Potassium intake, skeletal muscle mass, and effect modification by sex: data from the 2008-2011 KNHANES.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:A loss of muscle mass may be influenced by multiple factors. Insulin sensitivity and metabolic acidosis are associated with muscle wasting and may be improved with potassium intake. This study evaluated the association between dietary potassium intake and skeletal muscle mass. METHODS:We performed a cross-sectional study with data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2011). Participant's daily food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall method. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was calculated as the sum of muscle mass in both arms and legs, measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated as ASM divided by height2 (kg/m2). Low muscle mass was defined as a SMI
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The present study aimed to investigate longitudinal associations between bone mineral densities (BMDs) and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) mass in different regions of the body using three different indicators, in Chinese community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly men.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 1,343 men aged ≥ 40 years from a Chinese community were assessed at baseline (2014-2016), one-year follow-up (2016-2017; <i>n</i> = 648), two-year follow-up (2017-2018; <i>n</i> = 407), and three-year follow up (2018-2019; <i>n</i> = 208). At all the four time-points, measurements included ASM mass and BMDs for all regions of the body using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A questionnaire was completed by patients and biochemical markers were assessed. We applied three different indicators to define ASM mass or lean mass respectively, including the appendicular skeletal muscle index (ASM adjusted by height, ASMI, according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia), skeletal muscle index (ASM adjusted by weight, SMI, according to the International Working Group on Sarcopenia), and the appendicular skeletal muscle/body mass index (ratio of ASM and Body mass index (BMI), ASM/BMI, according to the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health). After adjusting for potential confounders, the generalized additive mixed model (GAMM) was used to analyze the trend in ASM mass over time, and to test the association between ASM mass and regional and whole-body BMDs.<h4>Results</h4>The incidence of low lean mass was 8.2% defined by ASMI, 16.3% defined by SMI, and 8.3% defined by ASM/BMI. There was a linear relationship between BMDs and ASM mass, and ASMI, ASM/BMI, and SMI gradually decreased with time. After adjusting for covariances, GAMM analysis determined longitudinal associations between BMDs and ASM mass by three indicators respectively: the skull BMD was negatively associated with ASM mass. For each unit increase in skull BMD, ASMI decreased by 0.28 kg/m<sup>2</sup> (95% confidence interval (CI) [-0.39 to -0.16]), ASM/BMI decreased by 0.02 m<sup>2</sup> (95% CI [-0.03 to -0.00]), and SMI decreased by 0.01% (95% CI[-0.01 to -0.00]). The remaining parameters (including whole-body mean BMD, thoracic spinal BMD, lumbar spinal BMD, hip BMD, femoral neck BMD, pelvic BMD, left arm BMD, right arm BMD, left leg BMD, right leg BMD) were positively correlated with ASM mass. The ASMI increased by 3.07 kg/m<sup>2</sup>for each unit increase in the femoral neck BMD (95% CI [2.31-3.84]). The ASM/BMI increased by 0.22 m<sup>2</sup>for each unit increase in the left arm BMD (95% CI [0.12-0.33]), and the SMI increased by 0.05% per unit increase in the left arm BMD (95% CI [0.02-0.08]).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Compared to ASMI and ASM/BMI, SMI was more sensitive to screen for the low lean mass. Skull BMD was negatively associated with ASM mass, while BMDs throughout the rest of the body were positively correlated with ASM mass among the middle-aged and elderly Chinese men.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) is inversely associated with cardiometabolic health and the ageing process. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the relation between SMM and 10?year cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence, among CVD-free adults 45+ years?old. METHODS:ATTICA is a prospective, population-based study that recruited 3042 adults without pre-existing CVD from the Greek general population (Caucasians; age ?18 years; 1514 men). The 10?year study follow-up (2011-2012) captured the fatal/non-fatal CVD incidence in 2020 participants (50% men). The working sample consisted of 1019 participants, 45+ years?old (men: n=534; women: n=485). A skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was created to reflect SMM, using appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) standardised by body mass index (BMI). ASM and SMI were calculated with specific indirect population formulas. RESULTS:The 10?year CVD incidence increased significantly across the baseline SMI tertiles (p<0.001). Baseline SMM showed a significant inverse association with the 10?year CVD incidence (HR 0.06, 95%?CI 0.005 to 0.78), even after adjusting for various confounders. Additionally, participants in the highest SMM tertile had 81% (95% CI 0.04 to 0.85) lower risk for a CVD event as compared with those in the lowest SMM tertile. CONCLUSIONS:The presented findings support the importance of SMM evaluation in the prediction of long-term CVD risk among adults 45+ years old without pre-existing CVD. Preservation of SMM may contribute to CVD health.
Project description:No prior study has investigated the dynamics of body weight with body muscle mass as a prognostic factor in advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC) patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy. We investigated whether low skeletal muscle mass affects survival in patients with BTC, with a co-analysis of body weight loss and body mass index (BMI).By multivariate analysis, low skeletal muscle mass at diagnosis and decreased SMI during chemotherapy (p = 0.008 and p < 0.001, respectively) were poor prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). Subgroup analysis revealed that low skeletal muscle mass patients who were overweight or obese (BMI ? 25 kg/m2) showed worse OS (p < 0.001). Additionally, patients with both decreased BMI and SMI during chemotherapy had worse OS (p < 0.001). Furthermore, patients with decreased SMI had shorter survival regardless of change in BMI. However, for patients with SMI maintained during chemotherapy, decreased BMI had no effect on survival (p = 0.576).We consecutively enrolled 524 patients with advanced BTC who received palliative chemotherapy between 2003 and 2013. Total muscle cross-sectional area (cm2) at the L3 level assessed by computed tomography was analyzed. We defined low skeletal muscle mass as a skeletal muscle index (SMI) < 48.5 cm2/m2 (men) and < 39.5 cm2/m2 (women) using ROC curves.Low skeletal muscle mass, obesity and muscle depletion during palliative chemotherapy are meaningful prognostic factors in advanced BTC. Considering muscle depletion with weight change could help to more accurately predict prognoses of patients with BTC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:FIGHTDIGO study has shown the feasibility of handgrip strength (HGS) measurements in 201 consecutive digestive cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. OBJECTIVE:This study focuses on a secondary aim of FIGHTDIGO study: the relationship between muscle mass and HGS. DESIGN:Two consecutive bilateral measures of HGS were performed using a Jamar dynamometer before the start of each chemotherapy. The highest value was chosen for final evaluation. Dynapenia (loss of muscle strength) was defined as HGS < 30 kg (men) and < 20 kg (women). Muscle mass was measured at lumbar level (L3) on Computed Tomography (CT) scans performed less than 3 weeks before or after the measurement of HGS. Muscle mass loss was defined by skeletal muscle index (SMI) < 53 cm2 /m2 (in men with a body mass index (BMI)> 25 kg/m2 ), < 43 cm2 /m2 (in men with a BMI < 25 kg/m2 ), and < 41 cm2 /m2 (in women regardless of BMI). Sarcopenia was defined by the association of a dynapenia and a loss of muscle mass. RESULTS:A total of 150 patients were included in this analysis (mean age: 65.6 ± 10.9 years, 87 males (58%), colorectal cancer (47.3%), metastatic stage (76.7%)). A total of 348 CT scans were evaluated. For the 348 measurements, mean SMI and HGS were 41.8 ± 8.7 cm2 /m2 and 32.1 ± 11.0 kg, respectively. Muscle mass loss, dynapenia, or sarcopenia were reported at least once, in 120 (80%), 45 (30%), and 30 (20%) patients, respectively. SMI was significantly correlated with HGS (Pearson coefficient = 0.53, P < 0.0001). At concordance analysis, 188 dyad SMI/HGS (54%) were in agreement (Kappa = 0.14 [95% CI, 0.07-0.21]). CONCLUSION:Correlation between the measurements of HGS and SMI is strong but the concordance between dynapenia and muscle mass loss is poor. Further studies should be performed to confirm the diagnostic thresholds, and to study the chronology of dynapenia and loss of muscle mass.
Project description:This cohort study aimed to identify the associations of dairy protein intake with the risk of developing a low muscle mass during a 12-year follow-up period, using data from 4412 middle-aged Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study participants with a normal baseline muscle mass. Dairy protein intake at baseline was assessed using a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), defined as the weight-adjusted skeletal muscle mass, was measured biennially using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analyses. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, 395 subjects developed a low SMI (%) during an average follow-up of 141 (19-152) months. The average consumption of milk and other dairy products was 73.6 and 104.1 g/day, respectively. In men, a higher dairy protein intake was associated with a decreased risk of developing a low SMI (tertile 3 [T3] vs. T1, HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.94; p for trend = 0.029). In a stratified analysis according to a total protein intake, this association was stronger in the lower-protein intake group (HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.99; p for trend = 0.036) but not detected in the higher-protein intake group. Men who consumed milk ?1 time/day had a significantly lower risk of developing a low SMI (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.98; p for trend = 0.023). No significant associations were observed in women. In summary, dairy consumption appears to be beneficial for decreasing the risk of developing a low muscle mass in middle-aged Korean men.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>The combined effects of obesity and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) on atherosclerosis, especially in middleaged populations, remain poorly understood. This cross-sectional study investigated the effects of ASM on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) according to body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged Korean adults.<h4>Methods</h4>Herein, 595 men and 1,274 women aged 30-64 years completed questionnaires and underwent health examinations as part of the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiology Research Center cohort. ASM was measured via bioelectrical impedance analysis and adjusted for weight (ASM/Wt). IMT was assessed using B-mode ultrasonography; highest quartile of IMT was defined as gender-specific top quartile of the IMT values. Higher BMIs was defined as a BMI over 25.0 kg/m2 .<h4>Results</h4>Compared to the highest ASM/Wt quartile, the lowest ASM/Wt quartile was significantly associated with highest quartile of IMT in men with lower BMIs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 7.13), but not in those with higher BMIs (aOR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.24 to 1.91). In women, there was no significant association of low skeletal muscle mass with highest quartile of IMT, regardless of BMI.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Low appendicular skeletal muscle mass is associated with carotid arterial wall thickening in men with lower BMIs, but not in men with higher BMIs. Our findings suggest that the risk of atherosclerosis may be low in middle-aged Korean men with appropriate body weight and skeletal muscle mass maintenance.
Project description:Background:Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have an increased risk of muscle mass reduction. However, the association between muscle mass and mortality in T2DM remains unknown. Methods:This was a historical cohort study with the endpoint of all-cause mortality. This study included 163 Japanese men and 141 postmenopausal women with T2DM whose body compositions were evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Low muscle mass was defined as a skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) of <7.0?kg/m2 for men and <5.4?kg/m2 for women. Results:During the 6-year follow-up period, 32 men and 14 women died. In a Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, T2DM duration, glycated hemoglobin, serum creatinine, fasting C-peptide, body mass index, and lean body mass were associated with the risk of mortality in men [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.00-3.28 per standard deviation (SD) decrease, p = 0.049] and women (HR = 4.53, 95% CI = 1.14-17.96 per SD decrease, p = 0.032). Neither fat mass nor bone mineral content was associated with mortality. Low SMI was associated with increased mortality in women (HR = 5.97, 95% CI = 1.04-34.37, p = 0.045), while the association between low SMI and mortality was marginal in men (HR = 2.38, 95% CI = 0.92-6.14, p = 0.074). Conclusions:Low muscle mass was independently associated with all-cause mortality in patients with T2DM. The preservation of skeletal muscle mass is important to protect patients with T2DM from increased mortality risk.
Project description:Objective:To study the association between osteoporosis and sarcopenia and determine the prevalence of osteosarcopenia in patients who attended a rheumatology center in Ecuador. Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted in a population of patients who had a densitometric study. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was determined by the DXA standard gold test, screening, and conventional methods (bioimpedance, anthropometric measurements, SARC-F, muscle function, and gait test). Results:A total of 92 patients were studied. The median age was 66?±?10, 90% females. Using the criteria of SMI, 65% had sarcopenia of which 9% had only sarcopenia and 56% had osteosarcopenia; 22% had only osteopenia/osteoporosis; and 13% none of these conditions. The prevalence of sarcopenia according to handgrip strength was 60%, gait speed 45%, and SARC-F score 40%. The prevalence of osteosarcopenia according to handgrip strength was 51%, gait speed 34%, and SARC-F score 32%. Osteoporosis was associated with a higher prevalence of sarcopenia using the criteria of SMI since 40% had sarcopenia in the normal DXA group, 64% in the osteopenia group, and 76% in the osteoporosis group (p=0.017). Of the women, 69% had sarcopenia compared to 33% of the men (p=0.034). The BMI was lower in the group with sarcopenia (25.1?±?4.1?kg/m2) compared to the group without sarcopenia (29.4?±?4.1?kg/m2, p < 0.001). Patients with osteosarcopenia and sarcopenia had lower BMI, handgrip strength, ASM, SMI, and total-body skeletal muscle mass than those with osteopenia/osteoporosis or normal patients. Conclusion:65% of the studied population had sarcopenia. It is clear that the prevalence of sarcopenia is higher in patients with greater loss of bone mass. Identifying pathways that affect both bone and muscle could facilitate the development of treatments that simultaneously improve osteoporosis and sarcopenia.
Project description:Cancer causes muscle mass loss, which is associated with a poor prognosis. Chemotherapy may also reduce muscle mass. We investigated skeletal muscle mass change during palliative chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer (AGC) and its association with treatment outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed 111 consecutive AGC patients who underwent first-line palliative chemotherapy. Skeletal muscle area was measured before and after chemotherapy at the third lumbar vertebra level using computed tomography scans. We compared skeletal muscle index (SMI), body mass index (BMI), and body weight changes to chemotherapy response and survival. The 80 male and 31 female patients' median age was 65 (range 31-87) years, and 46.8% had sarcopenia at baseline. Median pre-chemotherapy to post-chemotherapy SMI, BMI, and body weight decreases were -?4.5 cm2/m2 (-?11.3%) (P?<?0.001); -?0.7 kg/m2 (-?3.2%) (P?<?0.001); and -?2.0 kg (-?3.5%) (P?<?0.001), respectively. Median SMI decreases for patients with objective response, stable disease, and disease progression were -?4.0 cm2/m2 (range -?20.1?~?9.5); -?4.5 cm2/m2 (range -?19.8?~?0.8); and -?3.8 cm2/m2 (range: -?17.6?~?0.1), respectively. Response to chemotherapy was not associated with SMI decrease (P?=?0.463). In multivariable analysis, sarcopenia at baseline (HR 1.681; 95% CI 1.083-2.609, P?=?0.021), decreased SMI (HR 1.620; 95% CI 1.041-2.520; P?=?0.032) were significant poor prognostic factors for survival. Skeletal muscle mass decreased significantly during chemotherapy in AGC patients, but was not associated with chemotherapy response. Decreased SMI was a poor prognostic factor in AGC patients during first-line palliative chemotherapy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might be useful nutritional strategy for treating patients with sarcopenia. We evaluated the effect of the intake of dietary n-3 PUFAs on the skeletal muscle mass (SMM), appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), and its determinants in patients receiving standard hemodialysis (HD) treatment for the management of end stage renal disease.<h4>Methods</h4>In this cross-sectional study, data of 111 HD patients were analyzed. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements used to estimate the muscle mass were performed the day of dialysis immediately after the dialysis session. Routine laboratory and 3-day dietary data were also collected. The cutoff value of adequate intake (AI) for both n-3 PUFAs and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) was 1.6 g/day and 1.1 g/day for men and women, respectively.<h4>Results</h4>The mean age, mean dietary n-3 PUFAs intake, ALA intake, ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs intake, SMM, and ASM of patients were 61.4 ± 10.4 years, 2.0 ± 1.3 g/day, 1.5 ± 1.0 g/day, 9.5 ± 6.7 g/day, 23.9 ± 5.5 kg, and 17.5 ± 4.5 kg, respectively. A higher SMM and ASM significantly observed in patients who achieved an AI of n-3 PUFAs. Similar trends appeared to be observed among those patients who achieved the AI of ALA, but the difference was not significantly, except for ASM (P = 0.047). No relevant differences in demographics, laboratory and nutritional parameters were observed, regardless of whether the patients achieved an AI of n-3 PUFAs. Multivariate analysis showed that the BMI and equilibrated Kt/V were independent determinants of the muscle mass. Moreover, the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was an independent risk determinant of reduced ASM in HD patients.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Patients with an AI of n-3 PUFAs had better total-body SMM and ASM. A higher dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs seemed to be associated with a reduced muscle mass in HD patients.