Molecular characterization of the calcium release channel deficiency syndrome.
ABSTRACT: We identified a potentially novel homozygous duplication involving the promoter region and exons 1-4 of the gene encoding type 2 cardiac ryanodine receptor (RYR2) that is responsible for highly penetrant, exertion-related sudden deaths/cardiac arrests in the Amish community without an overt phenotype to suggest RYR2-mediated catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). Homozygous RYR2 duplication (RYR2-DUP) induced pluripotent stem cell cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) were generated from 2 unrelated patients. There was no difference in baseline Ca2+ handling measurements between WT-iPSC-CM and RYR2-DUP-iPSC-CM lines. However, compared with WT-iPSC-CMs, both patient lines demonstrated a dramatic reduction in caffeine-stimulated and isoproterenol-stimulated (ISO-stimulated) Ca2+ transient amplitude, suggesting RyR2 loss of function. There was a greater than 50% reduction in RYR2 transcript/RyR2 protein expression in both patient iPSC-CMs compared with WT. Delayed afterdepolarization was observed in the RYR2-DUP-iPSC-CMs but not in the WT-iPSC-CMs. Compared with WT-iPSC-CMs, there was significantly elevated arrhythmic activity in the RYR2-DUP-iPSC-CMs in response to ISO. Nadolol, propranolol, and flecainide reduced erratic activity by 8.5-fold, 6.8-fold, and 2.4-fold, respectively, from ISO challenge. Unlike the gain-of-function mechanism observed in RYR2-mediated CPVT, the homozygous multiexon duplication precipitated a dramatic reduction in RYR2 transcription and RyR2 protein translation, a loss of function in calcium handling, and a calcium-induced calcium release apparatus that is insensitive to catecholamines and caffeine.
Project description:Mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RYR2) are the leading cause for catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). In this study, we evaluated antiarrhythmic efficacy of carvedilol and flecainide in CPVT patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) carrying different mutations in RYR2. iPSC-CMs were generated from skin biopsies of CPVT patients carrying exon 3 deletion and L4115 or V4653F mutation in RYR2 and of a healthy individual. Ca2+ kinetics and drug effects were studied with Fluo-4 AM indicator. Carvedilol abolished Ca2+ abnormalities in 31% of L4115F, 36% of V4653F, and 46% of exon 3 deletion carrying CPVT cardiomyocytes and flecainide 33%, 30%, and 52%, respectively. Both drugs lowered the intracellular Ca2+ level and beating rate of the cardiomyocytes significantly. Moreover, flecainide caused abnormal Ca2+ transients in 61% of controls compared to 26% of those with carvedilol. Carvedilol and flecainide were equally effective in CPVT iPSC-CMs. However, flecainide induced arrhythmias in 61% of control cells. CPVT cardiomyocytes carrying the exon 3 deletion had the most severe Ca2+ abnormalities, but they had the best response to drug therapies. According to this study, the arrhythmia-abolishing effect of neither of the drugs is optimal. iPSC-CMs provide a unique platform for testing drugs for CPVT.
Project description:In adult cardiomyocytes (CMs), the type 2 ryanodine receptor (RYR2) is an indispensable Ca2+ release channel that ensures the integrity of excitation-contraction coupling, which is fundamental for every heartbeat. However, the role and importance of RYR2 during human embryonic cardiac development are still poorly understood. Here, we generated two human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based RYR2 knockout (RYR2-/-) lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology. We found that RYR2-/--iPSCs could differentiate into CMs with the efficiency similar to control-iPSCs (Ctrl-iPSCs); however, the survival of iPSC-CMs was markedly affected by the lack of functional RYR2. While Ctrl-iPSC-CMs exhibited regular Ca2+ handling, we observed significantly reduced frequency and intense abnormalities of Ca2+ transients in RYR2-/--iPSC-CMs. Ctrl-iPSC-CMs displayed sensitivity to extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+ ]o) and caffeine in a concentration-dependent manner, while RYR2-/--iPSC-CMs showed inconsistent reactions to [Ca2+ ]o and were insensitive to caffeine, indicating there is no RYR2-mediated Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Instead, compensatory mechanism for calcium handling in RYR2-/--iPSC-CMs is partially mediated by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R). Similar to Ctrl-iPSC-CMs, SR Ca2+ refilling in RYR2-/--iPSC-CMs is mediated by SERCA. Additionally, RYR2-/--iPSC-CMs showed a decreased beating rate and a reduced peak amplitude of L-type Ca2+ current. These findings demonstrate that RYR2 is not required for CM lineage commitment but is important for CM survival and contractile function. IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release is one of the major compensatory mechanisms for Ca2+ cycling in human CMs with the RYR2 deficiency.
Project description:Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a highly malignant inherited arrhythmogenic disorder. Type 1 CPVT (CPVT1) is caused by cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) gene mutations resulting in abnormal calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum. Dantrolene, an inhibitor of sarcoplasmic Ca(2+) release, has been shown to rescue this abnormal Ca(2+) release in vitro. We assessed the antiarrhythmic efficacy of dantrolene in six patients carrying various RyR2 mutations causing CPVT. The patients underwent exercise stress test before and after dantrolene infusion. Dantrolene reduced the number of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) on average by 74% (range 33-97) in four patients with N-terminal or central mutations in the cytosolic region of the RyR2 protein, while dantrolene had no effect in two patients with mutations in or near the transmembrane domain. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from all the patients and differentiated into spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes (CMs). The antiarrhythmic effect of dantrolene was studied in CMs after adrenaline stimulation by Ca(2+) imaging. In iPSC derived CMs with RyR2 mutations in the N-terminal or central region, dantrolene suppressed the Ca(2+) cycling abnormalities in 80% (range 65-97) of cells while with mutations in or near the transmembrane domain only in 23 or 32% of cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate that dantrolene given intravenously shows antiarrhythmic effects in a portion of CPVT1 patients and that iPSC derived CM models replicate these individual drug responses. These findings illustrate the potential of iPSC models to individualize drug therapy of inherited diseases.Trial Registration: EudraCT Clinical Trial Registry 2012-005292-14.
Project description:Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is an inherited arrhythmia characterized by syncope and sudden death occurring during exercise or acute emotion. CPVT is caused by abnormal intracellular Ca(2+) handling resulting from mutations in the RyR2 or CASQ2 genes. Because CASQ2 and RyR2 are involved in different aspects of the excitation-contraction coupling process, we hypothesized that these mutations are associated with different functional and intracellular Ca(²+) abnormalities. To test the hypothesis we generated induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CM) from CPVT1 and CPVT2 patients carrying the RyR2(R420Q) and CASQ2(D307H) mutations, respectively, and investigated in CPVT1 and CPVT2 iPSC-CM (compared to control): (i) The ultrastructural features; (ii) the effects of isoproterenol, caffeine and ryanodine on the [Ca(2+) ]i transient characteristics. Our major findings were: (i) Ultrastructurally, CASQ2 and RyR2 mutated cardiomyocytes were less developed than control cardiomyocytes. (ii) While in control iPSC-CM isoproterenol caused positive inotropic and lusitropic effects, in the mutated cardiomyocytes isoproterenol was either ineffective, caused arrhythmias, or markedly increased diastolic [Ca(2+) ]i . Importantly, positive inotropic and lusitropic effects were not induced in mutated cardiomyocytes. (iii) The effects of caffeine and ryanodine in mutated cardiomyocytes differed from control cardiomyocytes. Our results show that iPSC-CM are useful for investigating the similarities/differences in the pathophysiological consequences of RyR2 versus CASQ2 mutations underlying CPVT1 and CPVT2 syndromes.
Project description:Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) offer a unique opportunity for developmental studies, disease modeling and regenerative medicine approaches in humans. The aim of our study was to create an in vitro 'patient-specific cell-based system' that could facilitate the screening of new therapeutic molecules for the treatment of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), an inherited form of fatal arrhythmia. Here, we report the development of a cardiac model of CPVT through the generation of iPSC from a CPVT patient carrying a heterozygous mutation in the cardiac ryanodine receptor gene (RyR2) and their subsequent differentiation into cardiomyocytes (CMs). Whole-cell patch-clamp and intracellular electrical recordings of spontaneously beating cells revealed the presence of delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) in CPVT-CMs, both in resting conditions and after ?-adrenergic stimulation, resembling the cardiac phenotype of the patients. Furthermore, treatment with KN-93 (2-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl)]-N-(4methoxybenzenesulfonyl)]amino-N-(4-chlorocinnamyl)-N-methylbenzylamine), an antiarrhythmic drug that inhibits Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent serine-threonine protein kinase II (CaMKII), drastically reduced the presence of DADs in CVPT-CMs, rescuing the arrhythmic phenotype induced by catecholaminergic stress. In addition, intracellular calcium transient measurements on 3D beating clusters by fast resolution optical mapping showed that CPVT clusters developed multiple calcium transients, whereas in the wild-type clusters, only single initiations were detected. Such instability is aggravated in the presence of isoproterenol and is attenuated by KN-93. As seen in our RyR2 knock-in CPVT mice, the antiarrhythmic effect of KN-93 is confirmed in these human iPSC-derived cardiac cells, supporting the role of this in vitro system for drug screening and optimization of clinical treatment strategies.
Project description:Flecainide blocks ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) channels in the open state, suppresses arrhythmogenic Ca2+ waves and prevents catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) in mice and humans. We hypothesized that differences in RyR2 activity induced by CPVT mutations determines the potency of open-state RyR2 blockers like flecainide (FLEC) and R-propafenone (RPROP) against Ca2+ waves in cardiomyocytes. Using confocal microscopy, we studied Ca2+ sparks and waves in isolated saponin-permeabilized ventricular myocytes from two CPVT mouse models (Casq2-/-, RyR2-R4496C+/-), wild-type (c57bl/6, WT) mice, and WT rabbits (New Zealand white rabbits). Consistent with increased RyR2 activity, Ca2+ spark and wave frequencies were significantly higher in CPVT compared to WT mouse myocytes. We next obtained concentration-response curves of Ca2+ wave inhibition for FLEC, RPROP (another open-state RyR2 blocker), and tetracaine (TET) (a state-independent RyR2 blocker). Both FLEC and RPROP inhibited Ca2+ waves with significantly higher potency (lower IC50) and efficacy in CPVT compared to WT. In contrast, TET had similar potency in all groups studied. Increasing RyR2 activity of permeabilized WT myocytes by exposure to caffeine (150 µM) increased the potency of FLEC and RPROP but not of TET. RPROP and FLEC were also significantly more potent in rabbit ventricular myocytes that intrinsically exhibit higher Ca2+ spark rates than WT mouse ventricular myocytes. In conclusion, RyR2 activity determines the potency of open-state blockers FLEC and RPROP for suppressing arrhythmogenic Ca2+ waves in cardiomyocytes, a mechanism likely relevant to antiarrhythmic drug efficacy in CPVT.
Project description:Derivation of cardiomyocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS-CMs) allowed us to probe the Ca(2+)-signaling parameters of human iPS-CMs from healthy- and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT1)-afflicted individuals carrying a novel point mutation p.F2483I in ryanodine receptors (RyR2). iPS-CMs were dissociated on day 30-40 of differentiation and patch-clamped within 3-6 days. Calcium currents (ICa) averaged ?8pA/pF in control and mutant iPS-CMs. ICa-induced Ca(2+)-transients in control and mutant cells had bell-shaped voltage-dependence similar to that of ICa, consistent with Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+)-release (CICR) mechanism. The ratio of ICa-activated to caffeine-triggered Ca(2+)-transients was ?0.3 in both cell types. Caffeine-induced Ca(2+)-transients generated significantly smaller Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger current (INCX) in mutant cells, reflecting their smaller Ca(2+)-stores. The gain of CICR was voltage-dependent as in adult cardiomyocytes. Adrenergic agonists enhanced ICa, but differentially altered the CICR gain, diastolic Ca(2+), and Ca(2+)-sparks in mutant cells. The mutant cells, when Ca(2+)-overloaded, showed longer and wandering Ca(2+)-sparks that activated adjoining release sites, had larger CICR gain at -30mV yet smaller Ca(2+)-stores. We conclude that control and mutant iPS-CMs express the adult cardiomyocyte Ca(2+)-signaling phenotype. RyR2 F2483I mutant myocytes have aberrant unitary Ca(2+)-signaling, smaller Ca(2+)-stores, higher CICR gains, and sensitized adrenergic regulation, consistent with functionally altered Ca(2+)-release profile of CPVT syndrome.
Project description:Mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channel (RyR2) can cause deadly ventricular arrhythmias and atrial fibrillation (AF). The RyR2-P2328S mutation produces catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) and AF in hearts from homozygous RyR2P2328S/P2328S (denoted RyR2S/S) mice. We have now examined P2328S RyR2 channels from RyR2S/S hearts. The activity of wild-type (WT) and P2328S RyR2 channels was similar at a cytoplasmic [Ca2+] of 1 mM, but P2328S RyR2 was significantly more active than WT at a cytoplasmic [Ca2+] of 1 µM. This was associated with a >10-fold shift in the half maximal activation concentration (AC50) for Ca2+ activation, from ∼3.5 µM Ca2+ in WT RyR2 to ∼320 nM in P2328S channels and an unexpected >1000-fold shift in the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for inactivation from ∼50 mM in WT channels to ≤7 μM in P2328S channels, which is into systolic [Ca2+] levels. Unexpectedly, the shift in Ca2+ activation was not associated with changes in sub-conductance activity, S2806 or S2814 phosphorylation or the level of FKBP12 (also known as FKBP1A) bound to the channels. The changes in channel activity seen with the P2328S mutation correlate with altered Ca2+ homeostasis in myocytes from RyR2S/S mice and the CPVT and AF phenotypes.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
Project description:Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia type 2 (CPVT2) is a highly lethal recessive arrhythmogenic disease caused by mutations in the calsequestrin-2 (CASQ2) gene. We have previously demonstrated that viral transfer of the wild-type (WT) CASQ2 gene prevents the development of CPVT2 in a genetically induced mouse model of the disease homozygous carrier of the R33Q mutation. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of the virally mediated gene therapy in cardiomyocytes (CMs) differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) obtained from a patient carrying the homozygous CASQ2-G112+5X mutation. To this end, we infected cells with an Adeno-Associated Viral vector serotype 9 (AAV9) encoding the human CASQ2 gene (AAV9-hCASQ2). Administration of the human WT CASQ2 gene was capable and sufficient to restore the physiological expression of calsequestrin-2 protein and to rescue functional defects of the patient-specific iPSC-derived CMs. Indeed, after viral gene transfer, we observed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) developed by the diseased CMs upon adrenergic stimulation, the calcium transient amplitude was re-established and the density and duration of calcium sparks were normalized. We therefore demonstrate the efficacy of the AAV9-mediated gene replacement therapy for CPVT2 in a human cardiac-specific model system, supporting the view that the gene-therapy tested is curative in models with different human mutations of CPVT.
Project description:Beat-to-beat alternations in the amplitude of the cytosolic Ca2+ transient (Ca2+ alternans) are thought to be the primary cause of cardiac alternans that can lead to cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Despite its important role in arrhythmogenesis, the mechanism underlying Ca2+ alternans remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2), the major Ca2+ release channel responsible for cytosolic Ca2+ transients, in cardiac alternans. Using a unique mouse model harboring a suppression-of-function (SOF) RyR2 mutation (E4872Q), we assessed the effect of genetically suppressing RyR2 function on Ca2+ and action potential duration (APD) alternans in intact hearts, and electrocardiogram (ECG) alternans in vivo We found that RyR2-SOF hearts displayed prolonged sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release refractoriness and enhanced propensity for Ca2+ alternans. RyR2-SOF hearts/mice also exhibited increased propensity for APD and ECG alternans. Caffeine, which enhances RyR2 activity and the propensity for catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), suppressed Ca2+ alternans in RyR2-SOF hearts, whereas carvedilol, a ?-blocker that suppresses RyR2 activity and CPVT, promoted Ca2+ alternans in these hearts. Thus, RyR2 function is an important determinant of Ca2+, APD, and ECG alternans. Our data also indicate that the activity of RyR2 influences the propensity for cardiac alternans and CPVT in an opposite manner. Therefore, overly suppressing or enhancing RyR2 function is pro-arrhythmic.