Rootstock-Scion Interaction Affects Cadmium Accumulation and Tolerance of Malus.
ABSTRACT: To understand the roles of Malus rootstock, scion, and their interaction in Cd accumulation and tolerance, four scion/rootstock combinations consisting of the apple cultivars "Hanfu" (HF) and "Fuji" (FJ) grafted onto M. baccata (Mb) or M. micromalus "qingzhoulinqin" (Mm) rootstocks differing in relative Cd tolerance were exposed either to 0 µM or 50 µM CdCl2 for 18 d. Cd accumulation and tolerance in grafted Malus plants varied within rootstock, scion, and rootstock-scion interaction. Cd-induced decreases in photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigment level, and biomass were lower for HF grafted onto Mb than those for HF grafted onto Mm. Reductions in growth and photosynthetic rate were always the lowest for HF/Mb. Cd concentration, bioconcentration factor (BCF), and translocation factor (Tf ) were always comparatively higher in HF and FJ grafted onto rootstock Mm than in HF and FJ grafted on Mb, respectively. When HF and FJ were grafted onto the same rootstock, the root Cd concentrations were always higher in HF than FJ, whereas the shoot Cd concentrations displayed the opposite trend. The shoot Cd concentrations and Tf were lower for HF/Mb than the other scion/rootstock combinations. Rootstock, scion, and rootstock-scion interaction also affected subcellular Cd distribution. Immobilization of Cd in the root cell walls may be a primary Cd mobility and toxicity reduction strategy in Malus. The rootstock and scion also had statistically significant influences on ROS level and antioxidant activity. Cd induced more severe oxidative stress in HF and FJ grafted onto Mm than it did in HF and FJ grafted onto Mb. Compared with FJ, HF had lower foliar O2 -, root H2O2, and root and leaf MDA levels, but higher ROS-scavenging capacity. The rootstock, scion, and rootstock-scion interaction affected the mRNA transcript levels of several genes involved in Cd uptake, transport, and detoxification including HA7, FRO2-like, NRAMP1, NRAMP3, HMA4, MT2, NAS1, and ABCC1. Hence, the responses of grafted Malus plants to Cd toxicity vary with rootstock, scion, and rootstock-scion interaction.
Project description:The development of water stress resistant lines of commercial tomato by breeding or genetic engineering is possible, but will take considerable time before commercial varieties are available for production. However, grafting commercial tomato lines on drought resistant rootstock may produce drought tolerant commercial tomato lines much more rapidly. Due to changing climates and the need for commercial production of vegetables in low quality fields there is an urgent need for stress tolerant commercial lines of vegetables such as tomato. In previous observations we identified a scion root stock combination ('BHN 602' scion grafted onto 'Jjak Kkung' rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Jjak) that had a qualitative drought-tolerance phenotype when compared to the non-grafted line. Based on this initial observation, we studied photosynthesis and vegetative above-ground growth during mild-drought for the 602/Jjak compared with another scion-rootstock combination ('BHN 602' scion grafted onto 'Cheong Gang' rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Cheong) and a non-grafted control. Overall above ground vegetative growth was significantly lower for 602/Jjak in comparison to the other plant lines. Moreover, water potential reduction in response to mild drought was significantly less for 602/Jjak, yet stomatal conductance of all plant-lines were equally inhibited by mild-drought. Light saturated photosynthesis of 602/Jjak was less affected by low water potential than the other two lines as was the % reduction in mesophyll conductance. Therefore, the Jjak Kkung rootstock caused aboveground growth reduction, water conservation and increased photosynthetic tolerance of mild drought. These data show that different rootstocks can change the photosynthetic responses to drought of a high yielding, commercial tomato line. Also, this rapid discovery of one scion-rootstock combination that provided mild-drought tolerance suggests that screening more scion-rootstock combination for stress tolerance may rapidly yield commercially viable, stress tolerant lines of tomato.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The root architecture of grafted apple (Malus spp.) is affected by various characteristics of the scions. To provide information on the molecular mechanisms underlying this influence, we examined root transcriptomes of M. robusta rootstock grafted with scions of wild-type (WT) apple (M. spectabilis) and a more-branching (MB) mutant at the branching stage. RESULTS:The growth rate of rootstock grafted MB was repressed significantly, especially the primary root length and diameter, and root weight. Biological function categories of differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched in processes associated with hormone signal transduction and intracellular activity, with processes related to the cell cycle especially down-regulated. Roots of rootstock grafted with MB scions displayed elevated auxin and cytokinin contents and reduced expression of MrPIN1, MrARF, MrAHP, most MrCRE1 genes, and cell growth-related genes MrGH3, MrSAUR and MrTCH4. Although auxin accumulation and transcription of MrPIN3, MrALF1 and MrALF4 tended to induce lateral root formation in MB-grafted rootstock, the number of lateral roots was not significantly changed. Sucrose, fructose and glucose contents were not decreased in MB-grafted roots compared with those bearing WT scions, but glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolic activities were repressed. Root resistance and nitrogen metabolism were reduced in MB-grafted roots as well. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that root growth and development of rootstock are mainly influenced by sugar metabolism and auxin and cytokinin signaling pathways. This study provides a basis that the characteristics of scions are related to root growth and development, resistance and activity of rootstocks.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE41309: Differential expression in response to water deficit in diploid leaves of sweet orange scion grafted alternatively on a diploid or auto-tetraploid Rangpur lime rootstock: data concerning the scion grafted onto diploid rootstock. GSE41310: Differential expression in response to water deficit in diploid leaves of sweet orange scion grafted alternatively on a diploid or auto-tetraploid Rangpur lime rootstock: data concerning the scion grafted onto tetraploid rootstock Refer to individual Series
Project description:Grafting is a well-established practice for grapevine to facilitate propagation of productive and tolerant cultivars against several stress factors. It is also considered to be a suitable method for studying molecular aspects of root-to-shoot and/or shoot-to-root signaling events. So far, controlling only effect of rootstock over scion was investigated and root-to-shoot transcriptomic alterations were fallowed on the scions or graft interfaces. The objective of this study was to investigate transcriptomic and physiological influence of scion on the rootstock under drought stress. Therefore, drought tolerant 110R rootstock were firstly grafted with sultana seedless and tested under drought stress with its non-grafted counterpart. The results of treatment indicated that grafted 110R performed the highest root elongation under drought. We carried out a microarray based transcriptome analysis on the roots of grafted and non-grafted 110R to explain this drought derived interaction through scion-to-rootstock. The highest expression increase under drought was recorded for sugar (SWEET) and nitrate or di/tri-peptide (NRT1/ PTR FAMILY) transporter proteins. Expression level of these genes was more highly increased in grafted 110R than its non-grafted counterpart. This situation indicated their potential role in drought tolerance and scion/rootstock harmony. Overexpression of these transporters attributed to increased amount of released nutrient and nitrogen source from abscised leaves of sultana seedless under drought. Remobilization of these rich sources was suggested to chance transcriptomic response of rootstocks and enabled much better growth in grafted 110R. Other transcripts annotated to cell wall modification enzymes (chitinases), osmoregulator proteins (dehydrins, proline-glycine rich proteins) and secondary metabolites (stilbene synthase) were also more highly induced in grafted 110R. This is the first report indicating transcriptomic influence of scion on the grapevine rootstocks and representing the genes responsible in scion/rootstock harmony and drought tolerance. Overall design: Total RNA used in the microarray experiment was isolated from the roots of two grafted and non-grafted 110R rootstock, which is known to be tolerant to drought stress, grown under well watered and drought treated conditions. RNA isolation was made according to Lithium chloride precipitation method described in Chang et al. (1993). These two isolated RNAs (biological replicates) for grafted and non-grafted plants loaded onto two Affymetrix Vitis Genome arrays (technical replicates). Totally, 8 GeneChips (2 rootstock/scion combination x 2 different water availability x 2 biological replicates) were used for transcriptional analysis.
Project description:Vitis vinifera scions are commonly grafted onto rootstocks of other grape species to influence scion vigour and provide resistance to soil-borne pests and abiotic stress; however, the mechanisms by which rootstocks affect scion physiology remain unknown. This study characterized the hydraulic physiology of Vitis rootstocks that vary in vigour classification by investigating aquaporin (VvPIP) gene expression, fine-root hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)), % aquaporin contribution to Lp(r), scion transpiration, and the size of root systems. Expression of several VvPIP genes was consistently greater in higher-vigour rootstocks under favourable growing conditions in a variety of media and in root tips compared to mature fine roots. Similar to VvPIP expression patterns, fine-root Lp(r) and % aquaporin contribution to Lp(r) determined under both osmotic (Lp(r)(Osm)) and hydrostatic (Lp(r)(Hyd)) pressure gradients were consistently greater in high-vigour rootstocks. Interestingly, the % aquaporin contribution was nearly identical for Lp(r)(Osm) and Lp(r)(Hyd) even though a hydrostatic gradient would induce a predominant flow across the apoplastic pathway. In common scion greenhouse experiments, leaf area-specific transpiration (E) and total leaf area increased with rootstock vigour and were positively correlated with fine-root Lp(r). These results suggest that increased canopy water demands for scion grafted onto high-vigour rootstocks are matched by adjustments in root-system hydraulic conductivity through the combination of fine-root Lp(r) and increased root surface area.
Project description:Grafted plant is a chimeric organism formed by the connection of scion and rootstock through stems, so stem growth and development become one of the important factors to affect grafted plant state. However, information regarding the molecular responses of stems secondary growth after grafting is limited. A grafted Rosa plant, with R. rugosa 'Rosea' as the scion (Rr_scion) grafted onto R. multiflora 'Innermis' as the stock (Rm_stock), has been shown to significantly improve stem thickness. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of stem secondary growth in grafted plant, a genome-wide transcription analysis was performed using an RNA sequence (RNA-seq) method between the scion and rootstock. Comparing ungrafted R. rugosa 'Rosea' (Rr) and R. multiflora 'Innermis' (Rm) plants, there were much more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified in Rr_scion (6887) than Rm_stock (229). Functional annotations revealed that DEGs in Rr_scion are involved in two Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways: the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis metabolism and plant hormone signal transduction, whereas DEGs in Rm_stock were associated with starch and sucrose metabolism pathway. Moreover, different kinds of signal transduction-related DEGs, e.g., receptor-like serine/threonine protein kinases (RLKs), transcription factor (TF), and transporters, were identified and could affect the stem secondary growth of both the scion and rootstock. This work provided new information regarding the underlying molecular mechanism between scion and rootstock after grafting.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although it is known that resistant rootstocks facilitate management of fire blight disease, incited by Erwinia amylovora, the role of rootstock root traits in providing systemic defense against E. amylovora is unclear. In this study, the hypothesis that rootstocks of higher root vigor provide higher tolerance to fire blight infection in apples is tested. Several apple scion genotypes grafted onto a single rootstock genotype and non-grafted 'M.7' rootstocks of varying root vigor are used to assess phenotypic and molecular relationships between root traits of rootstocks and fire blight susceptibility of apple scion cultivars. RESULTS:It is observed that different root traits display significant (p?<?0.05) negative correlations with fire blight susceptibility. In fact, root surface area partially dictates differential levels of fire blight susceptibility of 'M.7' rootstocks. Furthermore, contrasting changes in gene expression patterns of diverse molecular pathways accompany observed differences in levels of root-driven fire blight susceptibility. It is noted that a singular co-expression gene network consisting of genes from defense, carbohydrate metabolism, protein kinase activity, oxidation-reduction, and stress response pathways modulates root-dependent fire blight susceptibility in apple. In particular, WRKY75 and UDP-glycotransferase are singled-out as hub genes deserving of further detailed analysis. CONCLUSIONS:It is proposed that low root mass may incite resource-limiting conditions to activate carbohydrate metabolic pathways, which reciprocally interact with plant immune system genes to elicit differential levels of fire blight susceptibility.
Project description:Sensory quality is of increasing importance to consumer decisions in choosing a product, and it is certainly an important factor in repurchasing in terms of meeting the necessary aroma quality and taste properties. To better understand the effects of rootstocks and scions on fruit quality, the sensory profile and volatile aroma composition of the fruits of hydroponically grown tomato plants were evaluated. Experiments were established using the tomato cultivars Clarabella and Estatio as scions during two spring-summer seasons. In both experiments, the scion plants were self-grafted or grafted onto rootstocks of cultivars Arnold, Buffon, Emperador, and Maxifort, with the exception that in experiment 1, the Estatio scion was not grafted onto Buffon. The scions and rootstocks caused differences in observed sensory properties in both experiments. For most of the sensory traits, interaction effects between scion and rootstock were observed. Compared to those obtained from self-grafted Clarabella, the fruits obtained from Clarabella grafted onto Buffon in the first experiment and Clarabella grafted onto Arnold in the second experiment were sweeter by one measurement unit. The contents of seven aldehydes, six alcohols, five terpenes and two ketones were determined. A lower accumulation of total aldehydes, 22-45%, due to lower amounts of pentanal, (<i>E</i>)-2-heptanal and (<i>E,E</i>)-2,4-decadienal, was found in the fruits from plants where Estatio was rootstock compared with the other rootstocks treatments. Clarabella as a rootstock increased (<i>Z</i>)-3-hexenal + (<i>E</i>)-2-hexenal accumulation from 35 to 65%. Grafting Clarabella onto the tested rootstocks led to a change in the composition of volatile compounds, while differences between the combinations with Estatio as a scion were generally not recorded. Fruits from self-grafted Clarabella had higher (<i>Z</i>)-3-hexenal + (<i>E</i>)-2-hexenal concentrations than did fruits from Clarabella grafted onto Arnold (for 54%) and Emperador (for 68%), and in the second experiment, grafting onto all commercial rootstocks reduced (<i>Z</i>)-3-hexenal + (<i>E</i>)-2-hexenal concentrations, from 25 to 74%, compared to those from self-grafted Clarabella. Higher (+)-2-carene and (-)-caryophyllene oxide concentrations were attained in plants in which Clarabella was grafted onto Maxifort (by 56%) and plants in which Estatio was grafted onto Arnold (by 36%) compared to self-grafted plants. This study showed the possibility of altering the composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory properties of tomato fruits by the use of grafting techniques.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Grafting is widely used in horticulture and rootstocks are known to modify scion growth and adaptation to soil conditions. However, the role of scion genotype in regulating rootstock development and functioning has remained largely unexplored. In this study, reciprocal grafts of two grapevine genotypes were produced as well as the corresponding homo-graft controls. These plants were subjected to a low phosphate (LP) treatment and transcriptome profiling by RNA sequencing was done on root samples collected 27?h after the onset of the LP treatment. RESULTS:A set of transcripts responsive to the LP treatment in all scion/rootstock combinations was identified. Gene expression patterns associated with genetic variation in response to LP were identified by comparing the response of the two homo-grafts. In addition, the scion was shown to modify root transcriptome responses to LP in a rootstock dependent manner. A weighted gene co-expression network analysis identified modules of correlated genes; the analysis of the association of these modules with the phosphate treatment, and the scion and rootstock genotype identified potential hub genes. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides insights into the response of grafted grapevine to phosphate supply and identifies potential shoot-to-root signals that could vary between different grapevine genotypes.
Project description:Rootstocks are among the main factors that influence grape development as well as fruit and wine composition. In this work, rootstock/scion interactions were studied using transcriptomic and metabolic approaches on leaves of the "Gaglioppo" variety, grafted onto 13 different rootstocks growing in the same vineyard. The whole leaf transcriptome of "Gaglioppo" grafted onto five selected rootstocks showed high variability in gene expression. In particular, significant modulation of transcripts linked to primary and secondary metabolism was observed. Interestingly, genes and metabolites involved in defense responses (e.g., stilbenes and defense genes) were strongly activated particularly in the GAG-41B combination, characterized in addition by the down-regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism. On the contrary, the leaves of "Gaglioppo" grafted onto 1103 Paulsen showed an opposite regulations of those transcripts and metabolites, together with the greater sensitivity to downy mildew in a preliminary in vitro assay. This study carried out an extensive transcriptomic analysis of rootstock effects on scion leaves, helping to unravel this complex interaction, and suggesting an interesting correlation among constitutive stilbenes, ABA compound, and disease susceptibility to a fungal pathogen.