Analysis of the economic burden of diagnosis and treatment on patients with tuberculosis in Bao'an district of Shenzhen City, China.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Illness-related costs experienced by tuberculosis patients produce a severe economic impact on households, especially poor families. Few studies have investigated the full costs, including direct and indirect costs, at the patient and household levels in south-east China. METHODS:A case follow-up study was conducted in the Bao'an district of Shenzhen City, China. Eligible new and previously treated individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) during January 1st 2013 to June 30th 2013 were enrolled. Medical and non-medical costs as well as income loss were calculated in diagnosis and treatment periods, respectively. Factors associated with costs due to TB diagnosis, treatment and TB care (diagnosis + treatment) were explored respectively with a linear regression model. RESULTS:Of the total 514 TB patients enrolled, 95% were from the migrant population, and 65% were males, with a mean age of 32.25 (±10.11). The median costs due to TB diagnosis and TB treatment were 79 United States dollar (USD), 748USD (6.2897 China Yuan (CNY) = 1USD, 2013) per patient, respectively. The median costs due to TB care (diagnosis and treatment) per patient was 1218USD, corresponding to 26% of patients' annual income pre-illness. Those who visited more times to health facilities, hospitalized, received higher education, or occupied in national civil servant/services/retired staff might expense more before diagnosis. Costs due to TB treatment was significantly higher among migrant patients, sputum smear positive patients, and widowed/divorced population. Factors associated with less total costs were native patients, fewer times of visiting to health-care facilities and those with no hospitalization history due to TB. CONCLUSIONS:Although a free TB control policy is in force, patients with TB are still facing a heavy economic burden. More available interventions to reduce the financial burden on tuberculosis patients are urgently needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The internal rural-to-urban migration is one of the major challenges for tuberculosis (TB) control in China. Patient costs incurred during TB diagnosis and treatment could cause access and adherence barriers, particularly among migrants. Here, we estimated the prevalence of catastrophic costs of TB patients and its associated factors in an urban population with internal migrants in China. METHODS:A cross-sectional survey was conducted to enroll culture-confirmed pulmonary TB patients in Songjiang district, Shanghai, between December 1, 2014, and December 31, 2015. Consenting participants completed a questionnaire, which collected direct and indirect costs before and after the diagnosis of TB. The catastrophic cost was defined as the annual expenses of TB care that exceeds 20% of total household disposable income. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with catastrophic costs. RESULTS:Overall, 248 drug-susceptible TB patients were enrolled, 70% (174/248) of them were from migrants. Migrant patients were significantly younger compared to resident patients. The total costs were 25,824 ($3689) and 13,816 ($1974) Chinese Yuan (RMB) in average for resident and migrant patients, respectively. The direct medical cost comprised about 70% of the total costs among both migrant and resident patients. Overall, 55% (132 of 248) of patients experienced high expenses (>10% of total household income), and 22% (55 of 248) experienced defined catastrophic costs. The reimbursement for TB care only reduced the prevalence of catastrophic costs to 20% (49 of 248). Meanwhile, 52% (90 of 174) of the internal migrants had no available local health insurance. Hospitalizations, no available insurance, and older age (>?45-year-old) contributed significantly to the occurrence of catastrophic costs. CONCLUSIONS:The catastrophic cost of TB service cannot be overlooked, despite the free policy. Migrants have difficulties benefiting from health insurance in urban cities. Interventions, including expanded medical financial assistance, are needed to secure universal TB care.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:A timely initiation of treatment is crucial to better control tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study is to describe treatment delay among migrant patients with TB and to identify factors associated with treatment delay, so as to provide evidence for strategy development and improvement of TB control among migrants in China. DESIGN:A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shandong province of China. A total of 314 confirmed smear positive migrant patients with pulmonary TB were included. Univariate logistic regression was used to analyse the association of variables with treatment delay among migrant patients with TB. A multilogistic regression model was developed to further assess the effect of variables on treatment delay. RESULTS:Of 314 migrant patients with TB, 65.6% experienced treatment delay (>1 day). Household income level, diagnosis symptom severity, understanding of whether TB is curable or not and knowledge about the free TB treatment policy are factors significantly associated with treatment delay. CONCLUSIONS:Economic status and knowledge about TB are key barriers to accessing TB treatment. An integrated policy of carrying out TB-related health education and publicising the free TB treatment policy among migrants is needed. Health insurance schemes for migrants should be modified to make them transferrable and pro-poor.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Financial issues are major barriers for rural-to-urban migrants accessing tuberculosis (TB) care in China. This paper discusses the effectiveness of providing financial incentives to migrant TB patients (with a focus on poor migrants in one district of Shanghai using treatment completion and default rates), the effect of financial incentives in terms of reducing the TB patient cost, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the intervention. RESULTS: Ninety and ninety-three migrant TB patients were registered in the intervention and control districts respectively. TB treatment completion rates significantly improved by 11% (from 78% to 89%) in the intervention district, compared with only a 3% increase (from 73% to 76%) in the control district (P = 0.03). Default rates significantly decreased by 11% (from 22% to 11%) in the intervention district, compared with 1% (from 24% to 23%) in the control district (P = 0.03). In the intervention district, the financial subsidy (RMB 1,080/US$170) accounted for 13% of the average patient direct cost (RMB 8,416/US$1,332). Each percent increase in treatment completion costs required an additional RMB 6,550 (US$1,301) and each percent reduction in defaults costs required an additional RMB 5,240 (US$825) in the intervention district. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, financial incentives proved to be effective in improving treatment completion and reducing default rates among migrant TB patients in Shanghai. The results suggest that financial incentives can be effectively utilized as a strategy to enhance case management among migrant TB patients in large cities in China, and this strategy may be applicable to similar international settings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Early diagnosis and treatment is vital for effective tuberculosis (TB) management especially among migrant populations who are a vulnerable group. We aimed to study factors associated with delay before registration at country level among registered migrant TB patients in China (2014-15) who were transferred out (during treatment) through web-based TB information management system (TBIMS). METHODS:This was a cross sectional study involving review of TBIMS data. Delays (in days) were classified as follows: patient delay (from symptom onset to first doctor visit), health system delay (from first doctor visit to treatment initiation, divided into health system diagnosis and treatment delay before and after date of diagnosis respectively), diagnosis delay (from symptom onset to diagnosis) and total delay (from symptom onset to treatment initiation). Linear regression was used to build a predictive model (forward stepwise) for the socio-demographic, clinical and health system related factors associated with delay: one model for each type of delay. Delays were log transformed and included in the model. RESULTS:The median (IQR) patient delay, health system delay and total delay was 16 (6, 34), two (0, 6) and 22 (11, 41) days respectively. Factors associated with long patient, diagnosis and total delay were: female gender, age???65 years, sputum smear positive pulmonary TB and registration at referral hospital. Treatment initiation delay was significantly higher among those registered in referral hospitals, unemployed and previously treated. Among migrant patients having permanent residence out of province, health system diagnosis delay was significantly higher while treatment initiation delay after diagnosis was significantly lower when compared to patients having permanent residence within the prefecture. CONCLUSION:Among migrant population with TB, patient delay contributed to the total delay. The factors identified including the need for improved coordination between referral hospitals and national programme have to be addressed if China has to end TB.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There are limited nationally representative studies globally in the post-2015 END tuberculosis (TB) era regarding wealth related inequity in the distribution of catastrophic costs due to TB care. Under the Chinese national tuberculosis programme setting, we aimed to assess extent of equity in distribution of total TB care costs (pre-treatment, treatment and overall) and costs as a proportion of annual household income (AHI), and describe and compare equity in distribution of catastrophic costs (pre-treatment, treatment and overall) across population sub-groups. METHODS:Analytical cross-sectional study using data from national TB patient cost survey carried out in 22 counties from six provinces in China in 2017. Drug-susceptible pulmonary TB registered under programme, who had received at least 2 weeks of intensive phase therapy were included. Equity was depicted using concentration curves and concentration indices were compared using dominance test. RESULTS:Of 1147 patients, the median cost of pre-treatment, treatment and overall care, were USD 283.5, USD 413.1 and USD 965.5, respectively. Richer quintiles incurred significantly higher pre-treatment and treatment costs compared to poorer quintiles. The distribution of costs as a proportion of AHI and catastrophic costs were significantly pro-poor overall as well as during pre-treatment and treatment phase. All the concentration curves for catastrophic costs (due to pre-treatment, treatment and overall care) stratified by region (east, middle and west), area of residence (urban, rural) and type of insurance (new rural co-operative medical system [NCMS], non-NCMS) also exhibited a pro-poor pattern with statistically significant (P < 0.01) concentration indices. The pro-poor distribution of the catastrophic costs due to TB treatment was significantly more inequitable among rural, compared to urban patients, and NCMS compared to non-NCMS beneficiaries. CONCLUSIONS:There is inequity in the distribution of catastrophic costs due to TB care. Universal health coverage, social protection strategies complemented by quality TB care is vital to reduce inequitable distribution of catastrophic costs due to TB care in China.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In China, internal migrants constitute one-fifth of tuberculosis (TB) patients registered for treatment in web-based TB information management system (TBIMS). Though China added a specific module in the web-based TBIMS in 2009, web-based transfer-out is not specifically recommended in the national guidelines. OBJECTIVE:In this country wide study among all registered migrant TB patients (2014-2015) that were transferred out using web-based TBIMS in China, to determine the i) timing of transfer-out in relation to period of treatment; ii) delay and attrition during transfer interval (between transfer-out and transfer-in); and iii) extent and risk factors for 'not evaluated' as the treatment outcome. METHODS:This was a cohort study involving review of web-based TBIMS data. Modified Poisson regression was used to build a predictive model for risk factors of 'not evaluated' as the treatment outcome. RESULTS:Among 7 284 patients, 5 900 (81.0%) were transferred out during the first two months after initiation of treatment or before treatment initiation and 7 088 (97.3%) patients had arrived at transfer-in unit. The median transfer interval was three (interquartile range: 0-14) days. Sixteen percent (1 176/7 284) patients had 'not evaluated' as their treatment outcome. 'Not evaluated' contributed to 66% of the unfavourable outcomes. Patients transferred from referral hospitals, migrated from out of prefecture, transferred out of prefecture, with sputum smear negative pulmonary TB, with TB pleurisy and with long delay between symptom onset and treatment initiation had significantly higher risk of 'not evaluated' as the outcome. CONCLUSION:Web-based transfer helped as the delay and attrition during the transfer interval was quite short and treatment outcomes of more than four-fifths of transferred out migrant TB patients were available with transfer-out BMU. Once strategies to address the independent predictors of 'not evaluated' treatment outcome are devised, China may consider mandatory use of web-based TBIMS for transferring out migrant TB patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although the worldwide incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been slowly decreasing, the migrant workers remains an important gap for regional TB control. In Taiwan, the numbers of the migrant workers from countries with high TB incidence increase significantly in past decades and the impact on public health remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the difference of TB incidence between Taiwanese and the migrant workers. METHODS:The migrant workers are obligated to receive pre-arrival, post-arrival and regular chest X-ray screening during their stay in Taiwan. We retrospectively collected these data extracted from the Alien Workers Health Database in Centers for Disease Control, Taiwan from Jan. 1, 2004 to Dec. 31, 2013. Poisson regression models were used to compare the hazard ratios of TB between Taiwanese and the migrant workers after adjusting gender and age groups. RESULTS:The total migrant workers in Taiwan reached 314,034 persons in 2004 and 489,134 persons in 2013, accounting for 2% of Taiwan population. The TB incidence of migrant workers was similar to Taiwanese (53-73.7 per 105 vs 45.5-76.8 per 105). Comparing with Taiwanese, the TB risk was significantly lower in male migrant workers (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.70-0.83, P?<?0.001), but higher in female migrant workers (HR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.35-1.46, P?<?0.001). Besides, we found that the TB risk in migrant workers was 5.30-fold (95% CI: 4.83-5.83, P?<?0.001) in youngest group (?24?year-old) comparing with Taiwanese. CONCLUSIONS:Migrant workers in Taiwan have higher TB incidence than Taiwanese in young groups, especially in females. The mainstay young laborers with latent tuberculosis infection risk is an important vulnerability for public health. Further investigation and health screening are warranted.
Project description:To determine the role of the migrant population in the transmission of tuberculosis (TB), we investigated the distribution and magnitude of TB in permanent residents and migrant populations of Beijing, People's Republic of China, from 2000 through 2006. An exploratory spatial data analysis was applied to detect the "hot spots" of TB among the 2 populations. Results, using the data obtained from 2004-2006, showed that people who migrated from the western, middle, and eastern zones of China had a significantly higher risk of having TB than did permanent residents. These findings indicate that population fluctuations have affected the rate of TB prevalence in Beijing, and interventions to control TB should include the migrant population.
Project description:There is limited evidence on whether active case finding (ACF) among marginalised and vulnerable populations mitigates the financial burden during tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis.To determine the effect of ACF among marginalised and vulnerable populations on prevalence and inequity of catastrophic costs due to TB diagnosis among TB-affected households when compared with passive case finding (PCF).In 18 randomly sampled ACF districts in India, during March 2016 to February 2017, we enrolled all new sputum-smear-positive TB patients detected through ACF and an equal number of randomly selected patients detected through PCF. Direct (medical and non-medical) and indirect costs due to TB diagnosis were collected through patient interviews at their residence. We defined costs due to TB diagnosis as 'catastrophic' if the total costs (direct and indirect) due to TB diagnosis exceeded 20% of annual pre-TB household income. We used concentration curves and indices to assess the extent of inequity.When compared with patients detected through PCF (n = 231), ACF patients (n = 234) incurred lower median total costs (US$ 4.6 and 20.4, p < 0.001). The prevalence of catastrophic costs in ACF and PCF was 10.3 and 11.5% respectively. Adjusted analysis showed that patients detected through ACF had a 32% lower prevalence of catastrophic costs relative to PCF [adjusted prevalence ratio (95% CI): 0.68 (0.69, 0.97)]. The concentration indices (95% CI) for total costs in both ACF [-0.15 (-0.32, 0.11)] and PCF [-0.06 (-0.20, 0.08)] were not significantly different from the line of equality and each other. The concentration indices (95% CI) for catastrophic costs in both ACF [-0.60 (-0.81, -0.39)] and PCF [-0.58 (-0.78, -0.38)] were not significantly different from each other: however, both the curves had a significant distribution among the poorest quintiles.ACF among marginalised and vulnerable populations reduced total costs and prevalence of catastrophic costs due to TB diagnosis, but could not address inequity.
Project description:Tuberculosis (TB) patients in China still face a number of barriers in seeking diagnosis and treatment. There is evidence that the economic burden on TB patients and their households discourages treatment compliance.A cross-sectional study was conducted in three cities of China. Patients were selected using probability proportional to size (PPS) cluster sampling of rural townships or urban streets, followed by list sampling from a patient register. Data were collected using a questionnaire survey, key informant interviews and focus group discussions with TB patients to gain an understanding of the economic burden of TB and implications of this burden for treatment compliance.A total of 797 TB patients were surveyed, of which 60 were interviewed in-depth following the survey. More than half had catastrophic health expenditure. TB patients with higher household incomes were less likely to report non-compliance (OR 0.355, 95 % CI 0.140-0.830) and patients who felt that the economic burden relating to TB treatment was high more likely to report non-compliance (OR 3.650, 95 % CI 1.278-12.346). Those who had high costs for transportation, lodging and food were also more likely to report non-compliance (OR 4.150, 95 % CI 1.804-21.999). The findings from the qualitative studies supported those from the survey.The economic burden associated with seeking diagnosis and treatment remains a barrier for TB patients in China. Reducing the cost of treatment and giving patients subsidies for transportation, lodging and food is likely to improve treatment compliance. Improving doctors' salary system to cut off the revenue-oriented incentive, and expanding current insurance's coverage can be helpful to reduce patients' actual burden or anticipated burden. Future research on this issue is needed.