Efficacy of tailored second-line therapy of Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with clarithromycin-based treatment failure: a multicenter prospective study.
ABSTRACT: Background:After the failure of clarithromycin- and bismuth-based quadruple therapy (CBQT), levofloxacin- and bismuth-based quadruple therapy (LBQT) is recommended for Helicobacter pylori eradication. We compared the efficacies of second-line tailored bismuth-based quadruple therapy (TBQT) and empirical LBQT. Methods:Patients with CBQT failure were randomly assigned to receive TBQT or LBQT for 14 days. All patients underwent endoscopy for culture-based antibiotic susceptibility testing. Patients in the TBQT group exhibiting levofloxacin susceptibility were randomized to receive amoxicillin, levofloxacin, esomeprazole, and colloidal bismuth pectin (ALEB) or amoxicillin, furazolidone, esomeprazole, and colloidal bismuth pectin (AFEB) for 14 days; patients with levofloxacin resistance received AFEB. Results:From May 2016 to June 2019, 364 subjects were enrolled. Eradication rates were significantly higher in the TBQT group (n?=?182) than in the LBQT group (n?=?182) according to both intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis (89.6% vs. 64.8%, P?
Project description:Background:Empirical therapy of Helicobacter pylori frequently results in treatment failure due to unrecognized antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of susceptibility-guided therapy for rescue treatment of H. pylori infection in China. Methods:This was a prospective study of consecutive 200 patients infected with H. pylori with one or more treatment failures. The therapy chosen was susceptibility based using the most effective, best-tolerated regimens first and a locally proven, reliably effective regimen for multidrug-resistant infections. All patients received 14-day triple therapy, i.e. esomeprazole 20?mg and amoxicillin 1?g twice a day plus clarithromycin 500?mg twice a day, metronidazole 400?mg twice a day, or levofloxacin 500?mg daily, or, for multidrug-resistant infections, amoxicillin-containing bismuth quadruple therapy with esomeprazole 20?mg twice a day, bismuth 220?mg twice a day, amoxicillin 1?g three times a day, and metronidazole 400?mg four times a day. Antibiotic resistance was determined by agar dilution. Results:The eradication rate of susceptibility-guided therapy overall was 94.5% (189/200, 95% confidence interval: 90.4-97.2%). Around 28% (56/200) of patients carried strains susceptible to one of the tested antibiotics and were prescribed the triple therapy. A total of 144 multidrug-resistant patients received bismuth quadruple therapy. The eradication rates were all greater than 90%, i.e. 91.7% (11/12), 92.3% (12/13), and 93.5% (29/31) in those who received clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin-containing triple therapy and 95.1% (137/144) for the bismuth quadruple therapy. There were no differences in eradication rates between the subgroups. Conclusions:Although susceptibility-guided therapy proved high efficacious despite the high proportion of multidrug-resistant strains, the strategy suggested the best approach for this population would be empirical amoxicillin-containing bismuth quadruple therapy. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03413020.
Project description:In the face of rising prevalence of antibiotic resistance, susceptibility testing to provide personalized treatment is recommended prior to eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Yet, population specific treatment according to the local prevalence of antibiotic resistance may be an alternative if susceptibility testing is not available. In this article, we reviewed the global prevalence of primary antibiotic resistance and the efficacies of commonly used regimens in antibiotic susceptible and resistance strains. We then constructed a model to predict the efficacies of these regimens and proposed an algorithm to choose the optimal first-line and rescue therapies according to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance. Clarithromycin-based therapy (triple, sequential, concomitant, and hybrid therapies) for 14 days remains the treatment of choice in regions with low clarithromycin resistance (?15%) and bismuth quadruple therapy may be an alternative therapy. In regions with high clarithromycin resistance (>?15%), bismuth quadruple therapy is the treatment of choice and non-bismuth quadruple therapy may be an alternative. Either levofloxacin-based therapy or bismuth quadruple therapy may be used as second-line rescue therapy for patients fail after clarithromycin-based therapies, whereas levofloxacin-based therapy may be used for patients fail after bismuth quadruple therapy. Susceptibility testing or genotypic resistance should be determined after two or more eradication failures. However, empirical therapy according to prior medication history to avoid the empirical reuse of levofloxacin and clarithromycin may be an acceptable alternative after consideration of cost, patient preference, and accessibility. Rifabutin-based therapy for 14 days may serve as the fourth-line therapy. New antibiotics specific for H. pylori are highly anticipated.
Project description:Context:Goals: To compare the efficacy of standard triple therapy with clarithromycin versus triple therapy with levofloxacin for treatment of Helicobacter pylori-positive infection in a referral hospital in Damascus, Syria. Design:pilot prospective open-label randomized controlled trial. Subjects and Methods:Eighty treatment-naive patients who tested positive for H. pylori gastric infection were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups with randomization ratio of 50/50. Group (A) was treated with clarithromycin (500 mg), amoxicillin (1000 mg), and esomeprazole (20 mg), each twice/day for 14 days, while Group (B) was treated with levofloxacin (500 mg), amoxicillin (1000 mg), and esomeprazole (20 mg), each twice/day for 14 days. After 6 weeks of treatment, all patients underwent endoscopy and biopsy to evaluate H. pylori infection eradication. Results:Forty patients were allocated in each group; 37 patients completed the follow-up in each group. Thirteen patients in Group (A) were cured, with an eradication rate of 35.1% according to per-protocol analysis (PPA) and 32.5% according to intention-to-treat analysis (ITT), while in Group (B), 11 patients were cured, with an eradication rate of 29.7% according to PPA and 27.5% according to ITT with P = 0.80. No serious adverse events reported in both the groups. Conclusions:Clarithromycin is slightly better than levofloxacin in treatment of H. pylori gastric infection, but both regimens show low effectiveness with suboptimal eradication rates in our selected population.
Project description:The efficacy and applicability of molecular testing to guide the selection of antibiotics in triple Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication regimens have not been reported. We tested a 7-day, genotypic resistance-guided triple H. pylori eradication therapy in a high-resistance setting.Consecutive dyspeptic patients with H. pylori infection were prospectively enrolled. Genotypic resistances to clarithromycin (23SrRNA mutations) and fluoroquinolones (gyrA mutations) were determined from gastric biopsy specimens using a commercially available molecular assay (GenoTypeâ HelicoDR). A tailored genotypic resistance-guided 7-day triple therapy comprised esomeprazole, amoxicillin, and either clarithromycin (wild-type 23SrRNA), levofloxacin (23SrRNA mutated/wild-type gyrA) or rifabutin (both 23SrRNA/gyrA mutated). H. pylori eradication was confirmed by 13C-urea breath test.Of 148 subjects screened, 51 patients were enrolled (male/female: 27/24, mean age: 50.7±11.4 years, treatment-naïve/-experienced: 32/19). The molecular kit was easily implemented, allowing for rapid (within 24 h) and relatively inexpensive determination of H. pylori resistance (clarithromycin: 47.1%, fluoroquinolones: 15.7%, dual clarithromycin/fluoroquinolones: 7.8%). For patients who received clarithromycin-, levofloxacin- and rifabutin-containing triple therapy, the respective eradication rates were 24/27, 20/20, and 2/4 by intention-to-treat (ITT); and 24/24, 19/19 and 2/3 by per-protocol (PP) analysis. Overall eradication rates were 90.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 77.8-96.3%) by ITT and 97.8% (95%CI 87-99.8%) by PP analysis, showing no significant difference between treatment-naïve and -experienced patients (ITT: 87.5% vs. 94.7%, P=0.64; PP: 96.4% vs. 100%, respectively, P=1.00).Regardless of prior treatment history, a genotypic resistance-guided 7-day triple therapy, based on a simple molecular assay, achieved a high H. pylori eradication rate.
Project description:The <80 % Helicobacter pylori eradication rate with sequential therapy is unsatisfactory. Modified bismuth quadruple therapy, replacing metronidazole with amoxicillin, could be promising because H. pylori resistance to tetracycline or to amoxicillin is relatively low. A 14-day modified bismuth quadruple protocol as first-line H. pylori treatment was compared with 10-day sequential therapy.In total, 390?H. pylori-infected subjects participated in the randomized clinical trial: 10-day sequential therapy (40 mg pantoprazole plus 1 g amoxicillin twice a day for 5 days, then 40 mg pantoprazole and 500 mg clarithromycin twice a day and 500 mg metronidazole three times a day for 5 days) or 14-day modified bismuth quadruple therapy (40 mg pantoprazole, 600 mg bismuth subcitrate, 1 g tetracycline, and 1 g amoxicillin, twice a day). (13)C-urea breath test, rapid urease testing, or histology was performed to check for eradication.Intention-to-treat (ITT) eradication rates of 10-day sequential and 14-day quadruple therapy were 74.6 % and 68.7 %, respectively, and the per-protocol (PP) rates were 84.2 and 76.5 %, respectively. The eradication rate was higher in the sequential therapy group, but neither the ITT nor the PP analyses had a significant difference (P?=?0.240 and P?=?0.099, respectively). However, the adverse events were significantly lower in the modified bismuth quadruple therapy group than the sequential therapy group (36.9 vs. 47.7 %, P?=?0.040).Ten-day sequential therapy appears to be more effective despite frequent adverse events. However, both 10-day SQT and 14-day PBAT did not reach the excellent eradication rates that exceed 90 %. Additional trials are needed to identify a more satisfactory first-line eradication therapy.ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02159976 ); Registration date: 2014-06-03, CRIS ( KCT0001176 ); Registration date: 2014-07-23.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:We investigated to compare the effect of empirical therapy vs clarithromycin resistance-guided tailored therapy (tailored therapy) for eradication of Helicobacter pylori. METHODS:In this prospective, single center, open-label randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 72 patients with H. pylori infection from January 2019 through June 2019 in Korea. The patients were randomly assigned to both groups received empirical (n = 36) or tailored therapy (n = 36). Empirical therapy was defined as triple therapy with esomeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin for 10 days irrespective of clarithromycin resistance. Tailored therapy was triple or quadruple therapy with esomeprazole, metronidazole, tetracycline, and bismuth for 10 days based on genotype markers of resistance determined by gastric biopsy. Resistance-associated mutations in 23S rRNA were confirmed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Eradication status was assessed by C-urea breath test, and the primary outcome was eradication rates. RESULTS:H. pylori was eradicated in 27 patients (75.0%), given empirical therapy and 32 patients (88.9%) treated with tailored therapy (P = 0.136) in intention-to-treat analysis. In per protocol analysis, the eradication rate was 97.0% and 81.8% in tailoredvs empirical groups (P = 0.046). Although clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori was eradicated in 3/9 (33.3%) with empirical therapy, it was treated in 11/12 (91.7%) with tailored therapy (P = 0.009). There was no difference in compliance between 2 groups. The rate of adverse events of the tailored group was higher than that of the empirical group (P = 0.036) because quadruple therapy had more side effects than those of triple therapy (P = 0.001). DISCUSSION:Tailored therapy based on polymerase chain reaction is a good alternative to increase eradication rates in a region of high prevalence of clarithromycin resistance (see Visual Abstract, Supplementary Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/CTG/A342).
Project description:Hybrid therapy is a novel two-step treatment achieving a high eradication rate for Helicobacter pylori infection. Currently, whether this new therapy achieves a higher eradication rate than bismuth quadruple therapy remains an unanswered question. The aim of this prospective, randomized comparative study was to investigate the efficacies of 14-day hybrid therapy and bismuth quadruple therapy in the treatment of H. pylori infection. From July 2013 to June 2015, eligible H. pylori-infected subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 14-day bismuth quadruple therapy (pantoprazole, bismuth subcitrate, tetracycline, and metronidazole for 14 days) or 14-day hybrid therapy (a 7-day dual therapy with pantoprazole plus amoxicillin, followed by a 7-day quadruple therapy with pantoprazole plus amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and metronidazole). H. pylori status was examined 6 weeks after the end of treatment. Three hundred thirty H. pylori-infected participants were randomized to receive 14-day bismuth quadruple therapy (n = 164) or 14-day hybrid therapy (n = 166). The eradication rates by intention-to-treat analysis were similar: 93.9% versus 92.8%, respectively (95% confidence interval [CI], -4.3% to 5.4%; P = 0.68). Per-protocol analysis yielded similar results (96.7% versus 94.9%, respectively; P = 0.44). However, bismuth quadruple therapy had a higher frequency of adverse events than hybrid therapy (55.5% versus 15.7%, respectively; 95% CI, 30.4% to 49.2%; P < 0.001). The two treatments exhibited comparable drug adherence (93.9% versus 97%, respectively). The resistance rates of antibiotics were: clarithromycin, 16.7% of patients; amoxicillin, 1.3%; metronidazole, 25%; and tetracycline, 0%. In the bismuth quadruple therapy group, the eradication rate of metronidazole-resistant strains was lower than that of metronidazole-susceptible strains (70.0% versus 96.4%, respectively; P = 0.04). In the hybrid therapy group, no significant impact of clarithromycin or metronidazole resistance on eradication rates was identified. Both 14-day hybrid and bismuth quadruple therapies cure most patients with H. pylori infection in populations with moderate antibiotic resistance. However, the 14-day hybrid therapy has fewer adverse effects than the bismuth quadruple therapy. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT02541864.).
Project description:INTRODUCTION:<i>Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)</i> is the most well-known risk factor for gastric cancer. At present, <i>H. pylori</i> shows varying levels of resistance to different treatments, leading to a lower rate of <i>H. pylori</i> eradication. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of polaprezinc-containing quadruple therapy (PQT) for the eradication of <i>H. pylori</i> infection and, thus, to provide more evidence to inform the clinical treatment of <i>H. pylori</i> infection in China. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This is a single-centre, single-blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial, enrolling 158 patients with <i>H. pylori</i> infection. Patients are randomised (1:1) to the two groups for a 14-day therapy. Treatment group: PQT (esomeprazole 20?mg, amoxicillin 1?g, clarithromycin 500?mg, polaprezinc 75?mg) two times per day; control group: bismuth-containing quadruple therapy (esomeprazole 20?mg, amoxicillin 1?g, clarithromycin 500?mg, bismuth potassium citrate 220?mg) two times per day. The primary outcome is the rate of <i>H. pylori</i> eradication. Secondary outcomes are the incidence of adverse events and the gastrointestinal microbiota distribution. The 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) next-generation sequencing (NGS) is used to evaluate the effect of two different therapies on the distribution of the gastrointestinal microbiota. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Sichuan Cancer Center & Hospital (No. SCCHEC-02-2019-015). Any amendment to the research protocol will be submitted for ethical approval. All participants must provide informed consent. On completion, the results of the study will be published in the appropriate peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ChiCTR1900025800; preresults.
Project description:The management of <i>Helicobacter pylori</i> infection has to rely on previous local effectiveness due to the geographical variability of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of first and second-line <i>H. pylori</i> treatment in Spain, where the empirical prescription is recommended. A multicentre prospective non-interventional registry of the clinical practice of European gastroenterologists concerning <i>H. pylori</i> infection (Hp-EuReg) was developed, including patients from 2013 until June 2019. Effectiveness was evaluated descriptively and through a multivariate analysis concerning age, gender, presence of ulcer, proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) dose, therapy duration and compliance. Overall, 53 Spanish hospitals were included, and 10,267 patients received a first-line therapy. The best results were obtained with the 10-day bismuth single-capsule therapy (95% cure rate by intention-to-treat) and with both the 14-day bismuth-clarithromycin quadruple (PPI-bismuth-clarithromycin-amoxicillin, 91%) and the 14-day non-bismuth quadruple concomitant (PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin-metronidazole, 92%) therapies. Second-line therapies were prescribed to 2448 patients, with most-effective therapies being the triple quinolone (PPI-amoxicillin-levofloxacin/moxifloxacin) and the bismuth-levofloxacin quadruple schemes (PPI-bismuth-levofloxacin-amoxicillin) prescribed for 14 days (92%, 89% and 90% effectiveness, respectively), and the bismuth single-capsule (10 days, 88.5%). Compliance, longer duration and higher acid inhibition were associated with higher effectiveness. "Optimized" <i>H. pylori</i> therapies achieve over 90% success in Spain.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Clarithromycin-containing triple regimen for eradication of Helicobacter pylori is no longer acceptable in Korea due to high clarithromycin resistance. Concomitant therapy or bismuth-containing quadruple therapy is recommended as an alternative regimen. A recent study in Korea has shown that modified quadruple therapy has comparable efficacy and safety to concomitant therapy as a first-line regimen. However, there has been no comparative study of modified quadruple therapy with bismuth-containing quadruple therapy. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of modified quadruple therapy with those of bismuth-containing quadruple therapy as a first-line regimen and to present the phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance profile of H pylori. METHODS:This study is an open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled trial. We are recruiting subjects endoscopically diagnosed with H pylori infection from 2 hospitals in Korea. Subjects will be randomly allocated either to modified quadruple therapy (proton-pump inhibitor bid, amoxicillin 1 g bid, metronidazole 500 mg tid, bismuth subcitrate 300 mg qid daily) or bismuth-containing quadruple therapy (proton-pump inhibitor bid, tetracycline 500 mg qid, metronidazole 500 mg tid, bismuth subcitrate 300 mg qid daily) for 14 days. The rate of eradication success and adverse events will be checked at least 4 weeks after the treatment. Antibiotic resistance will be established using both a bacterial culture with agar dilutions and DNA sequencing of the clarithromycin resistance point mutations in the 23S rRNA gene of H pylori. CONCLUSION:The results of this study will provide solid evidence for determining the optimal treatment regimen for first-line H pylori eradication in Korea.