Opioid use and misuse: health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions.
ABSTRACT: Objective: To provide a broad overview of the state of drug misuse research, particularly focusing on opioid drug use in the U.S.A. Design: An overview of published reviews of the literature. Results: Prescription opioid use has increased globally from 2008 to 2013, while use of opiates such as heroin and opium have remained stable in many countries, although, decreases have been observed in parts of Europe. Opioid misuse is highest in the United States; approximately 11.8 million Americans misused opioids in 2016. Demographic, genetic, psychosocial and structural/environmental factors all play a role in determining who will become an opioid misuser. Strategies such as increased prescribing of non-opioid derived pain relievers, expansion of medication treatment, distribution of naloxone for overdose reversal and supervised consumption sites are some of the solutions posed to reduce the spread and consequences of opioid misuse. Conclusion: Research focused on understanding of opioid neurobiology, as well as empirically based, effective alternatives to pain management and implementation studies on combined prevention and treatment approaches are needed. It will take the combined effort of community members, healthcare professionals, policymakers and researchers in order to prevent and treat opioid misuse.
Project description:Background. Prescription opioids are the most frequently misused class of prescription drug among young adults aged 18-25, yet trajectories of opioid misuse and escalation are understudied. We sought to model opioid misuse patterns and relationships between opioid misuse, sociodemographic factors, and other substance uses. Methods. Participants were 575 young adults age 16-25 who had misused opioids in the last 90 days. Latent class analysis was performed with models based on years of misuse, recency of misuse, and alternate modes of administration within the past 12 months, 3 months, and 30 days. Results. Four latent classes emerged that were differentially associated with heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine use, tranquilizer misuse, daily opioid misuse, and opioid withdrawal. Alternate modes of administering opioids were associated with increased risk for these outcomes. Sociodemographic factors, homelessness, prescription history, and history of parental drug use were significantly associated with riskier opioid misuse trajectories. Conclusion. Young adults who reported more debilitating experiences as children and adolescents misused opioids longer and engaged in higher risk alternate modes of administering opioids. Data on decisions both to use and to alter a drug's form can be combined to describe patterns of misuse over time and predict important risk behaviors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:US opioid overdose deaths continue to climb, with a 12.0% increase from 2016 to 2017. Fentanyl, a synthetic opioid, has been a major contributor to opioid-related overdose deaths. While fentanyl-related overdose is driven by illicit fentanyl, little is known about individuals who misuse prescription fentanyl, which is also linked to elevated overdose and mortality risk. This work aimed to fill that gap through analyses of prescription fentanyl misuse correlates. METHODS:Data were from the 2015-16 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N?=?114,043), a nationally representative survey of the non-institutionalized US population. Respondents were (all past-year): those misusing prescription fentanyl (PF); those misusing other (non-fentanyl) prescription opioids (NFPO); and population controls. Respondent groups were compared using multinomial regression on sociodemographics, physical health, mental health and substance use. The PF and NFPO misuse groups were compared on opioid misuse characteristics, using logistic regression. RESULTS:An estimated 4.4% misused NFPO, and 0.1% misused PF (past-year). Past-year heroin use was more common in those who misused PF (44.3%) than those who misused other NFPO (4.4%; relative risk ratio [RRR]?=?7.1, 95%CI?=?3.7-13.9) or population controls (0.1%, RRR?=?35.1, 95%CI?=?17.3-71.1). Non-alcohol substance use disorder (SUD) was similarly elevated in those who misused PF (78.7%) versus the other NFPO group (27.5%, RRR?=?3.8, 95%CI?=?1.8-8.2) or population controls (1.6%, RRR?=?20.6, 95%CI?=?9.4-45.5). CONCLUSIONS:Respondents who misused prescription fentanyl were both more drug-involved generally and opioid-involved specifically; and likely need a combination of significant interventions and monitoring for their polysubstance use.
Project description:Prior research has shown associations between opioid misuse and suicidal behaviors, but the relationship between medical opioid use and suicidal behaviors is not known. We assessed associations of opioid use and misuse with suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts among adults aged 18-64 years (n = 86,186) using nationally representative cross-sectional data from the 2015 and 2016 administrations of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate associations between opioid use/misuse and suicidal behaviors and propensity score-weighted logistic regression analysis to examine the counterfactual scenario in which persons with misuse had instead not misused opioids. In propensity score-weighted analyses, compared with opioid misuse, opioid use without misuse was associated with lower odds of suicidal ideation (odds ratio (OR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.45, 0.72) and suicide plans (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.80), and no use was associated with lower odds of suicidal ideation (OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.80), suicide plans (OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.79), and suicide attempts (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.89). These findings suggest that opioid misuse is associated with greater odds of suicidal behaviors, but opioid use without misuse is not. Compared with persons with opioid misuse, similar persons without misuse have a reduced risk of suicidal behaviors. Clinical and public health interventions should focus on preventing misuse of opioids.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Prescription opioids were responsible for approximately 17,000 deaths in the U.S. in 2016. One in five prescription opioid deaths also involve alcohol. Drinkers who misuse prescription opioids (i.e., use without a prescription or use only for the experience or feeling it causes) are at a heightened risk of overdose. However, little is known about the relationship between drinking patterns and prescription opioid misuse. METHODS:Data were analyzed from 160,812 individuals (aged ?12 years) who responded to questions about prescription opioid misuse and alcohol consumption in the 2012, 2013, or 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (analyzed in 2017-2018). The prevalence of self-reported past-30-days prescription opioid misuse was assessed by sociodemographic characteristics, other substance use (i.e., cigarettes, marijuana), and drinking patterns. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to calculate AORs. RESULTS:From 2012 to 2014, 1.6% (95% CI=1.5, 1.7) of all individuals aged ?12 years (estimated 4.2 million) and 3.5% (95% CI=3.3, 3.8) of binge drinkers (estimated 2.2 million) reported prescription opioid misuse. Prescription opioid misuse was more common among binge drinkers than among nondrinkers (AOR=1.7, 95% CI=1.5, 1.9). Overall, the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse increased significantly with binge drinking frequency (p-value<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:More than half of the 4.2 million people who misused prescription opioids during 2012-2014 were binge drinkers, and binge drinkers had nearly twice the odds of misusing prescription opioids, compared with nondrinkers. Widespread use of evidence-based strategies for preventing binge drinking might reduce opioid misuse and overdoses involving alcohol.
Project description:Athletes with injury-related pain, especially National Football League (NFL) players, are at increased risk for opioid use and misuse which may result in medical, psychiatric and social problems. This is the first study to evaluate the intersection of sports pain and opioid use and misuse among former NFL players.A telephone survey of 644 retired NFL players from the 2009 Retired Players Association Directory was conducted (53.4% completion rate) from March to August 2010.Over half (52%) used opioids during their NFL career with 71% reporting misuse. Additionally, 15% of NFL misusers currently misused vs. 5% among players who used just as prescribed during their NFL career. Prevalence of current opioid use was 7%-3 times the rate of the general population. Multivariate analyses indicated that significant NFL pain increased the adjusted odds (AOR) of any current opioid use vs. non-use (AOR 6.76, 95%CI 2.88-15.87), as did moderate to severe mental impairment (AOR 1.88, 95%CI 1.19-2.98) and heavy drinking in the past week (AOR 2.15, 95%CI 1.17-3.98). Undiagnosed concussions singly predicted current misuse vs. use just as prescribed (AOR 4.25, 95%CI 1.12-16.22). Three variables predicted current misuse vs. non-use: significant pain (AOR 8.33, 95%CI 1.98-35.04), undiagnosed concussions (AOR 3.51, 95%CI 1.98-35.04) and heavy drinking (AOR 3.48, 95%CI 1.63-7.41).Players who misused during their NFL career were most likely to misuse currently compared to others. Current misuse was associated with more NFL pain, undiagnosed concussions and heavy drinking. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the long term effects of opioid misuse among athletes.
Project description:Background: The opioid epidemic is a significant public health crisis, and this problem is particularly prevalent among individuals with chronic pain. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for interventions to mitigate the risk for opioid misuse and opioid use disorder among people with pain. Given that mental health problems, specifically anxiety, are common among people who misuse opioids, it is important to examine factors that link mental health problems with opioid misuse to ultimately inform the development of novel interventions. Anxiety sensitivity, a transdiagnostic vulnerability factor defined as the fear of anxiety-related physical sensations, may be one important mechanism in elevated opioid misuse among persons with chronic pain. Objective: Therefore, the current cross-sectional study examined anxiety sensitivity (and construct sub-facets) as a predictor of opioid misuse among adults with chronic pain. Method: Adults reporting chronic pain and prescription opioid use completed an online survey. Results: Anxiety sensitivity was associated with multiple aspects of opioid misuse, including current opioid misuse, severity of opioid dependence, and number of opioids used to get high. The magnitude of effects ranged from medium to large. Associations between anxiety sensitivity and opioid misuse were observed over and above the variance accounted for by age, sex, income, education, perceived health, and pain severity. Conclusion: These findings suggest that anxiety sensitivity may be an important treatment target among adults with chronic pain who misuse opioids. Future research should continue to explore the explanatory relevance of anxiety sensitivity in opioid misuse among individuals with chronic pain.
Project description:BACKGROUND:One in five adolescents and emerging adults have reported prescription opioid misuse (POM), posing significant risks for opioid-related adverse outcomes. Devising prevention strategies requires a better understanding of the decisional factors underlying risky misuse behavior. This research examined the associations between past opioid use behavior, opioid risk knowledge and perceptions, and intentional POM decisions. METHODS:Participants aged 15-23years completed surveys assessing past prescription opioid use and misuse, opioid risk knowledge, opioid risk perceptions, and pain relief preferences (i.e., analgesic benefit vs. risk aversion preference). The outcome, Willingness to Misuse (i.e., intentional decisions to use a prescription opioid in a non-compliant manner) was measured using hypothetical pain decision scenarios. RESULTS:Surveys were completed by 972 adolescents and young adults. In total, 44% had taken a prescription opioid and 32% of these reported past POM. Willingness to Misuse was significantly associated with lower opioid misuse risk perceptions (??=?.75 [95% CI .66-.86]) and past opioid misuse (??=?1.81 [95% CI 1.13-2.91]) but not simple risk knowledge (??=?.81 [95% CI .58-1.11]. The probability of future misuse was highest for those who reported past opioid misuse and had low risk perceptions (58.7% [95% CI 51.3-65.8]) and high pain relief preferences (53.4% [95% CI 45.3%-61.3%]). CONCLUSIONS:Findings suggest that simple knowledge of prescription opioid risks is insufficient to curtail misuse among adolescents and emerging adults. Rather, it may be important to heighten opioid risk perceptions and strengthen opioid risk aversion values when prescribing opioid analgesics to better prevent future misuse in this high risk population.
Project description:Introduction: Among those who misuse prescription opioids, alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with progression to opioid use disorder, risk of overdose, and poor treatment outcomes. However, little is known about co-occurring AUD and prescription opioid misuse. Motives, or reasons, for substance use are important factors in substance use initiation and maintenance; characterizing common motives can help inform treatment targets. The aims of the present study were to (1) identify patterns of motives for prescription opioid misuse, and (2) examine the association between AUD and motives. Methods: Data were extracted from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Analyses included adult respondents with past-year prescription opioid misuse (N?=?2,627), of which 24.2% had a co-occurring AUD. Latent class analysis was utilized to identify patterns of motives for prescription opioid misuse. AUD was included as a predictor of class membership. Results: We identified three classes: (1) pain relief (56.1% of the sample), (2) recreational (e.g., to get high; 29.3%), and (3) mixed motives (e.g., coping, pain relief, recreational; 14.6%). AUD was associated with greater odds of membership in the recreational (OR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.36, 3.10, p?=?.001) and mixed motives (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.21, 3.67, p?=?.008) classes, as compared to the pain relief class. Results: Pain relief was the most commonly endorsed motive for opioid misuse among those with and without AUD. These results underscore the need to improve pain management among those who misuse prescription opioids. Those with co-occurring AUD might also benefit from interventions targeting negative affect and/or positive outcome expectancies.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The authors sought to simultaneously examine the prevalence and correlates of prescription stimulant use, misuse, use disorders, and motivations for misuse in the U.S. adult population. METHOD:This was a nationally representative household population study of adults age 18 or older from the 2015 and 2016 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=102,000). Measurements included prescription stimulant use, use without misuse, misuse without use disorders, and misuse with use disorders, as well as sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, and mental health factors. RESULTS:Among U.S. adults, 6.6% (annual average) used prescription stimulants overall; 4.5% used without misuse, 1.9% misused without use disorders, and 0.2% had use disorders. Adults with past-year prescription stimulant use disorders did not differ from those with misuse without use disorders in any of the examined sociodemographic characteristics and in many of the examined substance use problems. The most commonly reported motivations for misuse were to help be alert or concentrate (56.3%). The most likely source of misused prescription stimulants was by obtaining them free from friends or relatives (56.9%). More frequent prescription stimulant misuse and use disorder were associated with an increased likelihood of obtaining medications from physicians or from drug dealers or strangers and less likelihood of obtaining them from friends or relatives. CONCLUSIONS:Approximately 16.0 million U.S. adults used prescription stimulants in the preceding year (annual average), 5.0 million misused prescription stimulants, and 0.4 million had use disorders. Cognitive enhancement was the most commonly reported reason for misusing prescription stimulants. Patients who are using their medication for cognitive enhancement or diverting their medication to others present a high risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:People with a history of interpersonal trauma, including intimate partner violence, sexual assault, and adverse childhood experiences, are disproportionately affected by the current opioid epidemic. Interpersonal trauma has been shown to increase risk for chronic pain conditions, prescription opioid use, and opioid misuse. Stress, cognition, and affective function have been examined as potential mechanisms that may influence opioid misuse among individuals with a history of interpersonal trauma. However, no studies have examined these factors simultaneously, despite their interrelatedness. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to 1) examine perceived stress, perceived cognitive function, depressive symptoms, and PTSD symptoms as potential mechanisms of opioid misuse among individuals with a history of interpersonal trauma, 2) examine the types of interpersonal trauma that are associated with opioid misuse, and 3) assess the mediating role of pain and opioid prescription. METHODS:A cross-sectional, observational study design was conducted. Data were collected through a confidential self-report online survey using validated instruments (n = 230). A series of regression analyses were conducted to identify mechanistic factors and interpersonal trauma types associated with opioid misuse, opioid prescription, and pain intensity. Structural equation modeling was used to examine mediating effects of pain intensity and opioid prescription. RESULTS:Opioid prescription, depressive symptoms, and intimate partner violence increased the odds of reporting opioid misuse. Pain intensity and adverse childhood experiences increased the odds of opioid prescription. Higher levels of perceived stress and depressive symptoms were associated with increased pain intensity. Pain intensity emerged as a mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and opioid misuse. CONCLUSIONS:Our work shows that there are likely several pathways through which interpersonal trauma can lead to opioid misuse. Interventions aimed at improving depressive symptoms and coping with traumatizing events should be included as part of comprehensive trauma-informed pain management practices.