Age- and season-dependent pattern of flavonol glycosides in Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine leaves.
ABSTRACT: Flavonols play key roles in many plant defense mechanisms, consequently they are frequently investigated as stress sensitive factors in relation to several oxidative processes. It is well known that grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) can synthesize various flavonol glycosides in the leaves, however, very little information is available regarding their distribution along the cane at different leaf levels. In this work, taking into consideration of leaf position, the main flavonol glycosides of a red grapevine cultivar (Cabernet Sauvignon) were profiled and quantified by HPLC-DAD analysis. It was found that amount of four flavonol glycosides, namely, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide decreased towards the shoot tip. Since leaf age also decreases towards the shoot tip, the obtained results suggest that these compounds continuously formed by leaf aging, resulting in their accumulation in the older leaves. In contrast, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (predominant form) and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside were not accumulated significantly by aging. We also pointed out that grapevine boosted the flavonol biosynthesis in September, and flavonol profile differed significantly in the two seasons. Our results contribute to the better understanding of the role of flavonols in the antioxidant defense system of grapevine.
Project description:The ramp (Allium tricoccum) is a traditional plant in the eastern Appalachian Mountains. Ramps have been used in traditional medicine for their health-promoting roles in lowering blood pressure and cholesterol. Information on the chemical composition of the potentially bioactive components in ramps is limited. Therefore, the aim of this work was to characterize and quantify major flavonols in ramps. Flavonoids were extracted in 50% methanol and 3% acetic acid. Characterization was conducted using UHPLC-PDA-MS and MS/MS, and quantification was performed using UHPLC-PDA detection. The major flavonol glycosides were kaempferol sophoroside glucuronide, quercetin sophoroside glucuronide, kaempferol rutinoside glucuronide, quercetin hexoside glucuronide, quercetin sophoroside, and kaempferol sophoroside. All conjugates were detected in leaves. Quercetin and kaempferol sophoroside glucuronide conjugates were detected in the stem, but no flavonol glycosides were detected in the bulb. The total amounts of the identified quercetin and kaempferol conjugates in whole ramps were 0.5972 ± 0.235 and 0.3792 ± 0.130 mg/g dry weight, respectively. Flavonol conjugates were concentrated in the leaves. To our knowledge, this work is the first to identify and quantify the major flavonol glycosides in ramps. Our findings suggest that specifically the leaves may harbor the potentially bioactive flavonols components of the plant.
Project description:Exposure to solar radiation is a determining factor of grape composition. Flavonol synthesis is upregulated by solar radiation leaving a fingerprint on flavonol profile. This study aimed to test the factors affecting flavonol accumulation and profile and their potential as an indicator to assess the overall exposure of red wine grape berry to solar radiation. We performed three experiments to study the response of flavonol accumulation and profile to (1) three different solar radiation exclusion treatments during berry development; (2) canopy porosity and leaf area index (LAI); and (3) spatial variability of water status, vigor and ripening and cultural practices in commercial vineyards. Results showed a strong relationship between global radiation, inverse dormant pruning weights or canopy porosity (inversely proportional to LAI) and % kaempferol or % quercetin. Furthermore, the increase in concentration of the above two flavonols was associated with a reduction of % myricetin. Total flavonol content, % kaempferol, % quercetin, and % myricetin had significant correlations with inverse dormant pruning weights, but these were less sensitive to over-ripening or water deficits. Flavonol profile was associated to site hydrology (wetness index) through changes in vigor, and to LAI; and responded to shoot thinning or fruit-zone leaf removal. These results support the reliability of the flavonol profile as an assessment parameter for studies aiming to discuss canopy architecture or the effect of solar radiation on grapevine berries.
Project description:UGT79B31 encodes flavonol 3- O -glycoside: 2?- O -glucosyltransferase, an enzyme responsible for the terminal modification of pollen-specific flavonols in Petunia hybrida. Flavonoids are known to be involved in pollen fertility in petunia (P. hybrida) and maize (Zea mays). As a first step toward elucidating the role of flavonoids in pollen, we have identified a glycosyltransferase that is responsible for the terminal modification of petunia pollen-specific flavonoids. An in silico search of the petunia transcriptome database revealed four candidate UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes. UGT79B31 was selected for further analyses based on a correlation between the accumulation pattern of flavonol glycosides in various tissues and organs and the expression profiles of the candidate genes. Arabidopsis ugt79b6 mutants that lacked kaempferol/quercetin 3-O-glucosyl(1 ? 2)glucosides, were complemented by transformation with UGT79B31 cDNA under the control of Arabidopsis UGT79B6 promoter, showing that UGT79B31 functions as a flavonol 3-O-glucoside: 2?-O-glucosyltransferase in planta. Recombinant UGT79B31 protein can convert kaempferol 3-O-galactoside/glucoside to kaempferol 3-O-glucosyl(1 ? 2)galactoside/glucoside. UGT79B31 prefers flavonol 3-O-galactosides to the 3-O-glucosides and rarely accepted the 3-O-diglycosides as sugar acceptors. UDP-glucose was the preferred sugar donor for UGT79B31. These results indicated that UGT79B31 encodes a flavonoid 3-O-glycoside: 2?-O-glucosyltransferase. Transient expression of UGT79B31 fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) in Nicotiana benthamiana showed that UGT79B31 protein was localized in the cytosol.
Project description:Flavonol 3-O-diglucosides with a 1→2 inter-glycosidic linkage are representative pollen-specific flavonols that are widely distributed in plants, but their biosynthetic genes and physiological roles are not well understood. Flavonoid analysis of four Arabidopsis floral organs (pistils, stamens, petals and calyxes) and flowers of wild-type and male sterility 1 (ms1) mutants, which are defective in normal development of pollen and tapetum, showed that kaempferol/quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosides accumulated in Arabidopsis pollen. Microarray data using wild-type and ms1 mutants, gene expression patterns in various organs, and phylogenetic analysis of UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) suggest that UGT79B6 (At5g54010) is a key modification enzyme for determining pollen-specific flavonol structure. Kaempferol and quercetin 3-O-glucosyl-(1→2)-glucosides were absent from two independent ugt79b6 knockout mutants. Transgenic ugt79b6 mutant lines transformed with the genomic UGT79B6 gene had the same flavonoid profile as wild-type plants. Recombinant UGT79B6 protein converted kaempferol 3-O-glucoside to kaempferol 3-O-glucosyl-(1→2)-glucoside. UGT79B6 recognized 3-O-glucosylated/galactosylated anthocyanins/flavonols but not 3,5- or 3,7-diglycosylated flavonoids, and prefers UDP-glucose, indicating that UGT79B6 encodes flavonoid 3-O-glucoside:2″-O-glucosyltransferase. A UGT79B6-GUS fusion showed that UGT79B6 was localized in tapetum cells and microspores of developing anthers.
Project description:Hyaluronidase enzyme (HAase) has a role in the dissolution or disintegration of hyaluronic acid (HA) and in maintaining the heathy state of skin. Bioassay-guided fractionation of Ravenala madagascariensis (Sonn.) organ extracts (leaf, flower, stem, and root) testing for hyaluronidase inhibition was performed followed by metabolic profiling using LC-HRMS. Additionally, a hyaluronidase docking study was achieved using Molecular Operating Environment (MOE). Results showed that the crude hydroalcoholic (70% EtOH) extract of the leaves as well as its n-butanol (n-BuOH) partition showed higher HAase activity with 64.3% inhibition. Metabolic analysis of R. madagascariensis resulted in the identification of 19 phenolic compounds ranging from different chemical classes (flavone glycosides, flavonol glycosides, and flavanol aglycones). Bioassay-guided purification of the leaf n-BuOH partition led to the isolation of seven compounds that were identified as narcissin, rutin, epiafzelechin, epicatechin, isorhamnetin 7-O-glucoside, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin-7-O-rutinoside. The docking study showed that narcissin, rutin, and quercetin 3-O-glucoside all interact with HAase through hydrogen bonding with the Asp111, Gln271, and/or Glu113 residues. Our results highlight Ravenala madagascariensis and its flavonoids as promising hyaluronidase inhibitors in natural cosmetology preparations for skin care.
Project description:Flavonols constitute a group of flavonoids with important photoprotective roles in plants. In addition, flavonol content and composition greatly influences fruit quality. We previously demonstrated that the grapevine R2R3-MYB transcription factor VviMYBF1 promotes flavonol accumulation by inducing the expression of flavonol synthase (VviFLS1/VviFLS4), a key step of the initial flavonol pathway. Despite this, gene networks underlying flavonol modification in grapevine including both structural and regulatory genes remain poorly understood. In order to identify flavonol modifying genes and transcription factors acting downstream of VviMYBF1 a microarray-based transcriptome analysis was performed on grapevine hairy roots ectopically expressing VviMYBF1 or a Green Fluorescent Protein as control. VviFLS1 was induced in VviMYBF1 transgenic roots and flavonols, mainly quercetin 3-glucoside and quercetin 3-galactoside, accumulated significantly compared with control lines. Among the differentially expressed genes, potential flavonol-modifying enzymes with predicted rhamnosyltransferase (e.g. RhaT1) or glycosyltransferase (e.g. GT3) activities were identified. In addition, important transcription factors of the MYB and bZIP families such as the proanthocyanidin regulator VviMYBPA1 and the UV-B light responsive HY5 homologue VviHYH were significantly altered in their expression pattern by overexpression of VviMYBF1. In silico promoter sequence analysis confirmed that the significantly differentially expressed genes contained binding sites similar to known MYB recognition elements. Co-temporal expression analysis demonstrated positive correlation of VviMYBF1 and accumulation of glycosylated flavonols with VviGT3 and VviRhaT1 during berry development and in fruits ripened with different light and UV-B radiation conditions at field. These results show that VviMYBF1 overexpression led to the identification of novel genes of the flavonol pathway and that the flavonol modifying machinery can be influenced by agricultural practices to optimize flavonol composition in grapes. Overall design: Transgenic hairy roots were generated by infiltration of Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Chardonnay’ leaves with Agrobacterium rhizogenes carrying either VviMYBF1 or GFP (control) cDNA. To analyze differential gene expression between VviMYBF1 and GFP control hairy roots, total RNA was extracted from stable transgenic lines and subsequent array hybridization and microarray analysis was performed using the custom Affymetrix GrapeGen chip.
Project description:Phenolic compounds represent a large class of secondary metabolites, involved in multiple functions not only in plant life cycle, but also in fruit during post-harvest. phenolics play a key role in the response to biotic and abiotic stresses, thus their accumulation is regulated by the presence of environmental stimuli. The present work aimed to investigate how different pre-UV-B-exposures can modulate the phenolic response of peach fruit infected with Monilinia fructicola. Through HPLC-DAD-MSn, several procyanidins, phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins were detected. Both UV-B radiation and fungal infection were able to stimulate the accumulation of phenolics, dependent on the chemical structure. Regarding UV-B exposure, inoculated with sterile water, 3 h of UV-B radiation highest concentration of phenolics was found, especially flavonols and cyanidin-3-glucoside far from the wound. However, wounding decreased the phenolics in the region nearby. When peaches were pre-treated with 1 h of UV-B radiation, the fungus had an additive effect in phenolic accumulation far from the infection, while it had a subtractive effect with 3 h of UV-B radiation, especially for flavonols. Canonical discriminant analysis and Pearson correlation revealed that all phenolic compounds, except procyanidin dimer, were highly regulated by UV-B radiation, with particularly strong correlation for quercetin and kaempferol glycosides, while phenolics correlated with the fungus infection were quercetin-3-galactoside, quercetin-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-galactoside and isorhamnetin-3-glucoside. Modulation of pathogen-induced phenolics also far from inoculation site might suggest a migration of signaling molecules from the infected area to healthy tissues.
Project description:Among secondary metabolites, flavonoids are particularly crucial for plant growth, development, and reproduction, as well as beneficial for maintenance of human health. As a flowering plant, safflower has synthesized a striking variety of flavonoids with various pharmacologic properties. However, far less research has been carried out on the genes involved in the biosynthetic pathways that generate these amazing flavonoids, especially characterized quinochalcones. In this study, we first cloned and investigated the participation of a presumed flavanone 3-hydroxylase gene (F3H) from safflower (CtF3H) in a flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.Bioinformation analysis showed that CtF3H shared high conserved residues and confidence with F3H from other plants. Subcellular localization uncovered the nuclear and cytosol localization of CtF3H in onion epidermal cells. The functional expressions of CtF3H in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS cells in the pMAL-C5x vector led to the production of dihydrokaempferol when naringenin was the substrate. Furthermore, the transcriptome expression of CtF3H showed a diametrically opposed expression pattern in a quinochalcone-type safflower line (with orange-yellow flowers) and a flavonol-type safflower line (with white flowers) under external stimulation by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which has been identified as an elicitor of flavonoid metabolites. Further metabolite analysis showed the increasing tendency of quinochalcones and flavonols, such as hydroxysafflor yellow A, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-β-rutinoside, rutin, carthamin, and luteolin, in the quinochalcone-type safflower line. Also, the accumulation of kaempferol-3-O-β-rutinoside and kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside in flavonols-typed safflower line showed enhanced accumulation pattern after MeJA treatment. However, other flavonols, such as kaempferol, dihydrokaempferol and quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside, in flavonols-typed safflower line presented down accumulation respond to MeJA stimulus.Our results showed that the high expression of CtF3H in quinochalcone-type safflower line was associated with the accumulation of both quinochalcones and flavonols, whereas its low expression did not affect the increased accumulation of glycosylated derivatives (kaempferol-3-O-β-rutinoside and rutin) in flavonols-typed safflower line but affect the upstream precursors (D-phenylalanine, dihydrokaempferol, kaempferol), which partly revealed the function of CtF3H in different phenotypes and chemotypes of safflower lines.
Project description:Anoectochilus roxburghii is a traditional Chinese herb with high medicinal value, with main bioactive constituents which are flavonoids. It commonly associates with mycorrhizal fungi for its growth and development. Moreover, mycorrhizal fungi can induce changes in the internal metabolism of host plants. However, its role in the flavonoid accumulation in A. roxburghii at different growth stages is not well studied. In this study, combined metabolome and transcriptome analyses were performed to investigate the metabolic and transcriptional profiling in mycorrhizal A. roxburghii (M) and non-mycorrhizal A. roxburghii (NM) growth for six months. An association analysis revealed that flavonoid biosynthetic pathway presented significant differences between the M and NM. Additionally, the structural genes related to flavonoid synthesis and different flavonoid metabolites in both groups over a period of six months were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The results showed that Ceratobasidium sp. AR2 could increase the accumulation of five flavonol-glycosides (i.e., narcissin, rutin, isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-d-glucoside, quercetin-7-O-glucoside, and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside), two flavonols (i.e., quercetin and isorhamnetin), and two flavones (i.e., nobiletin and tangeretin) to some degrees. The qRT-PCR showed that the flavonoid biosynthetic genes (PAL, 4CL, CHS, GT, and RT) were significantly differentially expressed between the M and NM. Overall, our findings indicate that AR2 induces flavonoid metabolism in A. roxburghii during different growth stages, especially in the third month. This shows great potential of Ceratobasidium sp. AR2 for the quality improvement of A. roxburghii.
Project description:Flavonol glycosides (FGs) are major components of soybean leaves and there are substantial differences in FG composition among genotypes. The first objective of this study was to identify genes responsible for FG biosynthesis and to locate them in the soybean genome. The second objective was to clone the candidate genes and to verify their function. Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed from a cross between cultivars Nezumisaya and Harosoy.HPLC comparison with authentic samples suggested that FGs having glucose at the 2?-position of glucose or galactose that is bound to the 3-position of kaempferol were present in Nezumisaya, whereas FGs of Harosoy were devoid of 2?-glucose. Conversely, FGs having glucose at the 6?-position of glucose or galactose that is bound to the 3-position of kaempferol were present in Harosoy, whereas these FGs were absent in Nezumisaya. Genetic analysis suggested that two genes control the pattern of attachment of these sugar moieties in FGs. One of the genes may be responsible for attachment of glucose to the 2?-position, probably encoding for a flavonol 3-O-glucoside/galactoside (1???2) glucosyltransferase. Nezumisaya may have a dominant whereas Harosoy may have a recessive allele of the gene. Based on SSR analysis, linkage mapping and genome database survey, we cloned a candidate gene designated as GmF3G2?Gt in the molecular linkage group C2 (chromosome 6). The open reading frame of GmF3G2?Gt is 1380 bp long encoding 459 amino acids with four amino acid substitutions among the cultivars. The GmF3G2?Gt recombinant protein converted kaempferol 3-O-glucoside to kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside. GmF3G2?Gt of Nezumisaya showed a broad activity for kaempferol/quercetin 3-O-glucoside/galactoside derivatives but it did not glucosylate kaempferol 3-O-rhamnosyl-(1???4)-[rhamnosyl-(1???6)-glucoside] and 3-O-rhamnosyl-(1???4)-[glucosyl-(1???6)-glucoside].GmF3G2?Gt encodes a flavonol 3-O-glucoside/galactoside (1???2) glucosyltransferase and corresponds to the Fg3 gene. GmF3G2?Gt was designated as UGT79B30 by the UGT Nomenclature Committee. Based on substrate specificity of GmF3G2?Gt, 2?-glucosylation of flavonol 3-O-glycoside may be irreconcilable with 4?-glycosylation in soybean leaves.