Pro-cathepsin D as a diagnostic marker in differentiating malignant from benign pleural effusion: a retrospective cohort study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) causes substantial symptomatic burden in advanced malignancy. Although pleural fluid cytology is a commonly accepted gold standard of diagnosis, its low diagnostic yield is a challenge for clinicians. The aim of this study was to determine whether pro-cathepsin D can serve as a novel biomarker to discriminate between MPE and benign pleural effusion (BPE). METHODS:This study included 81 consecutive patients with exudative pleural effusions who had underwent thoracentesis or pleural biopsy. Pleural fluid and serum were collected as a standard procedure for all individuals at the same time. The level of pro-cathepsin D was measured by the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. RESULTS:Though there were no significant differences in plasma pro-cathepsin D between the two groups, the level of pleural fluid pro-cathepsin D was significantly higher in the MPE group than the BPE group (0.651 versus 0.590?pg/mL, P?=?0.034). The discriminative power of pleural fluid pro-cathepsin D for diagnosing MPE was moderate, with 81% sensitivity and 53% specificity at a pro-cathepsin D cut-off ?0.596?pg/mL (area under the curve: 0.656). Positive and negative predictive values for MPE were 38 and 89%, respectively, with pro-cathepsin D cut-off value (>?0.596?pg/mL). CONCLUSIONS:The level of pleural fluid pro-cathepsin D was found to be significantly higher in MPE than in BPE. Although results of this study could not support the sole use of pleural fluid pro-cathepsin D to diagnose MPE, pleural fluid pro-cathepsin D can be added to pre-existing diagnostic methods for ruling-in or ruling-out MPE.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pleural fluid homocysteine (HCY) can be useful for diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion (MPE). There are no published studies comparing the diagnostic accuracy of HCY with other tumour markers in pleural fluid for diagnosis of MPE. The aim was to compare the accuracy of HCY with that of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen (CA) 15.3, CA19.9 and CA125 in pleural fluid and to develop a probabilistic model using these biomarkers to differentiate benign (BPE) from MPE. METHODS:Patients with pleural effusion were randomly included. HCY, CEA, CA15.3, CEA19.9 and CA125 were quantified in pleural fluid. Patients were classified into two groups: MPE or BPE. By applying logistic regression analysis, a multivariate probabilistic model was developed using pleural fluid biomarkers. The diagnostic accuracy was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and calculating the area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS:Population of study comprised 133 patients (72 males and 61 females) aged between 1 and 96 years (median = 70 years), 81 BPE and 52 MPE. The logistic regression analysis included HCY (p<0.0001) and CEA (p = 0.0022) in the probabilistic model and excluded the other tumour markers. The probabilistic model was: HCY+CEA = Probability(%) = 100×(1+e-z)-1, where Z = 0.5471×[HCY]+0.3846×[CEA]-8.2671. The AUCs were 0.606, 0.703, 0.778, 0.800, 0.846 and 0.948 for CA125, CA19.9, CEA, CA15.3, HCY and HCY+CEA, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Pleural fluid HCY has higher accuracy for diagnosis of MPE than CEA, CA15.3, CA19.9 and CA125. The combination of HCY and CEA concentrations in pleural fluid significantly improves the diagnostic accuracy of the test.
Project description:Over-expressed endothelial-cell-specific molecule-1 (ESM-1) in tumor vascular endothelium contributes to tumor angiogenesis, metastasis, and poor prognosis. However, the content of ESM-1 in pleural effusion is unclear. A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic values of ESM-1 with malignant pleural effusions in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ESM-1 levels in malignant pleural effusion (MPE) from 70 patients with NSCLC and 50 cases of benign pleural effusion (BPE) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated to assess the diagnostic value of ESM-1. Survival curves were performed by Kaplan-Meier method and survival characteristics were compared by log-rank test. Univariable and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model were carried out to analysis the significance of different prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). ESM-1 levels were significantly higher in MPE than those in BPE (p < 0.001). By ROC curve analysis, with a cutoff level of 19.58 ng/ml, the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for ESM-1 diagnosis MPE were 82.5%, 81.4%, and 84.0%, respectively. Moreover, NSCLC patients with pleural fluid ESM-1 levels below 19.58 ng/ml had significant longer OS than those patients with higher levels (22.09 months vs. 11.49 months, p = 0.003). Multivariate survival analysis showed that high MPE ESM-1 level was an independent prognostic factor (HR, 1.007; p = 0.039) for the OS of NSCLC patients. This study showed that ESM-1 level in pleural effusion could be a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker in NSCLC patients with MPE.
Project description:Discriminating between malignant pleural effusion (MPE) and benign pleural effusion (BPE) remains difficult. Thus, novel and efficient biomarkers are required for the diagnosis of pleural effusion (PE). The aim of this study was to validate calprotectin as a diagnostic biomarker of PE in clinical settings. A total of 425 patients were recruited, and the pleural fluid samples collected had BPE in 223 cases (53.7%) or MPE in 137 patients (33%). The samples were all analysed following the same previously validated clinical laboratory protocols and methodology. Calprotectin levels ranged from 772.48 to 3,163.8?ng/mL (median: 1,939?ng/mL) in MPE, and 3,216-24,000?ng/mL in BPE (median: 9,209?ng/mL; p?<?0.01), with an area under the curve of 0.848 [95% CI: 0.810-0.886]. For a cut-off value of ? 6,233.2?ng/mL, we found 96% sensitivity and 60% specificity, with a negative and positive predictive value, and negative and positive likelihood ratios of 96%, 57%, 0.06, and 2.4, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that low calprotectin levels was a better discriminator of PE than any other variable [OR 28.76 (p?<?0.0001)]. Our results confirm that calprotectin is a new and useful diagnostic biomarker in patients with PE of uncertain aetiology which has potential applications in clinical practice because it may be a good complement to cytological methods.
Project description:Background:Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a common medical problem caused by multiple malignancies, especially lung cancers, and always comes along with a poor outcome. Early detection and diagnosis are important for improving the prognosis in patients with MPE. Salivary microRNAs (miRNAs) may represent a relatively convenient way for diagnosing MPE. We investigated the characteristics of salivary miRNAs of MPE patients, benign pleural effusion (BPE) patients, patients with a malignant tumor but without pleural effusion (MT), and healthy controls (HCs). We believe that they may show potential as a non-invasive and convenient biomarker for diagnosing MPE. Methods:From January 1, 2019, to July 1, 2019, 57 MPE patients, 33 BPE patients, 50 MT patients, and 49 HCs were enrolled. To select candidate biomarkers, in the discovery phase, the salivary miRNA profiles were detected in three MPE patients and three HCs. Then, qPCR was used in the validation phase with 54 MPE patients, 33 BPE patients, 50 MT patients, and 46 HCs to assay the selected miRNAs. Results:hsa-miR-4484 and hsa-miR-3663-3p were identified as potential biomarkers to diagnose MPE patients, with areas under the curve (AUC) of 0.768 and 0.666, respectively. The diagnostic efficacy was higher when the combination of both miRNAs was used, with an AUC of 0.802. No correlation was found between the volume of MPE and the expression of salivary miRNAs. Conclusions:This study reports the characterization of salivary miRNAs collected from MPE patients. A combination of hsa-miR-4484 and hsa-miR-3663-3p showed potential discriminatory power for MPE detection, and it may be helpful for the early diagnosis of MPE, i.e., before the pleural effusion volume is too large.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pleural effusion (PE) can be divided into benign pleural effusion (BPE) and malignant pleural effusion (MPE). There is no consensus on the identification of lung cancer-associated MPE using the optimal cut-off levels from five common tumor biomarkers (CEA, CYFRA 21-1, CA125, SCC-Ag, and NSE). Therefore, we aimed to find indicators for the auxiliary diagnosis of lung cancer-associated MPE by analyzing and then validating the optimal threshold levels of these biomarkers in pleural fluid (PF) and serum, as well as the PF/serum ratio. PATIENTS AND METHOD:The study has two sets of patients, i.e. the training set and the test set. In the training set, 348 patients with PE, between January 1, 2016 and December 31, 2017, were divided into BPE and MPE based on the cytological diagnosis. Subsequently, the optimal cut-off levels of tumor biomarkers were analyzed. In the test set, the diagnostic compliance rate was verified with 271 patients with PE from January 1, 2018 to July 31, 2019 to evaluate the auxiliary diagnostic value of the aforementioned indicators. RESULT:In the training set, PF CEA at the cut-off value of 5.23 ng/ml was the most effective indicator for MPE compared with other tumor biomarkers (all p?<?0.001). In the test set, PF CEA at the cut-off value of 5.23 ng/ml showed the highest sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, positive and negative predictive value among other tumor biomarkers, which were 99.0%, 69.1%, 91.6%, 90.7%, and 95.9%, respectively. CONCLUSION:PF CEA at the cut-off level of 5.23 ng/ml was the most effective indicator for identifying lung cancer-associated MPE among the five common tumor biomarkers.
Project description:Circulating cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) are potential biomarkers of cancer. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is widely used in miRNA expression studies. The aim of this study was to identify suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analyses of miRNA expression levels in pleural effusion. The expression levels of candidate reference miRNAs were investigated in 10 benign pleural effusion (BPE) and 10 lung adenocarcinoma-associated malignant pleural effusion (LA-MPE) samples using miRNA microarrays. The expression levels of candidate reference miRNAs, together with those of U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA), RNU6B, RNU44 and RNU48 small RNAs, in 46 BPE and 45 LA-MPE samples were validated by RT-qPCR, and were analyzed using the NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The impact of different normalization approaches on the detection of differential expression levels of miR-198 in BPE and LA-MPE samples was also assessed. As determined by the miRNA microarray data, five candidate reference miRNAs were identified. Following RT-qPCR validation, U6 snRNA, miR-192, miR-20a, miR-221, miR-222 and miR-16 were evaluated using the NormFinder and BestKeeper software programs. U6 snRNA and miR-192 were identified as single reference genes and the combination of these genes was preferred for the relative quantification of miRNA expression levels in pleural effusion. Normalization of miR-98 expression levels to those of U6 snRNA, miR-192 or a combination of these genes enabled the detection of a significant difference between BPE and LA-MPE samples. Therefore, U6 snRNA and miR-192 are recommended as reference genes for the relative quantification of miRNA expression levels in pleural effusion.
Project description:The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic value of IL-31 levels in the pleural fluid and plasma to differentially diagnose tuberculous and malignant pleural effusion. We enrolled 91 cases, including tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE, n = 50), malignant pleural effusion (MPE, n = 41), other cases including pneumonia with pleural fluid, pulmonary tuberculosis and healthy people as controls. Whole blood was stimulated with the M. tuberculosis-specific antigens and plasma was collected. The multiplex bead-based cytokine immunoassay was employed to measure the levels of various cytokines. IL-31 was found to be the most prominent cytokine (P < 0.0001), and with an optimal cut-off value of 67.5 pg/mL, the sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of TPE were 86% and 100%, respectively. Furthermore, the tuberculosis-specific IL-31 levels in the plasma of TPE patients were higher than that of MPE patients (P = 0.0002). At an optimal cut-off value of 23.9 pg/mL, the sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of TPE were 92.9% and 85.7%, respectively. Ultimately, the combination of pleural fluid with the plasma tuberculosis-specific IL-31 levels improved the sensitivity and specificity to 94.0% and 95.1%, respectively. Thus, we identified a novel biomarker for the diagnosis of TPE for clinical application.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:There is ongoing research into the development of novel molecular markers that may complement fluid cytology malignant pleural effusion (MPE) diagnosis. In this exploratory pilot study, we hypothesized that there are distinct differences in the pleural fluid microbiome profile of malignant and non-malignant pleural diseases. METHOD:From a prospectively enrolled pleural fluid biorepository, samples of MPE were included. Non-MPE effusion were included as comparators. 16S rRNA gene V4 region amplicon sequencing was performed. Exact Sequence Variants (ESVs) were used for diversity analyses. The Shannon and Richness indices of alpha diversity and UniFrac beta diversity measures were tested for significance using permutational multivariate analysis of variance. Analyses of Composition of Microbiome was used to identify differentially abundant bacterial ESVs between the groups controlled for multiple hypothesis testing. RESULTS:38 patients with MPE and 9 with non-MPE were included. A subgroup of patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma histology were identified among MPE group (adenocarcinoma of lung origin (LA-MPE) = 11, breast origin (BA-MPE) = 11). MPE presented with significantly greater alpha diversity compared to non-MPE group. Within the MPE group, BA-MPE was more diverse compared to LA-MPE group. In multivariable analysis, ESVs belonging to family S24-7 and genera Allobaculum, Stenotrophomonas, and Epulopiscium were significantly enriched in the malignant group compared to the non-malignant group. CONCLUSION:Our results are the first to demonstrate a microbiome signature according to MPE and non-MPE. The role of microbiome in pleural effusion pathogenesis needs further exploration.
Project description:Mast cells (MCs) have been identified in various tumors; however, the role of these cells in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Here, we quantified MCs in human and murine malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) and evaluated the fate and function of these cells in MPE development. Evaluation of murine MPE-competent lung and colon adenocarcinomas revealed that these tumors actively attract and subsequently degranulate MCs in the pleural space by elaborating CCL2 and osteopontin. MCs were required for effusion development, as MPEs did not form in mice lacking MCs, and pleural infusion of MCs with MPE-incompetent cells promoted MPE formation. Once homed to the pleural space, MCs released tryptase AB1 and IL-1?, which in turn induced pleural vasculature leakiness and triggered NF-?B activation in pleural tumor cells, thereby fostering pleural fluid accumulation and tumor growth. Evaluation of human effusions revealed that MCs are elevated in MPEs compared with benign effusions. Moreover, MC abundance correlated with MPE formation in a human cancer cell-induced effusion model. Treatment of mice with the c-KIT inhibitor imatinib mesylate limited effusion precipitation by mouse and human adenocarcinoma cells. Together, the results of this study indicate that MCs are required for MPE formation and suggest that MC-dependent effusion formation is therapeutically addressable.
Project description:Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is common and difficult to treat. In the vast majority of patients the presence of MPE heralds incurable disease, associated with poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality. Current therapeutic approaches are inefficient and merely offer palliation of associated symptoms. Recent scientific progress has shed light in the biologic processes governing the mechanisms behind the pathobiology of MPE. Pleural based tumors interfere with pleural fluid drainage, as well as the host vasculature and immune system, resulting in decreased fluid absorption and increased pleural fluid production via enhanced plasma extravasation into the pleural space. In order to achieve this feat, pleural based tumors must elicit critical vasoactive events in the pleura, thus forming a favorable microenvironment for tumor dissemination and MPE development. Such properties involve specific transcriptional signaling cascades in addition to secretion of important mediators which attract and activate host cell populations which, in turn, impact tumor cell functions. The dissection of the biologic steps leading to MPE formation provides novel therapeutic targets and recent research findings provide encouraging results towards future therapeutic innovations in MPE management.