Regiodivergent Hydroborative Ring Opening of Epoxides via Selective C-O Bond Activation.
ABSTRACT: A magnesium-catalyzed regiodivergent C-O bond cleavage protocol is presented. Readily available magnesium catalysts achieve the selective hydroboration of a wide range of epoxides and oxetanes yielding secondary and tertiary alcohols in excellent yields and regioselectivities. Experimental mechanistic investigations and DFT calculations provide insight into the unexpected regiodivergence and explain the different mechanisms of the C-O bond activation and product formation.
Project description:Epoxides are versatile intermediates in organic synthesis, but have rarely been employed in cross-coupling reactions. We report that bipyridine-ligated nickel can mediate the addition of functionalized aryl halides, a vinyl halide, and a vinyl triflate to epoxides under reducing conditions. For terminal epoxides, the regioselectivity of the reaction depends upon the cocatalyst employed. Iodide cocatalysis results in opening at the less hindered position via an iodohydrin intermediate. Titanocene cocatalysis results in opening at the more hindered position, presumably via Ti(III)-mediated radical generation. 1,2-Disubstituted epoxides are opened under both conditions to form predominantly the trans product.
Project description:Regiocontrol in the rhodium-catalyzed boration of vinyl arenes is typically dominated by the presence of the conjugated aryl substituent. However, small differences in TADDOL-derived chiral monophosphite ligands can override this effect and direct rhodium-catalyzed hydroboration of ?-aryl and ?-heteroaryl methylidenes by pinacolborane to selectively produce either chiral primary or tertiary borated products. The regiodivergent behavior is coupled with enantiodivergent addition of the borane. The nature of the TADDOL backbone substituents and that of the phosphite moiety function synergistically to direct the sense and extent of regioselectivity and enantioinduction. Twenty substrates are shown to undergo each reaction mode with regioselectivity values reaching greater than 20:1 and enantiomer ratios reaching up to 98:2. A variety of subsequent transformations illustrate the potential utility of each product.
Project description:Low temperature treatment of (ethoxyethynyl)lithium with epoxides or oxetanes in the presence of BF3•OEt2, followed by addition of aldehydes or ketones and warming to room temperature, affords structurally diverse five- and six-membered ?-alkylidene and ?-benzylidene lactones (5) in good to excellent yields. This one-pot process, in which three new carbon-carbon bonds and a ring are formed, affords substituted ?,?-unsaturated lactones of predominantly Z-configuration. The reaction likely occurs via alkyne-carbonyl metathesis of a hydroxy-ynol ether intermediate, acid-promoted alkene E- to Z-isomerization, and lactonization.
Project description:Catalyst-controlled regiodivergent [3 + 2] annulations of aurones and allenoates have been developed. When a dipeptide phosphine catalyst with an l-d- configuration was employed, ?-selective [3 + 2] annulation products could be obtained with good regioselectivities and enantioselectivities. With the employment of l-l- dipeptide phosphines, ?-selective annulation products could be selectively obtained with excellent enantioselectivities. By simply tuning the catalyst configurations, a wide range of ?-selective or ?-selective spirocyclic benzofuranones with either aryl or alkyl substitutions could be readily prepared. DFT calculations suggest that the conformation of the dipeptide phosphines influences the hydrogen bonding interactions or the distortion energy, resulting in delicate energy differentiation in the transition states, and accounting for the observed regioselectivity.
Project description:A Rh-catalyzed regiodivergent hydrosilylation of acyl aminocyclopropanes has been developed. Acyl aminocyclopropanes were reacted with hydrosilanes in the presence of Rh catalysts to afford ring-opened hydrosilylated adducts through carbon-carbon (C-C) bond cleavage of the cyclopropane ring. The regioselectivity of the addition of silanes (linear or branched) can be switched by changing the monophosphine ligand. This C-C bond cleavage/hydrosilylation methodology is applicable to the synthesis of silanediol precursors.
Project description:The first catalytic, highly C3-selective, stereosepecific ring-opening reaction of 2,3-epoxy alcohols and 2,3-epoxy sulfonamides has been accomplished. This process was efficiently promoted by W-salts, and the developed method was applicable to various epoxides with diverse N- and O-nucleophiles affording the products in good to excellent yields (up to 95%) and generally with high regioselectivities (C3:C2 up to >99:1).
Project description:Ring opening copolymerization (ROCOP) of epoxides and cyclic anhydrides has become an attractive approach for the synthesis of biodegradable polyesters with various compositions. Encouraged by the efficiency and versatility of a series of amido-oxazolinate zinc complexes, in this study they were shown to be active catalysts for the synthesis of unsaturated polyesters via ROCOP of maleic anhydride and various epoxides. The relative activity of epoxides in these reactions was observed to be styrene oxide > cyclohexene oxide > phenyl glycidyl ether, which could be correlated with the electronic and steric features of the substrate. To provide more structural possibilities for the polyesters, the difference in epoxide reactivity was exploited in an attempt to prepare block terpolymers from one anhydride and two epoxides. Terpolymerization was carried out in one or two steps in a single pot. The thermal characterization by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques suggested that the resulting materials were mostly random terpolymers.
Project description:The (salen) Co catalyst (4a) can be prepared as a mixture of cyclic oligomers in a short, chromatography-free synthesis from inexpensive, commercially available precursors. This catalyst displays remarkable enhancements in reactivity and enantioselectivity relative to monomeric and other multimeric (salen) Co catalysts in a wide variety of enantioselective epoxide ring-opening reactions. The application of catalyst 4a is illustrated in the kinetic resolution of terminal epoxides by nucleophilic ring-opening with water, phenols, and primary alcohols; the desymmetrization of meso epoxides by addition of water and carbamates; and the desymmetrization of oxetanes by intramolecular ring opening with alcohols and phenols. The favorable solubility properties of complex 4a under the catalytic conditions facilitated mechanistic studies, allowing elucidation of the basis for the beneficial effect of oligomerization. Finally, a catalyst selection guide is provided to delineate the specific advantages of oligomeric catalyst 4a relative to (salen) Co monomer 1 for each reaction class.
Project description:Site selectivity control is of vital importance in the direct functionalization of inert C-H bonds. Reported here is a novel example of remote regiodivergent ortho- and meta-C-H bond functionalizations of phenylethylamine derivatives by using a novel 2-cyanobenzoyl group as the original directing functionality, where the regioselectivity was adjusted by a methylation. The potential of the method was exemplified by sequential functionalizations of both ortho- and meta-C-H bonds of a phenylethylamine derivative in a streamlined manner.
Project description:The use of carbon monoxide as a direct reducing agent for the deoxygenation of terminal and internal epoxides to the respective olefins is presented. This reaction is homogeneously catalyzed by a carbonyl pincer-iridium(I) complex in combination with a Lewis acid co-catalyst to achieve a pre-activation of the epoxide substrate, as well as the elimination of CO2 from a ?-2-iridabutyrolactone intermediate. Especially terminal alkyl epoxides react smoothly and without significant isomerization to the internal olefins under CO atmosphere in benzene or toluene at 80-120?°C. Detailed investigations reveal a substrate-dependent change in the mechanism for the epoxide C-O bond activation between an oxidative addition under retention of the configuration and an SN 2 reaction that leads to an inversion of the configuration.