Return to School for Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant Recipients in the United States During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Expert Opinion on Key Considerations and Best Practices.
ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic has created many challenges for pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and their families. As the pandemic persists, patients and their families struggle to identify the best and safest practices for resuming activities as areas re-open. In particular, decisions about returning to school remain difficult. We assembled a team of pediatric infectious diseases, transplant infectious diseases, public health, transplant psychology, and infection prevention and control specialists to address the primary concerns about school re-entry for pediatric SOT recipients in the United States. Based on available literature and guidance from national organizations, we generated consensus statements pertaining to school re-entry specific to pediatric SOT recipients. Although data are limited, and the COVID-19 pandemic highly dynamic, our goal was to create a framework from which providers and caregivers can identify the most important considerations for each pediatric SOT recipient to promote a safe return to school this fall.
Project description:Severe acute respiratory virus syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a worldwide pandemic. Early studies in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients suggested a wide variety of presentations, however, there remains a paucity of robust data in this population. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of SOT recipients with SARS-CoV-2 infection from January 1st t October 9th, 2020. Pooled incidence of symptoms, treatments and outcomes were assessed. Two hundred and fifteen studies were included for systematic review and 60 for meta-analysis. We identified 2,772 unique SOT recipients including 1,500 kidney, 505 liver, 141 heart and 97 lung. Most common presenting symptoms were fever and cough in 70.2% and 63.8% respectively. Majority (81%) required hospital admission. Immunosuppressive medications, especially antimetabolites, were decreased in 76.2%. Hydroxychloroquine and interleukin six antagonists were administered in59.5% and 14.9% respectively, while only few patients received remdesivir and convalescent plasma. Intensive care unit admission was 29% from amongst hospitalized patients. Only few studies reported secondary infections. Overall mortality was 18.6%. Our analysis shows a high incidence of hospital admission in SOT recipients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. As management of SARS-CoV-2 continues to evolve, long-term outcomes among SOT recipients should be assessed in future studies. HIGHLIGHTS • High rate of hospital and ICU admission amongst SOT recipients with COVID-19• Fever maybe absent in up to 30% of SOT recipients with COVID-19• Majority of centers held anti-metabolites in SOT patients with COVID-19• Overall mortality in SOT recipients with COVID-19 was 20%
Project description:The concerns generated by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are having profound impact on solid organ transplantation (SOT). Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) are currently the only measures available to contain COVID-19 in the general population and in more vulnerable recipients of any organ transplant. In this cross-sectional case control study from a patient survey undertaken in 2 transplant centers (TxC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Italy, we aimed to appraise awareness of the NPI implemented by respective these governments. We have also evaluated the impact of COVID-19 on our kidney transplant (KT) recipients and a control group of kidney living donors (KLD). In our series, there were zero cases of COVID-19 among 111 KT recipients and 70 KLD of the control group. Demography, transplant type, immunosuppression regimes, and, importantly, the different COVID-19 prevalence in the 2 regions of the TxC did not appear to influence incidence of COVID-19 in our KT recipients. The absence of COVID-19 cases in our series was unexpected. Our findings suggest that awareness of NPI is associated with a successful containment of COVID-19 in vulnerable, immunosuppressed KT recipients.
Project description:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be associated with worse outcome in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. We performed a prospective cohort study of hospitalized patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, from March 15 to April 30, 2020, at two tertiary hospitals in Emilia-Romagna Region. SOT recipients were compared with non-SOT patients. Primary endpoint was all-cause 30-day mortality. Relationship between SOT status and mortality was investigated by univariable and multivariable Cox regression analysis. Patients were assessed from COVID-19 diagnosis to death or 30-day whichever occurred first. Study cohort consisted of 885 patients, of them 24 SOT recipients (n = 22, kidney, n = 2 liver). SOT recipients were younger, had lower BMI, but higher Charlson Index. At admission they presented less frequently with fever and respiratory failure. No difference in 30-day mortality between the two groups (19% vs 22.1%) was found; however, there was a trend toward higher rate of respiratory failure (50% vs 33.1%, P = .07) in SOT recipients. Superinfections were more represented in SOT recipients, (50% vs 15.5%, P < .001). At multivariate analysis adjusted for main covariates, there was no association between SOT and 30-day mortality HR 1.15 (95% CI 0.39-3.35) P = .79. Our data suggest that mortality among COVID-19 SOT recipients is similar to general population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The burden and timeline of posttransplant infections are not comprehensively documented in the current era of immunosuppression and prophylaxis. METHODS:In this prospective study nested within the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study (STCS), all clinically relevant infections were identified by transplant-infectious diseases physicians in persons receiving solid organ transplant (SOT) between May 2008 and December 2014 with ?12 months of follow-up. RESULTS:Among 3541 SOT recipients, 2761 (1612 kidney, 577 liver, 286 lung, 213 heart, and 73 kidney-pancreas) had ?12 months of follow-up; 1520 patients (55%) suffered 3520 infections during the first year posttransplantation. Burden and timelines of clinically relevant infections differed between transplantations. Bacteria were responsible for 2202 infections (63%) prevailing throughout the year, with a predominance of Enterobacteriaceae (54%) as urinary pathogens in heart, lung, and kidney transplant recipients, and as digestive tract pathogens in liver transplant recipients. Enterococcus spp (20%) occurred as urinary tract pathogens in kidney transplant recipients and as digestive tract pathogens in liver transplant recipients, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9%) in lung transplant recipients. Among 1039 viral infections, herpesviruses predominated (51%) in kidney, liver, and heart transplant recipients. Among 263 fungal infections, Candida spp (60%) prevailed as digestive tract pathogens in liver transplant recipients. Opportunistic pathogens, including Aspergillus fumigatus (1.4%) and cytomegalovirus (6%), were rare, scattering over 12 months across all SOT recipients. CONCLUSIONS:In the current era of immunosuppression and prophylaxis, SOT recipients experience a high burden of infections throughout the first year posttransplantation, with rare opportunistic pathogens and a predominance of bacteria.
Project description:Immunocompromised individuals are more susceptible to complications produced by influenza infection. As a result, solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients were targeted as a priority group to receive AS03-adjuvanted H1N1 influenza vaccine during 2009.To evaluate seroconversion after one dose of adjuvanted pandemic influenza H1N1 (pH1N1) vaccine in SOT recipients.Adult SOT recipients were enrolled to receive one 3.75 ?g dose of adjuvanted pH1N1 vaccine. Serological status was tested using a hemagglutination inhibition assay before and two and four weeks postvaccination.The five SOT recipients (one liver, two kidney and two lung transplants) had a median age of 50 years (range 36 to 53 years), and three were male, who were a median time of three years (range two months to 15 years) post-transplant. All patients were on a double or triple immunosuppressive regimen. The prevaccination pH1N1 titre was 1:10 in four patients and 1:40 in one patient. Seroprotection was observed only in one patient, with a rise in titre from 1:40 at baseline to 1:320 at both two and four weeks after vaccination. This lung transplant recipient had documented previous infection with pH1N1.Results of the present small study call into question whether one dose of adjuvanted pH1N1 vaccine can provide seroprotection in SOT recipients.
Project description:Zoonoses represent a problem of rising importance in the transplant population. A close relationship and changes between human, animal and environmental health ("One Health" concept) significantly influence the transmission and distribution of zoonotic diseases. The aim of this manuscript is to perform a narrative review of the published literature on emerging and neglected zoonoses in the transplant population. Many reports on donor-derived or naturally acquired (re-)emerging arboviral infections such as dengue, chikungunya, West Nile, tick-borne encephalitis and Zika virus infection have demonstrated atypical or more complicated clinical course in immunocompromised hosts. Hepatitis E virus has emerged as a serious problem after solid organ transplantation (SOT), leading to diverse extrahepatic manifestations and chronic hepatitis with unfavorable outcomes. Some neglected pathogens such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus can cause severe infection with multi-organ failure and high mortality. In addition, ehrlichiosis may be more severe with higher case-fatality rates in SOT recipients. Some unusual or severe presentations of borreliosis, anaplasmosis and rickettsioses were also reported among transplant patients. Moreover, toxoplasmosis as infectious complication is a well-recognized zoonosis in this population. Although rabies transmission through SOT transplantation has rarely been reported, it has become a notable problem in some countries. Since the spreading trends of zoonoses are likely to continue, the awareness, recognition and treatment of zoonotic infections among transplant professionals should be imperative.
Project description:BACKGROUND:COVID-19 infection varies in severity from minimal symptoms to critical illness associated with a hyperinflammatory response. Data on disease progression in immunosuppressed solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are limited. METHODS:We examined the electronic medical records of all SOT recipients with COVID-19 from 12 Massachusetts hospitals between February 1, and May 6, 2020. We analyzed the demographics, clinical parameters, course, and outcomes of illness in these patients. RESULTS:Of 52 COVID-19-positive SOT patients, 77% were hospitalized and 35% required ICU admission. Sixty-nine percent of hospitalized patients had immunosuppression reduced, 6% developed suspected rejection. Co-infections occurred in 45% in ICU vs 5% in non-ICU patients (P = .037). A biphasic pattern of evolution of laboratory tests was observed. In the first 5 days of illness, inflammatory markers were moderately increased. Subsequently, WBC, CRP, ferritin, and D Dimer increased with increasing stay in the ICU, and lymphocyte counts were similar. Five patients (16%) died. CONCLUSIONS:Our data indicate that SOT is associated with high rate of hospitalization, ICU admission, and death from COVID-19 compared to data in the general population of patients with COVID-19. Despite reduction in immunosuppression, suspected rejection was rare. The clinical course and trend of laboratory biomarkers is biphasic with a later, pronounced peak in inflammatory markers seen in those admitted to an ICU. CRP is a useful marker to monitor disease progression in SOT.
Project description:Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common viral infection after solid organ transplantation (SOT). Safe and effective prophylactic regimens that decrease its incidence after SOT are essential for long-term graft survival. Although valganciclovir is not Food and Drug Administration-approved for CMV prophylaxis in liver transplant recipients, postmarketing studies have shown valganciclovir to be as effective as ganciclovir in high-risk adult patients undergoing SOT. Currently, data are lacking for pediatric liver transplantation. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of valganciclovir and ganciclovir for CMV infection prophylaxis in pediatric liver transplant recipients. This was a retrospective study of 56 pediatric liver transplant recipients who were prescribed either oral ganciclovir (n = 37) or valganciclovir (n = 19). Patients were followed until 200 days after transplantation or death. The primary outcome measure compared the rates of early-onset CMV infection and CMV disease in the 2 medication groups. Secondary outcome measures identified patient-specific factors that contributed to CMV acquisition and the incidence of late-onset CMV infection or disease. The rates of adverse drug effects and discontinuation were also evaluated. Early-onset CMV disease was documented in 0% of valganciclovir patients and in 5.4% of ganciclovir patients (P = 0.54). There were no statistically significant differences in the secondary outcomes. An increased incidence of late-onset CMV disease was seen in the valganciclovir group versus the ganciclovir group (22.2% versus 8.1%, P = 0.23). No differences in adverse events were reported. In conclusion, no statistically significant differences were found in the incidence of CMV infection or disease between patients receiving oral valganciclovir and patients receiving oral ganciclovir.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:We investigated a signal of solid organ transplant (SOT) rejection after immunisation with (AS03) A/H1N1 2009 pandemic influenza vaccines. METHODS:Potential immunological mechanisms were reviewed and quantitative analyses were conducted. The feasibility of pharmacoepidemiological studies was explored. RESULTS:Overall results, including data from a pharmacoepidemiological study, support the safety of adjuvanted (AS03) pandemic influenza vaccination in SOT recipients. The regulatory commitment to evaluate the signal through a stepwise investigation was closed in 2014. CONCLUSION:Lessons learned highlight the importance of investigating plausible biological mechanisms between vaccines and potentially associated adverse outcomes, and the importance of selecting appropriate study settings and designs for safety signal investigations.
Project description:COVID-19 is a novel, rapidly changing pandemic: consequently, evidence-based recommendations in solid organ transplantation (SOT) remain challenging and unclear. To understand the impact on transplant activity across the United States, and center-level variation in testing, clinical practice, and policies, we conducted a national survey between March 24, 2020 and March 31, 2020 and linked responses to the COVID-19 incidence map. Response rate was a very high 79.3%, reflecting a strong national priority to better understand COVID-19. Complete suspension of live donor kidney transplantation was reported by 71.8% and live donor liver by 67.7%. While complete suspension of deceased donor transplantation was less frequent, some restrictions to deceased donor kidney transplantation were reported by 84.0% and deceased donor liver by 73.3%; more stringent restrictions were associated with higher regional incidence of COVID-19. Shortage of COVID-19 tests was reported by 42.5%. Respondents reported a total of 148 COVID-19 recipients from <1 to >10 years posttransplant: 69.6% were kidney recipients, and 25.0% were critically ill. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was used by 78.1% of respondents; azithromycin by 46.9%; tocilizumab by 31.3%, and remdesivir by 25.0%. There is wide heterogeneity in center-level response across the United States; ongoing national data collection, expert discussion, and clinical studies are critical to informing evidence-based practices.