Pharmacological inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase by olaparib ameliorates influenza-virus-induced pneumonia in mice.
ABSTRACT: Treatments against influenza A viruses (IAV) have to be updated regularly due to antigenic drift and drug resistance. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are considered effective therapeutic targets of acute lung inflammatory injury. This study aimed to explore the effects of PARP-1 inhibitor olaparib on IAV-induced lung injury and the underlying mechanisms. Male wild-type C57BL/6 mice were intranasally infected with IAV strain H1N1 to mimic pneumonia experimentally. Olaparib at different doses was intraperitoneally injected 2 days before and 5 consecutive days after virus stimulation. On day 6 post-infection, lung tissues as well as bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were sampled for histological and biochemical analyses. Olaparib increased the survival rate of IAV mice dose-dependently. Olaparib remarkably reduced IAV mRNA expression, myeloperoxidase (MPO) level, and inflammatory cell infiltration in IAV lungs. Moreover, olaparib significantly reduced the level of interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interferon (IFN)-?, IL-6, and IL-4 and increased IL-10 in IAV lungs. Also, olaparib efficiently reduced IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), TNF-?, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)1, CXCL10, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)3, and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) release in IAV BALF. Olaparib decreased PARylated protein content and p65, I?B? phosphorylation in IAV lung tissues. This study successfully constructed the pneumonia murine model using IAV. Olaparib decreased IAV-induced mortality in mice, lung injury, and cytokine production possibly via modulation of PARP-1/NF-?B axis.
Project description:Influenza A virus (IAV) remains a major worldwide health threat, especially to high-risk populations, including the young and elderly. There is an unmet clinical need for therapy that will protect the lungs from damage caused by lower respiratory infection. Here, we analyzed the role of EMAPII, a stress- and virus-induced pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic factor, in IAV-induced lung injury. First, we demonstrated that IAV induces EMAPII surface translocation, release, and apoptosis in cultured endothelial and epithelial cells. Next, we showed that IAV induces EMAPII surface translocation and release to bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in mouse lungs, concomitant with increases in caspase 3 activity. Injection of monoclonal antibody (mAb) against EMAPII attenuated IAV-induced EMAPII levels, weight loss, reduction of blood oxygenation, lung edema, and increase of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF alpha. In accordance with the pro-apoptotic properties of EMAPII, levels of caspase 3 activity in BALF were also decreased by mAb treatment. Moreover, we detected EMAPII mAb-induced increase in lung levels of M2-like macrophage markers YM1 and CD206. All together, these data strongly suggest that EMAPII mAb ameliorates IAV-induced lung injury by limiting lung cell apoptosis and shifting the host inflammatory setting toward resolution of inflammation.
Project description:To compare local and systemic profiles between different disease pathologies (pneumonia and encephalitis) induced by influenza A virus (IAV).An IAV pneumonia model was created by intranasal inoculation of C57BL/6 mice with influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus. Lung lavage and blood collection were performed on day 3 after IAV inoculation. Similarly, an IAV encephalitis mouse model was created by direct intracranial IAV inoculation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood collection were conducted according to the same schedule. Cytokine/chemokine profiles were produced for each collected sample. Then the data were compared visually using radar charts.Serum cytokine profiles were similar in pneumonia and encephalitis models, but local responses between the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in the pneumonia model and CSF in the encephalitis model differed. Moreover, to varying degrees, the profiles of local cytokines/chemokines differed from those of serum in both the pneumonia and encephalitis models.Investigating local samples such as BALF and CSF is important for evaluating local immune responses, providing insight into pathology at the primary loci of infection. Serum data alone might be insufficient to elucidate local immune responses and might not enable clinicians to devise the most appropriate treatment strategies.
Project description:Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) cleaves various proteins to regulate inflammatory and injury responses. However, MMP-9's activities during influenza A viral (IAV) infections are incompletely understood. Herein, plasma MMP-9 levels were increased in patients with pandemic H1N1 and seasonal IAV infections. MMP-9 lung levels were increased and localized to airway epithelial cells and leukocytes in H1N1-infected WT murine lungs. H1N1-infected Mmp-9-/- mice had lower mortality rates, reduced weight loss, lower lung viral titers, and reduced lung injury, along with lower E-cadherin shedding in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples than WT mice. H1N1-infected Mmp-9-/- mice had an altered immune response to IAV with lower BALF PMN and macrophage counts, higher Th1-like CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, lower T regulatory cell counts, reduced lung type I interferon levels, and higher lung interferon-? levels. Mmp-9 bone marrow-chimera studies revealed that Mmp-9 deficiency in lung parenchymal cells protected mice from IAV-induced mortality. H1N1-infected Mmp-9-/- lung epithelial cells had lower viral titers than H1N1-infected WT cells in vitro. Thus, H1N1-infected Mmp-9-/- mice are protected from IAV-induced lung disease due to a more effective adaptive immune response to IAV and reduced epithelial barrier injury due partly to reduced E-cadherin shedding. Thus, we believe that MMP-9 is a novel therapeutic target for IAV infections.
Project description:We previously reported that neonatal mice infected with influenza A virus (IAV) develop interstitial pneumonia characterized by reduced lung cytokine and chemokine responses. The failure of T cells to infiltrate the airways of neonates correlated with delayed clearance of sublethal IAV infections compared to adults. We hypothesized that negative regulators in the neonatal lungs such as cytokines or T regulatory (Treg) cells are responsible for these differences. Neonates either deficient in interleukin-10 (IL-10) or with T cells unresponsive to transforming growth factor-? signaling due to absence of SMAD family member 4 (Smad4) had similar IAV clearance kinetics to wild-type pups and no difference in T-cell responses. In contrast, functional depletion of Treg cells with anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody resulted in increased proportions of activated CD4(+) T cells in the lungs, but failure to clear IAV. Similarly, scurfy pups (mutation in forkhead box P3 [Foxp3] rendering them deficient in Treg cells) had increased proportions of activated T cells in the lungs compared to littermate controls. Scurfy pups also had increased proportions of IL-13-producing CD4(+) T cells. Interestingly, like anti-CD25-treated pups, scurfy pups had significantly elevated viral loads compared to controls. Based on these data, we conclude that Tregs are critical for clearance of IAV in neonatal mice.
Project description:Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is the most common multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogen and VAP caused by PA carries a high rate of morbidity and mortality. This study examined the molecular mechanism of PA VAP-induced lung injury. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice and JNK1 knockout (JNK1-/-) mice received mechanical ventilation (MV) for 3 h at 2 days after receiving nasal instillation of PA. The WT and JNK1-/- mice also received MV after the induction of lung injury by instillation of supernatants from PA-stimulated alveolar macrophages (AMs). AMs isolated from WT, I?B-kinase (IKK)??Mye (IKK? was selectively deleted in macrophages), and JNK1-/- mice were ex vivo stimulated with live PA and supernatants were collected for cytokine assay. Intranasal instillation of 106 PA enhanced MV-induced NF-?B DNA binding activity in the lungs and nitrite levels in BALF. MV after PA instillation significantly increased the expression of ICAM and VCAM in the lungs and TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of WT mice, but not in JNK1-/- mice. MV after supernatant instillation induced more total protein concentration in BALF and neutrophil sequestration in the lungs in WT mice than JNK1-/- mice and cytokine assay of supernatants indicated that TNF-? is a critical regulator of PA VAP-induced lung injury. Ex vivo PA stimulation induced TNF-? production by AMs from WT as well as JNK1-/- mice but not IKK??Mye mice. In summary, PA colonization plays an important role in PA VAP-induced lung injury through the induction of JNK1-mediated inflammation. These results suggest that the pathogenesis mechanism of PA VAP involves production of TNF-? through activation of IKK/NF-?B pathways in AMs and JNK signaling pathway in the lungs.
Project description:Rats with Metabolic Syndrome (MetaS) have a dysregulated immune response to the aseptic trauma of surgery. We hypothesized that rats with MetaS would have dysregulated inflammation, increased lung injury, and less effective antibacterial defenses during Staphylococcus (S.) aureus sepsis as compared to rats without MetaS. Low capacity runner (LCR; a model of MetaS) and high capacity runner (HCR) rats were challenged intravenously with S. aureus bacteria. After 48 h, inflammatory mediators and bacteria were quantified in the blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung homogenates. Lungs were analyzed histologically. BALF protein and lung wet-dry ratios were quantified to assess for vascular leak. Endpoints were compared in infected LCR vs HCR rats. LCR rats had higher blood and lung S. aureus counts, as well as higher levels of IL-6 in plasma, lungs and BALF, MIP-2 in plasma and lung, and IL-17A in lungs. Conversely, LCR rats had lower levels of IL-10 in plasma and lungs. Although lactate levels, and liver and renal function tests were similar between groups, LCR rats had higher BALF protein and lung wet-dry ratios, and more pronounced acute lung injury histologically. During S. aureus bacteremia, as compared with HCR rats, LCR (MetaS) rats have heightened pro-inflammatory responses, accompanied by increased acute lung injury and vascular leak. Notably, despite an augmented pro-inflammatory phenotype, LCR rats have higher bacterial levels in their blood and lungs. The MetaS state may exacerbate lung injury and vascular leak by attenuating the inflammation-resolving response, and by weakening antimicrobial defenses.
Project description:Influenza A virus (IAV) infections are a common cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Oxidative stress is increased in COPD, IAV-induced lung inflammation and AECOPD. Therefore, we investigated whether targeting oxidative stress with the Nox2 oxidase inhibitors and ROS scavengers, apocynin and ebselen could ameliorate lung inflammation in a mouse model of AECOPD. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) generated from 9 cigarettes per day for 4 days. On day 5, mice were infected with 1 × 10(4.5) PFUs of the IAV Mem71 (H3N1). BALF inflammation, viral titers, superoxide production and whole lung cytokine, chemokine and protease mRNA expression were assessed 3 and 7 days post infection. IAV infection resulted in a greater increase in BALF inflammation in mice that had been exposed to CS compared to non-smoking mice. This increase in BALF inflammation in CS-exposed mice caused by IAV infection was associated with elevated gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and proteases, compared to CS alone mice. Apocynin and ebselen significantly reduced the exacerbated BALF inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine, chemokine and protease expression caused by IAV infection in CS mice. Targeting oxidative stress using apocynin and ebselen reduces IAV-induced lung inflammation in CS-exposed mice and may be therapeutically exploited to alleviate AECOPD.
Project description:Evidence regarding the impact of air pollution on acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is limited, and most studies focus on ARDS onset. Our study aimed to evaluate whether exposure to fine particulate matter interferes with lung recovery and remodeling in a murine model of acute lung injury. Forty-eight mice received nebulized LPS or the vehicle (controls). Blood, BALF, lungs and spleen were collected after 5 weeks of exposure to either PM2.5 (PM and LPS?+?PM group) or filtered air (control and LPS5w groups). Inflammatory cells and cytokines were assessed in the blood, BALF, lungs and spleen. Stereological analyses and remodeling assessments were performed by histology. The LPS?+?PM group showed increased BALF leukocytes, characterized by increased macrophages, increased IL-1? and IL-6 levels, anemia and thrombocytopenia. Moreover, we also observed septal thickening, decreased alveolar air space total volume and, septa surface density. Finally, regarding tissue remodeling, we observed elastosis of the lung parenchyma, and unlike in the LPS5w group, we did not observe fibrosis in the LPS?+?PM group. In conclusion, the delayed inflammation resolution due to subchronic exposure to PM2.5 could be influenced by low systemic and local lymphocyte counts, which lead to impaired lung injury recovery and tissue remodeling.
Project description:Innate immune effectors constitute the first line of host defense against pathogens. However, the roles of these effectors are not clearly defined during Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) respiratory infection. In the current study, we established an acute pneumonia model of K. pneumoniae respiratory infection in mice and confirmed that the injury was most severe 48?h post infection. Flow cytometric assay demonstrated that alveolar macrophages were the predominant cells in BALF before infection, and neutrophils were quickly recruited after infection, and this was in consistent with the kinetics of chemokine expression. Further, we depleted neutrophils, macrophages, and complement pathways in vivo and challenged these mice with a sublethal dose of K. pneumonia, the result showed that 80%, 60%, and 40% of mice were died in these groups, respectively, while no deaths occurred in the control group. Besides, innate immune effector depleted mice showed higher bacterial burdens in lungs and blood, companied with more severe lung damage and increased levels of cytokine/chemokine expression. These results demonstrated that the innate immune effectors are critical in the early controlling of K. pneumoniae infection, and neutrophils are the most important. Thus, alternative strategies targeting these innate immune effectors may be effective in controlling of K. pneumoniae respiratory infection.
Project description:Th17 immunity in the gastrointestinal tract is regulated by the intestinal microbiota composition, particularly the presence of segmented filamentous bacteria (sfb), but the role of the intestinal microbiota in pulmonary host defense is not well explored. We tested whether altering the gut microbiota by acquiring sfb influences the susceptibility to staphylococcal pneumonia via induction of type 17 immunity. Groups of C57BL/6 mice which differed in their intestinal colonization with sfb were challenged with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an acute lung infection model. Bacterial burdens, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell counts, cell types, and cytokine levels were compared between mice from different vendors, mice from both vendors after cohousing, mice given sfb orally prior to infection, and mice with and without exogenous interleukin-22 (IL-22) or anti-IL-22 antibodies. Mice lacking sfb developed more severe S. aureus pneumonia than mice colonized with sfb, as indicated by higher bacterial burdens in the lungs, lung inflammation, and mortality. This difference was reduced when sfb-negative mice acquired sfb in their gut microbiota through cohousing with sfb-positive mice or when given sfb orally. Levels of type 17 immune effectors in the lung were higher after infection in sfb-positive mice and increased in sfb-negative mice after acquisition of sfb, as demonstrated by higher levels of IL-22 and larger numbers of IL-22(+) TCR?(+) cells and neutrophils in BALF. Exogenous IL-22 protected mice from S. aureus pneumonia. The murine gut microbiota, particularly the presence of sfb, promotes pulmonary type 17 immunity and resistance to S. aureus pneumonia, and IL-22 protects against severe pulmonary staphylococcal infection.