Plasma metabolomic study in perinatally HIV-infected children using 1H NMR spectroscopy reveals perturbed metabolites that sustain during therapy.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Perinatally HIV-infected children on anti-retroviral treatment (ART) are reported to have metabolic abnormalities such as dyslipidemia, lipodystrophy, and insulin resistance which potentially increase the risk of diabetes, kidney, liver and cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE:To elucidate HIV-mediated metabolic complications that sustain even during ART in perinatally HIV-infected children. METHOD:We have carried out metabolic profiling of the plasma of treatment-naïve and ART-suppressed perinatally HIV-infected children and uninfected controls using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy followed by statistical analysis and annotation. RESULT:Validated multivariate analysis showed clear distinction among our study groups. Our results showed elevated levels of lactate, glucose, phosphoenolpyruvic acid, propionic acid, 2-ketobutyric acid and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites in untreated HIV-infected children compared to uninfected controls. ART normalized the levels of several metabolites, however the level of lactate, phosphoenolpyruvic acid, oxoglutaric acid, oxaloacetic acid, myoinositol and glutamine remained upregulated despite ART in HIV-infected children. Pathway analysis revealed perturbed propanoate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glycolysis and TCA cycle in untreated and ART-suppressed HIV-infected children. CONCLUSION:Developing therapeutic strategies targeting metabolic abnormalities may be beneficial for preventing diabetes, cardiovascular disease or other associated complications in perinatally HIV-infected children.
Project description:14 children vertically HIV infected ART treated within 6 months of life (ET) and 6 children vertically HIV infected ART treated after 12 months of life were studied to understand the effect of early ART initiation on HIV specific CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells functionalities. Additionally, RNAseq on unstimulated PBMC was performed to also evaluate the impact of early ART on the immune transcriptome. Overall design: RNA extracted from PBMC from early (<6months), late (>12months) ART treated HIV perinatally infected individuals and 6 healthy individuals was sequenced and compared to identify differences in their background transcriptome
Project description:Mitochondrial impairment is reported in HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), as well as those naive to ART. Whether mitochondrial function recovers with early initiation of ART and sustained viral suppression on long-term ART is unclear. In this study, we evaluate mitochondrial markers in well-suppressed perinatally HIV-infected children initiated on ART early in life. We selected a cross-sectional sample of 120 HIV-infected children with viral load <400 copies/mL and 60 age-matched uninfected children (22 HIV-exposed uninfected) enrolled in a cohort study in Johannesburg, South Africa. Complex IV (CIV) and citrate synthase (CS) activity were measured by spectrophotometry. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content relative to nuclear DNA (nDNA) was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and expressed as copies/nDNA. Mitochondrial markers were impaired in HIV-infected children, including lower mean CIV activities [1.76 vs. 1.40 optical densities (OD)/min], higher risk of a CIV/CS ratio ?0.22 (third quartile; odds ratio?=?3.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.38-6.66), and lower mtDNA content. Children with shorter versus longer ART duration (<6.3 vs. ?6.3 years) had lower means of CIV activity (1.22-1.58 OD/min) and mtDNA content (386-907 copies/nDNA). There were no differences in mitochondrial markers between children who started ART earlier (<6 months) or later (6-24 months). CIV activity was impaired in children with lower height-for-age Z-scores (HAZs). Despite early treatment and prolonged viral suppression, HIV-infected children had detectable mitochondrial impairment, particularly among those with stunted growth. Further study is required to determine if continued treatment will lead to full recovery of mitochondrial function in HIV-infected children.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Older children and adolescents with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (PHIV) infection in Africa experience multiple comorbidities that are not typical of HIV-associated opportunistic infections, including growth impairment and chronic lung disease. We examined associations between plasma cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA and lung function and growth. METHODS:Plasma CMV DNA loads were measured children aged 6-16 years with PHIV (n = 402) and HIV-uninfected controls (n = 224). The HIV-infected children were either newly diagnosed or known HIV infected and stable on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for >6 months. CMV DNA loads were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. CMV DNAemia was modeled as a time-varying outcome using longitudinal mixed-effects logistic regression. RESULTS:At enrollment, CMV DNAemia ?1000 copies/mL (defined as "clinically significant") was detected in 5.8% of uninfected children, 14.7% of HIV-infected participants stable on ART, and 22.6% of HIV-infected ART-naive children (?2 = 23.8, P < .001). The prevalence of CMV DNAemia ?1000 copies/mL was associated with CD4 counts <350 cells/µL. Among HIV-infected ART-naive children, the presence of CMV DNAemia of ?1000 copies/mL was independently associated with reduced lung function (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-8.46; P = .017). Among ART-treated children, stunting was associated with CMV DNAemia of ?1000 copies/mL (aOR = 2.79; 95% CI, 0.97-8.02; P = .057). CONCLUSIONS:Clinically significant levels of CMV DNAemia were common in older children with PHIV, even those on ART, suggesting a role for inadequately controlled CMV infection in the pathogenesis of PHIV comorbidities in Africa.
Project description:The effect of early versus deferred antiretroviral treatment (ART) on plasma concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and host LPS-binding molecules in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected infants up to 1 year of age was investigated.We evaluated 54 perinatally HIV-infected and 22 HIV-exposed uninfected infants (controls) at the first and second semester of life. All HIV-infected infants had a baseline CD4 of ? 25%, participated in the Comprehensive International Program of Research on AIDS Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral Therapy trial in South Africa, and were randomized in the following groups: group 1 (n = 20), ART deferred until CD4 < 25% or severe HIV disease; and group 2 (n = 34), ART initiation within 6 to 12 weeks of age. LPS, endotoxin-core antibodies, soluble CD14 (sCD14), and LPS-binding protein (LBP) were measured in cryopreserved plasma. T-cell activation was measured in fresh whole blood.At the first semester, LPS concentration was higher in HIV-infected infants than in controls; sCD14, LBP, and T-cell activation were higher in group 1 than in group 2 and controls. Although LPS was not correlated with study variables, viral load was positively associated with sCD14, LBP, or endotoxin-core antibodies. At the second semester, LPS was not detectable and elevated host LPS-control molecules values were sustained in all groups and in conjunction with ART in all HIV-infected infants.Although plasma concentration of LPS was higher in perinatally HIV-infected infants 0 to 6 months of age than in controls independent of ART initiation strategy, concentration of LPS-control molecules was higher in infants with deferred ART, suggesting the presence of increased microbial translocation in HIV-infected infants with sustained early viral replication.
Project description:Antiretroviral therapy (ART) only partially restores HIV-induced alterations in lymphocyte populations. We assessed B and T cell phenotypes in a cohort of children from a single centre in the United Kingdom with perinatally acquired HIV compared to healthy controls. The majority of HIV infected children (44 of 56) were on fully suppressive combination ART. Children with perinatally acquired HIV had significantly lower memory B and CD4(+) CD45RO(+) CXCR5(+) [follicular T helper cell (Tfh)-like] T cell percentages. Detectable viraemia was associated with higher CD21(-) (activated and exhausted/tissue-like memory) B cells. A greater proportion of life spent on suppressive ART was associated with higher memory B cell percentages. These results suggest that early and sustained suppressive ART may preserve B and T cell phenotypes in perinatally acquired HIV and limit deficits in humoral immunity. A lower proportion of circulating Tfh-like cells in HIV infected children appears to be independent of HIV treatment history and ongoing HIV viraemia and warrants further investigation.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) used in HIV antiretroviral therapy can inhibit human telomerase reverse transcriptase. We therefore investigated whether in utero or childhood exposure to NRTIs affects leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of cellular aging. METHODS:In this cross-sectional CARMA cohort study, we investigated factors associated with LTL in HIV-1-infected (HIV(+)) children (n?=?94), HIV-1-exposed uninfected (HEU) children who were exposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART) perinatally (n?=?177), and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HIV(-)) control children (n?=?104) aged 0-19 years. Univariate followed by multivariate linear regression models were used to examine relationships of explanatory variables with LTL for: a) all subjects, b) HIV(+)/HEU children only, and c) HIV(+) children only. RESULTS:After adjusting for age and gender, there was no difference in LTL between the 3 groups, when considering children of all ages together. In multivariate models, older age and male gender were associated with shorter LTL. For the HIV(+) group alone, having a detectable HIV viral load was also strongly associated with shorter LTL (p?=?0.007). CONCLUSIONS:In this large study, group rates of LTL attrition were similar for HIV(+), HEU and HIV(-) children. No associations between children's LTL and their perinatal ART exposure or HIV status were seen in linear regression models. However, the association between having a detectable HIV viral load and shorter LTL suggests that uncontrolled HIV viremia rather than duration of ART exposure may be associated with acceleration of blood telomere attrition.
Project description:Perinatally-acquired HIV has persistent effects on long-term health outcomes, even after early treatment. We hypothesize that epigenetic indicators, such as DNA methylation, may elucidate cellular processes that explain these effects. Here, we compared DNA methylation profiles in whole blood from 120 HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 60 frequency age-matched HIV-uninfected children aged 4-9 years in Johannesburg, South Africa. Using an individual CpG site approach, we found 1,309 differentially-methylated (DM) CpG sites between groups, including 1,271 CpG sites that were hyper-methylated in the HIV-infected group and 38 CpG sites that were hypo-methylated in the HIV-infected group. Six hyper-methylated CpG sites were in EBF4, which codes for a transcription factor involved in B-cell maturation. The top hypomethylated site was in the promoter region of NLRC5, encoding a transcription factor that regulates major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule expression. Using a differentially-methylated region (DMR) approach, we found 315 DMRs between groups, including 28 regions encompassing 686 CpG sites on chromosome 6. A large number of the genes identified in both the CpG site and DMR approaches were located in the MHC region on chromosome 6, which plays an important role in the adaptive immune system. This study provides the first evidence that changes in the epigenome are detectable in children with perinatally-acquired HIV infection on suppressive ART started at an early age.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes impairment of the gastrointestinal barrier, with substantial depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gut. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores CD4+ counts and may have beneficial effects on gut microbiota in adults. Little is known about effect of long-term ART on gut microbiome in HIV-infected children. We investigated composition of gut microbiota in HIV-infected and -uninfected children and assessed associations between gut microbiota and patient characteristics. METHODS:In a cross-sectional study, rectal swabs were collected from 177 HIV-infected and 103 HIV-uninfected controls. Gut microbial composition was explored using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequencing. RESULTS:Human immunodeficiency virus-infected children had significantly lower alpha-diversity and higher beta-diversity compared to HIV-uninfected. No association was observed between microbiome diversity and CD4+ T-cell count, HIV viral load, or HIV-associated chronic lung disease. We found enriched levels of Corynebacterium (P < .01), Finegoldia (P < .01), and Anaerococcus (P < .01) in HIV-infected participants and enrichment of Enterobacteriaceae (P = .02) in participants with low CD4+ counts (<400 cells/mm3). Prolonged ART-treatment (?10 years) was significantly associated with a richer gut microbiota by alpha diversity. CONCLUSIONS:Human immunodeficiency virus-infected children have altered gut microbiota. Prolonged ART may restore the richness of the microbiota closer to that of HIV-uninfected children.
Project description:Understanding HIV remission in rare individuals who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) soon after infection and then discontinued, may inform HIV cure interventions. Here we describe features of virus and host of a perinatally HIV-1 infected child with long-term sustained virological control. The child received early limited ART in the Children with HIV Early antiRetroviral therapy (CHER) trial. At age 9.5 years, diagnostic tests for HIV are negative and the child has characteristics similar to uninfected children that include a high CD4:CD8 ratio, low T cell activation and low CCR5 expression. Virus persistence (HIV-1 DNA and plasma RNA) is confirmed with sensitive methods, but replication-competent virus is not detected. The child has weak HIV-specific antibody and T cell responses. Furthermore, we determine his HLA and KIR genotypes. This case aids in understanding post-treatment control and may help design of future intervention strategies.
Project description:Perinatal HIV infection is characterized by faster HIV disease progression and higher initial rate of HIV replication compared to adults. While antiretroviral therapy (ART) has greatly reduced HIV replication to undetectable levels, there is persistent elevated inflammation associated with HIV disease progression. Alteration of gut microbiota is associated with increased inflammation in chronic adult HIV infection. Here, we aim to study the gut microbiome and its role in inflammation in treated and untreated HIV-infected children. Examination of fecal microbiota revealed that perinatally infected children living with HIV had significantly higher levels of genus Prevotella that persisted despite ART. These children also had higher levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14), a marker of microbial translocation, and IP-10 despite therapy. The Prevotella positively correlated with IP-10 levels in both treated and untreated HIV-infected children, while genus Prevotella and species Prevotella copri was inversely associated with CD4 count. Relative abundance of genus Prevotella and species Prevotella copri showed positive correlation with sCD14 in ART-suppressed perinatally HIV-infected children. Our study suggests that gut microbiota may serve as one of the driving forces behind the persistent inflammation in children despite ART. Reshaping of microbiota using probiotics may be recommended as an adjunctive therapy along with ART.