The mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier exists and functions as a monomer.
ABSTRACT: For more than 40 years, the oligomeric state of members of the mitochondrial carrier family (SLC25) has been the subject of debate. Initially, the consensus was that they were dimeric, based on the application of a large number of different techniques. However, the structures of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier, a member of the family, clearly demonstrated that its structural fold is monomeric, lacking a conserved dimerisation interface. A re-evaluation of previously published data, with the advantage of hindsight, concluded that technical errors were at the basis of the earlier dimer claims. Here, we revisit this topic, as new claims for the existence of dimers of the bovine ADP/ATP carrier have emerged using native mass spectrometry of mitochondrial membrane vesicles. However, the measured mass does not agree with previously published values, and a large number of post-translational modifications are proposed to account for the difference. Contrarily, these modifications are not observed in electron density maps of the bovine carrier. If they were present, they would interfere with the structure and function of the carrier, including inhibitor and substrate binding. Furthermore, the reported mass does not account for three tightly bound cardiolipin molecules, which are consistently observed in other studies and are important stabilising factors for the transport mechanism. The monomeric carrier has all of the required properties for a functional transporter and undergoes large conformational changes that are incompatible with a stable dimerisation interface. Thus, our view that the native mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier exists and functions as a monomer remains unaltered.
Project description:Mitochondrial carriers are believed widely to be homodimers both in the inner membrane of the organelle and in detergents. The dimensions and molecular masses of the detergent and protein-detergent micelles were measured for yeast ADP/ATP carriers in a range of different detergents. The radius of the carrier at the midpoint of the membrane, its average radius, its Stokes' radius, its molecular mass, and its excluded volume were determined. These parameters are consistent with the known structural model of the bovine ADP/ATP carrier and they demonstrate that the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers are monomeric in detergents. Therefore, models of substrate transport have to be considered in which the carrier operates as a monomer rather than as a dimer.
Project description:<i>Cryptosporidium</i><i>parvum</i> is a clinically important eukaryotic parasite that causes the disease cryptosporidiosis, which manifests with gastroenteritis-like symptoms. The protist has mitosomes, which are organelles of mitochondrial origin that have only been partially characterized. The genome encodes a highly reduced set of transport proteins of the SLC25 mitochondrial carrier family of unknown function. Here, we have studied the transport properties of one member of the <i>C. parvum</i> carrier family, demonstrating that it resembles the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier of eukaryotes. However, this carrier has a broader substrate specificity for nucleotides, transporting adenosine, thymidine, and uridine di- and triphosphates in contrast to its mitochondrial orthologues, which have a strict substrate specificity for ADP and ATP. Inspection of the putative translocation pathway highlights a cysteine residue, which is a serine in mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers. When the serine residue is replaced by cysteine or larger hydrophobic residues in the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier, the substrate specificity becomes broad, showing that this residue is important for nucleotide base selectivity in ADP/ATP carriers.
Project description:Members of the mitochondrial carrier family (SLC25) provide the transport steps for amino acids, carboxylic acids, fatty acids, cofactors, inorganic ions, and nucleotides across the mitochondrial inner membrane and are crucial for many cellular processes. Here, we use new insights into the transport mechanism of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier to examine the structure and function of other mitochondrial carriers. They all have a single substrate-binding site and two gates, which are present on either side of the membrane and involve salt-bridge networks. Transport is likely to occur by a common mechanism, in which the coordinated movement of six structural elements leads to the alternating opening and closing of the matrix or cytoplasmic side of the carriers.
Project description:The mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier, or Ancp, is a member of the mitochondrial carrier family responsible for exchanging ADP and ATP across the mitochondrial inner membrane. ADP/ATP transport involves Ancp switching between two conformational states. These can be analyzed using specific inhibitors, carboxyatractyloside (CATR) and bongkrekic acid (BA). The high resolution three-dimensional structure of bovine Anc1p (bAnc1p), as a CATR-carrier complex, has been solved. However, because the structure of the BA-carrier complex has not yet been determined, the detailed mechanism of transport remains unknown. Recently, sample processing for hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiments coupled to mass spectrometry was improved, providing novel insights into bAnc1p conformational transitions due to inhibitor binding. In this work we performed both hydrogen/deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry experiments and genetic manipulations. Because these are very difficult to apply with bovine Anc1p, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae Anc isoform 2 (ScAnc2p). Significant differences in solvent accessibility were observed throughout the amino acid sequence for ScAnc2p complexed to either CATR or BA. Interestingly, in detergent solution, the conformational dynamics of ScAnc2p were dissimilar to those of bAnc1p, in particular for the upper half of the cavity, toward the intermembrane space, and the m2 loop, which is thought to be easily accessible to the solvent from the matrix in bAnc1p. Our study then focused on the methionyl residues of the Ancp signature sequence, RRRMMM. All our results indicate that the methionine cluster is involved in the ADP/ATP transport mechanism and confirm that the Ancp cavity is a highly dynamic structure.
Project description:Mitochondrial carriers are believed widely to be dimers both in structure and function. However, the structural fold is a barrel of six transmembrane alpha-helices without an obvious dimerisation interface. Here, we show by negative dominance studies that the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier 2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (AAC2) is functional as a monomer in the mitochondrial membrane. Adenine nucleotide transport by wild-type AAC2 is inhibited by the sulfhydryl reagent 2-sulfonatoethyl-methanethiosulfonate (MTSES), whereas the activity of a mutant AAC2, devoid of cysteines, is unaffected. Wild-type and cysteine-less AAC2 were coexpressed in different molar ratios in yeast mitochondrial membranes. After addition of MTSES the residual transport activity correlated linearly with the fraction of cysteine-less carrier present in the membranes, and so the two versions functioned independently of each other. Also, the cysteine-less and wild-type carriers were purified separately, mixed in defined ratios and reconstituted into liposomes. Again, the residual transport activity in the presence of MTSES depended linearly on the amount of cysteine-less carrier. Thus, the entire transport cycle for ADP/ATP exchange is carried out by the monomer.
Project description:In the 1980s, after the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) had been sequenced, several diseases resulting from mtDNA mutations emerged. Later, numerous disorders caused by mutations in the nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins were found. A group of these diseases are due to defects of mitochondrial carriers, a family of proteins named solute carrier family 25 (SLC25), that transport a variety of solutes such as the reagents of ATP synthase (ATP, ADP, and phosphate), tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, cofactors, amino acids, and carnitine esters of fatty acids. The disease-causing mutations disclosed in mitochondrial carriers range from point mutations, which are often localized in the substrate translocation pore of the carrier, to large deletions and insertions. The biochemical consequences of deficient transport are the compartmentalized accumulation of the substrates and dysfunctional mitochondrial and cellular metabolism, which frequently develop into various forms of myopathy, encephalopathy, or neuropathy. Examples of diseases, due to mitochondrial carrier mutations are: combined D-2- and L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria, carnitine-acylcarnitine carrier deficiency, hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrillinuria (HHH) syndrome, early infantile epileptic encephalopathy type 3, Amish microcephaly, aspartate/glutamate isoform 1 deficiency, congenital sideroblastic anemia, Fontaine progeroid syndrome, and citrullinemia type II. Here, we review all the mitochondrial carrier-related diseases known until now, focusing on the connections between the molecular basis, altered metabolism, and phenotypes of these inherited disorders.
Project description:Cardiolipin in eukaryotes is found in the mitochondrial inner membrane, where it interacts with membrane proteins and, although not essential, is necessary for the optimal activity of a number of proteins. One of them is the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier, which imports ADP into the mitochondrion and exports ATP. In the crystal structures, cardiolipin is bound to three equivalent sites of the ADP/ATP carrier, but its role is unresolved. Conservation of residues at these cardiolipin binding sites across other members of the mitochondrial carrier superfamily indicates cardiolipin binding is likely to be important for the function of all mitochondrial carriers. Multiscale simulations were performed in a cardiolipin-containing membrane to investigate the dynamics of cardiolipin around the yeast and bovine ADP/ATP carriers in a lipid bilayer and the properties of the cardiolipin-binding sites. In coarse-grain simulations, cardiolipin molecules bound to the carriers for longer periods of time than phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine lipids-with timescales in the tens of microseconds. Three long-lived cardiolipin binding sites overlapped with those in the crystal structures of the carriers. Other shorter-lived cardiolipin interaction sites were identified in both membrane leaflets. However, the timescales of the interactions were of the same order as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, suggesting that these sites are not specific for cardiolipin binding. The calculation of lipid binding times and the overlap of the cardiolipin binding sites between the structures and simulations demonstrate the potential of multiscale simulations to investigate the dynamics and behavior of lipids interacting with membrane proteins.
Project description:Soj and Spo0J of the Gram-negative hyperthermophile Thermus thermophilus belong to the conserved ParAB family of bacterial proteins implicated in plasmid and chromosome partitioning. Spo0J binds to DNA near the replication origin and localises at the poles following initiation of replication. Soj oscillates in the nucleoid region in an ATP- and Spo0J-dependent fashion. Here, we show that Soj undergoes ATP-dependent dimerisation in solution and forms nucleoprotein filaments with DNA. Crystal structures of Soj in three nucleotide states demonstrate that the empty and ADP-bound states are monomeric, while a hydrolysis-deficient mutant, D44A, is capable of forming a nucleotide 'sandwich' dimer. Soj ATPase activity is stimulated by Spo0J or the N-terminal 20 amino-acid peptide of Spo0J. Our analysis shows that dimerisation and activation involving a peptide containing a Lys/Arg is conserved for Soj, ParA and MinD and their modulators Spo0J, ParB and MinE, respectively. By homology to the nitrogenase iron protein and the GTPases Ffh/FtsY, we suggest that Soj dimerisation and regulation represent a conserved biological switch.
Project description:The transfer of metabolites through the mitochondrial membranes is a vital process that is highly controlled and regulated by the inner membrane. A variety of metabolites, nucleotides, and cofactors are transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) by a superfamily of membrane transporters which are known as the mitochondrial carrier family (MCF) or the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25 protein family). In humans, the MCF has 53 members encoded by nuclear genes. Members of the SLC25 family of transporters, which is the largest group of solute carriers, are also known as mitochondrial carriers (MCs). Because MCs are nuclear-coded proteins, they must be imported into the IMM. When compared with normal cells, the mitochondria of cancer cells exhibit significantly increased transmembrane potentials and a number of their transporters are altered. SLC25 members were identified as potential biomarkers for various cancers. The objective of this review is to summarize what is currently known about the involvement of mitochondrial SLC25 carriers in associated diseases. This review suggests that the SLC25 family could be used for the development of novel points of attack for targeted cancer therapy.
Project description:Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Upon activation by long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), UCP1 increases the conductance of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) to make BAT mitochondria generate heat rather than ATP. Despite being a member of the family of mitochondrial anion carriers (SLC25), UCP1 is believed to transport H(+) by an unusual mechanism that has long remained unresolved. Here, we achieved direct patch-clamp measurements of UCP1 currents from the IMM of BAT mitochondria. We show that UCP1 is an LCFA anion/H(+) symporter. However, the LCFA anions cannot dissociate from UCP1 due to hydrophobic interactions established by their hydrophobic tails, and UCP1 effectively operates as an H(+) carrier activated by LCFA. A similar LCFA-dependent mechanism of transmembrane H(+) transport may be employed by other SLC25 members and be responsible for mitochondrial uncoupling and regulation of metabolic efficiency in various tissues.