the sale of flavoured cigarettes, with menthol being the exception. However, the manufacture, advertisement and sale of flavoured cigar products are permitted. Such flavourings influence positive perceptions of tobacco products and are linked to increased use. Flavourings may mask the taste of tobacco and enhance smoke inhalation, influencing toxicant exposure and abuse liability among novice tobacco users. Using clinical laboratory methods, this study investigates how flavour availability affects measures of abuse liability in young adult cigarette smokers. The specific aims are to evaluate the effect of cigar flavours on nicotine exposure, and behavioural and subjective measures of abuse liability. METHODS AND ANALYSES:Participants (projected n=25) are healthy smokers of five or more cigarettes per day over the past 3?months, 18-25 years old, naive to cigar use (lifetime use of 50 or fewer cigar products and no more than 10 cigars smoked in the past 30 days) and without a desire to quit cigarette smoking in the next 30 days. Participants complete five laboratory sessions in a Latin square design with either their own brand cigarette or a session-specific Black & Mild cigar differing in flavour (apple, cream, original and wine). Participants are single-blinded to cigar flavours. Each session consists of two 10-puff smoking bouts (30?s interpuff interval) separated by 1?hour. Primary outcomes include saliva nicotine concentration, behavioural economic task performance and response to various questionnaire items assessing subjective effects predictive of abuse liability. Differences in outcomes across own brand cigarette and flavoured cigar conditions will be tested using linear mixed models. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The Virginia Commonwealth University Institutional Review Board approved the study (VCU IRB: HM20007848). Dissemination channels for study findings include scientific journals, scientific meetings, and policy briefs. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT02937051.
Project description:E-cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among youth. In addition to harm potential, e-cigarette use is associated with initiating cigarette smoking. Limited research exists whether susceptibility to e-cigarette use is a risk factor for future tobacco and other substance use initiation. This study examined associations between baseline e-cigarette susceptibility and initiation and past 30-day use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes as well as initiation of marijuana and alcohol one year later, after adjusting for other risk factors and sociodemographic confounders. The study sample consisted of 5156 nationally representative youth (12-17?years) who completed both waves 1 (2013-2014) and 2 (2014-2015) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study and were never users of tobacco, marijuana, and alcohol in Wave 1. Youth who were susceptible to e-cigarettes had increased odds of initiating e-cigarettes (adjusted OR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.55-3.18), marijuana (aOR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.12-2.46), and alcohol (aOR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.26-2.06) between waves, as well as past reporting 30-day e-cigarette use (aOR: 3.64, 95% CI: 1.93-6.89) in Wave 2. Additionally, cigarette susceptibility, but not e-cigarette susceptibility, was associated with cigarette initiation (aOR: 3.36, 95% CI: 1.95-5.82) and past 30-day use (aOR: 2.83, 95% CI: 1.34-5.97). Prevention policies, as well as future research, could target youth susceptible to e-cigarettes to reduce the current trends on the use of these alternative tobacco products. Such efforts may also reduce the use of cigarettes and other substances.
Project description:Importance:The prevalence of e-cigarette use among US youth increased from 2011 to 2018. Continued monitoring of the prevalence of e-cigarette and other tobacco product use among youth is important to inform public health policy, planning, and regulatory efforts. Objective:To estimate the prevalence of e-cigarette use among US high school and middle school students in 2019 including frequency of use, brands used, and use of flavored products. Design, Setting, and Participants:Cross-sectional analyses of a school-based nationally representative sample of 19?018 US students in grades 6 to 12 participating in the 2019 National Youth Tobacco Survey. The survey was conducted from February 15, 2019, to May 24, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures:Self-reported current (past 30-day) e-cigarette use estimates among high school and middle school students; frequent use (?20 days in the past 30 days) and usual e-cigarette brand among current e-cigarette users; and use of flavored e-cigarettes and flavor types among current exclusive e-cigarette users (no use of other tobacco products) by school level and usual brand. Prevalence estimates were weighted to account for the complex sampling design. Results:The survey included 10?097 high school students (mean [SD] age, 16.1 [3.0] years; 47.5% female) and 8837 middle school students (mean [SD] age, 12.7 [2.8] years; 48.7% female). The response rate was 66.3%. An estimated 27.5% (95% CI, 25.3%-29.7%) of high school students and 10.5% (95% CI, 9.4%-11.8%) of middle school students reported current e-cigarette use. Among current e-cigarette users, an estimated 34.2% (95% CI, 31.2%-37.3%) of high school students and 18.0% (95% CI, 15.2%-21.2%) of middle school students reported frequent use, and an estimated 63.6% (95% CI, 59.3%-67.8%) of high school students and 65.4% (95% CI, 60.6%-69.9%) of middle school students reported exclusive use of e-cigarettes. Among current e-cigarette users, an estimated 59.1% (95% CI, 54.8%-63.2%) of high school students and 54.1% (95% CI, 49.1%-59.0%) of middle school students reported JUUL as their usual e-cigarette brand in the past 30 days; among current e-cigarette users, 13.8% (95% CI, 12.0%-15.9%) of high school students and 16.8% (95% CI, 13.6%-20.7%) of middle school students reported not having a usual e-cigarette brand. Among current exclusive e-cigarette users, an estimated 72.2% (95% CI, 69.1%-75.1%) of high school students and 59.2% (95% CI, 54.8%-63.4%) of middle school students used flavored e-cigarettes, with fruit, menthol or mint, and candy, desserts, or other sweets being the most commonly reported flavors. Conclusions and Relevance:In 2019, the prevalence of self-reported e-cigarette use was high among high school and middle school students, with many current e-cigarette users reporting frequent use and most of the exclusive e-cigarette users reporting use of flavored e-cigarettes.
Project description:Systematic review of research examining consumer preference for the main electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) attributes namely flavor, nicotine strength, and type.A systematic search of peer-reviewed articles resulted in a pool of 12,933 articles. We included only articles that meet all the selection criteria: (1) peer-reviewed, (2) written in English, and (3) addressed consumer preference for one or more of the e-cigarette attributes including flavor, strength, and type.66 articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Consumers preferred flavored e-cigarettes, and such preference varied with age groups and smoking status. We also found that several flavors were associated with decreased harm perception while tobacco flavor was associated with increased harm perception. In addition, some flavor chemicals and sweeteners used in e-cigarettes could be of toxicological concern. Finally, consumer preference for nicotine strength and types depended on smoking status, e-cigarette use history, and gender.Adolescents could consider flavor the most important factor trying e-cigarettes and were more likely to initiate vaping through flavored e-cigarettes. Young adults overall preferred sweet, menthol, and cherry flavors, while non-smokers in particular preferred coffee and menthol flavors. Adults in general also preferred sweet flavors (though smokers like tobacco flavor the most) and disliked flavors that elicit bitterness or harshness. In terms of whether flavored e-cigarettes assisted quitting smoking, we found inconclusive evidence. E-cigarette users likely initiated use with a cigarette like product and transitioned to an advanced system with more features. Non-smokers and inexperienced e-cigarettes users tended to prefer no nicotine or low nicotine e-cigarettes while smokers and experienced e-cigarettes users preferred medium and high nicotine e-cigarettes. Weak evidence exists regarding a positive interaction between menthol flavor and nicotine strength.