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Chemical and flavor profile changes of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) during primary fermentation.


ABSTRACT: This survey reports for the first time the changed of quality of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans. The quality evaluation and simultaneous detection of amino acids, flavor, procyanidin, color, fat, protein, antioxidant activity, and enthalpy were obtained for different fermentation stages of cocoa beans. The results showed that total essential amino acids contents ranged from 2.64 g/100 g to 3.68 g/100 g. A total of 88 compounds identified at the end of the fermentation belonged to alcohols, acids, esters, ketones, pyrazines, aldehydes, and terpenoids. One of the chemical groups that were present in highest abundance in the consummation treatments was acids, representing 56.04% of the total extracted area, followed by alcohols (22.95%) and ketones (9.40%). The colors of the beans in different fermentation stages were different, from deep purple to deep red-brown. Fermented cocoa beans were shown to be 53.45% and 13.51% bean butter and protein content, respectively. The value of denaturation enthalpy (?H) ranged from 30.4 (J/g) to 43.38 (J/g). The 3-day fermented sample had the highest ?H (43.38 J/g). When the fermentation process was complete, the procyanidin concentration of the beans decreased, with the final yield of procyanidin at 6.2%. During fermentation, the antioxidant capacity of beans gradually reduced. The fermenting of cocoa beans had a significant effect on the quality formation. The findings of this study constitute a basis for further investigations on the quality formation of cocoa during fermentation.

SUBMITTER: Fang Y 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7455942 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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