Insight into the Current Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Domestic Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Russia.
ABSTRACT: To examine the genetic diversity and population structure of domestic reindeer, using the BovineHD BeadChip, we genotyped reindeer individuals belonging to the Nenets breed of the five main breeding regions, the Even breed of the Republic of Sakha, the Evenk breed of the Krasnoyarsk and Yakutia regions, and the Chukotka breed of the Chukotka region and its within-breed ecotype, namely, the Chukotka-Khargin, which is bred in Yakutia. The Chukotka reindeer was shown to have the lowest genetic diversity in terms of the allelic richness and heterozygosity indicators. The principal component analysis (PCA) results are consistent with the neighbor-net tree topology, dividing the reindeer into groups according to their habitat location and origin of the breed. Admixture analysis indicated a genetic structuring of two groups of Chukotka origin, the Even breed and most of the geographical groups of the Nenets breed, with the exception of the Murmansk reindeer, the gene pool of which was comprised of the Nenets and apparently the native Sami reindeer. The presence of a genetic component of the Nenets breed in some reindeer inhabiting the Krasnoyarsk region was detected. Our results provide a deeper insight into the current intra-breeding reindeer genetic diversity, which is an important requirement for future reindeer herding strategies and for animal adaptation to environmental changes.
Project description:Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L. 1758) are an essential element of the Russian Far North, providing a significant source of nutrition for the representatives of 18 ethnicities. The species has wild and domestic forms, which are in constant interaction. The aim of our study was to characterize the genetic structure of domestic and wild reindeer populations, using a genome-wide bovine genotyping array (BovineHD BeadChip). The wild reindeer samples were obtained from the western Taymyr Peninsula population and from the taiga and tundra populations in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). The domestic populations included the Evenk, Even, and Chukotka-Khargin breeds of Yakutia and the Nenets breed from the Nenets Autonomous district and Murmansk region. The level of genetic diversity was higher for the wild population. Analyzing Neighbor-Net tree, multidimensional scaling, and Structure results, we observed strong genetic population structure and clear differentiation between domestic and wild populations. All regional populations of domestic reindeer were clearly separated, while wild reindeer showed similar genetic backgrounds. Nevertheless, we found contrasting patterns in the genetic structure of the tundra and taiga reindeer, in accordance with their morphological and ecological differences. Thus, our study revealed a clear genetic differentiation between domestic and wild reindeer populations. It provides novel insights into the genetic diversity and structure of reindeer populations, to support resource utilization and aid in the development of genetic improvement strategies and conservation programs for this species.
Project description:Statins are the most commonly prescribed medicines for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. At the same time, up to 25% of patients cannot tolerate or have to discontinue the statin therapy due to statin-induced myopathy. In a majority of cases, statin-induced myopathy is attributed to SLCO1B1 gene polymorphism. The strongest association between statin-induced myopathy and SLCO1B1 gene polymorphism was described for simvastatin. Our research was focused on the frequency of SLCO1B1*5 genetic variant in the Russian population and in the native population of Sakha (Yakutia).A total of 1,071 hyperlipidemic Russian and 76 hyperlipidemic Sakha (Yakutian) patients were included in the study. Genotypes of SLCO1B1*5 (c.521T>C, rs4149056) were determined with polymerase chain reaction amplification. The results of our study were compared with data about hyperlipidemic patients in available publications.In the Russian population 665 (62%) patients had TT genotype of SLCO1B1*5, 346 (32%) patients had TC genotype, and in 60 patients (6%) CC variant was found (Hardy-Weinberg's chi-square test was 3.1 P=0.21). In comparison with Brazil, France, the People's Republic of China, Japan, and the native population of Sakha (Yakutia), C-allele, which causes an increased risk of statin-induced myopathy, was found significantly more often in the Russian population. In the native population of Sakha (Yakutia) SLCO1B1 polymorphism was TT - 62 (82%), TC - 11 (14%), CC - 3 (4%) (Hardy-Weinberg's chi-square test was 5.13 P=0.077). In comparison with data from Brazil, France, the People's Republic of China, and Japan, C-allele frequency in the Sakha (Yakutian) population was not significantly different.Thus, we have studied the incidence of pathologic SLCO1B1 c.521C-allele in Russian and Sakha hyperlipidemic patients. The presence of SLCO1B1 C-allele in patients with hyperlipidemia forces us to be more careful in hypolipidemic drug prescription, especially statins, according to a higher risk of statin-induced myopathy development. The fact that SLCO1B1 C-allele is rarer among Sakha patients, could be interesting from the point of studying adverse drug effects frequency and statins' effectiveness.
Project description:Just as the domestication of livestock is often cited as a key element in the Neolithic transition to settled, the emergence of large-scaled reindeer husbandry was a fundamental social transformation for the indigenous peoples of Arctic Eurasia. To better understand the history of reindeer domestication, and the genetic processes associated with the pastoral transition in the Eurasian Arctic, we analyzed archaeological and contemporary reindeer samples from Northwestern Siberia. The material represents Rangifer genealogies spanning from 15,000 years ago to the 18th century, as well as modern samples from the wild Ta?myr population and from domestic herds managed by Nenetses. The wild and the domestic population are the largest populations of their kind in Northern Eurasia, and some Nenetses hold their domestic reindeer beside their wild cousins. Our analyses of 197 modern and 223 ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed two genetic clusters, which are interpreted as representing the gene pools of contemporary domestic and past wild reindeer. Among a total of 137 different mitochondrial haplotypes identified in both the modern and archaeological samples, only 21 were detected in the modern domestic gene pool, while 11 of these were absent from the wild gene pool. The significant temporal genetic shift that we associate with the pastoral transition suggests that the emergence and spread of reindeer pastoralism in Northwestern Siberia originated with the translocation and subsequent selective breeding of a special type of animal from outside the region. The distinct and persistent domestic characteristics of the haplotype structure since the 18th century suggests little genetic exchange since then. The absence of the typical domestic clade in modern nearby wild populations suggests that the contemporary Nenets domestic breed feature an ancestry from outside its present main distribution, possibly from further South.
Project description:Sea ice loss is accelerating in the Barents and Kara Seas (BKS). Assessing potential linkages between sea ice retreat/thinning and the region's ancient and unique social-ecological systems is a pressing task. Tundra nomadism remains a vitally important livelihood for indigenous Nenets and their large reindeer herds. Warming summer air temperatures have been linked to more frequent and sustained summer high-pressure systems over West Siberia, Russia, but not to sea ice retreat. At the same time, autumn/winter rain-on-snow (ROS) events have become more frequent and intense. Here, we review evidence for autumn atmospheric warming and precipitation increases over Arctic coastal lands in proximity to BKS ice loss. Two major ROS events during November 2006 and 2013 led to massive winter reindeer mortality episodes on the Yamal Peninsula. Fieldwork with migratory herders has revealed that the ecological and socio-economic impacts from the catastrophic 2013 event will unfold for years to come. The suggested link between sea ice loss, more frequent and intense ROS events and high reindeer mortality has serious implications for the future of tundra Nenets nomadism.
Project description:Of 235 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients who had not received tuberculosis treatment in the Irkutsk oblast and the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), eastern Siberia, 61 (26%) were multidrug resistant. A novel strain, S 256, clustered among these isolates and carried eis-related kanamycin resistance, indicating a need for locally informed diagnosis and treatment strategies.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The frequency of adult-type hypolactasia (lactase non-persistence) varies widely among different ethnic groups. The cultural historical hypothesis assumes a link between the occurrence of hypolactasia and the distribution of dairy farming. The nomadic Nenets have been reindeer herders for generations and have therefore not consumed any dairy products. The hypotheses here was that the prevalence of lactase non-persistence (-13910 C/C genotype) among Nenets people having four Nenets grandparents is high, while the prevalence among Nenets originating from ethnically mixed families is lower. STUDY DESIGN:The material was collected in four typical Nenets settlements in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug in Russia. One-third of the adult Nenets population were invited to answer a questionnaire and to donate buccal samples for genotyping by a doctor from the team of medical professionals who make rounds in this area. The total number of available participants was 177. METHODS:Genotyping was performed with the AbiPrism system. We used the method of concordance of grandparents' national origin to ascribe ethnicity. RESULTS:The prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia (-13910 C/C) among Nenets who had four Nenets grandparents was found to be 90%. The figures among others reporting three, two and one grandparent of Nenets origin were 72, 60 and 28%, respectively. CONCLUSION:The findings are in accord with the cultural historical hypothesis.
Project description:Seventeen years of archaeological and anthropological expeditions in North-Eastern Siberia (in the Sakha Republic, Yakutia) have permitted the genetic analysis of 150 ancient (15th-19th century) and 510 modern individuals. Almost all males were successfully analysed (Y-STR) and this allowed us to identify paternal lineages and their geographical expansion through time. This genetic data was confronted with mythological, historical and material evidence to establish the sequence of events that built the modern Yakut genetic diversity. We show that the ancient Yakuts recovered from this large collection of graves are not representative of an ancient population. Uncommonly, we were also able to demonstrate that the funerary preference observed here involved three specific male lineages, especially in the 18th century. Moreover, this dominance was likely caused by the Russian conquest of Siberia which allowed some male clans to rise to new levels of power. Finally, we give indications that some mythical and historical figures might have been the actors of those genetic changes. These results help us reconsider the genetic dynamics of colonization in some regions, question the distinction between fact and myth in national histories and provide a rare insight into a funerary ensemble by revealing the biased process of its composition.
Project description:It is known that the rumen microbiome directly or indirectly contributes to animal production, and may be a prospective target for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions . At the same time, feed types and components of diet can influence the composition of the rumen microbiome [2,3]. Fluctuations in the composition of the digestive tract microbiota can alter the development, health, and productivity of cattle . Many studies of cattle microbiomes have focussed on the rumen microbiota, whereas the faecal microbiota has received less attention , , . Therefore, the features of the faecal and the ruminal microbiomes in different cattle breeds are yet to be studied. Here, we provided 16S rRNA gene amplicon data of the ruminal and the faecal microbiomes from Yakutian and Kalmyk cattle living in the Republic of Sakha, Yakutia, Russia. Total DNA was extracted from 13 faecal and 13 ruminal samples, and DNA libraries were prepared and sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq platform. Paired-end raw reads were processed, and final operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were assigned to the respective prokaryotic taxa using the RDP (Ribosomal Database Project) database. Analysis of the microbiome composition at the phylum level revealed very similar faecal microbiota between the introduced Kalmyk breed and the indigenous Yakutian breed, whereas the ruminal microbiomes of these breeds differed substantially in terms of relative abundance of some prokaryotic phyla. We believe that the data obtained may provide new insights into the dynamics of the ruminal and the faecal microbiota of cattle as well as disclose breed-specific features of ruminal microbiomes. Besides, these data will contribute to our understanding of the ruminal microbiome structure and function, and might be useful for the management of cattle feeding and ruminal methane production.
Project description:Vitamin D status in groups of northern indigenous people of Russia leading close to traditional (seminomadic reindeer herding), post-traditional (in settlements) or "modernized" (in towns) way of life was analysed.The survey study groups consisted of 178 Nenets and Komi aged 18-60 living in the Arctic (66-67°N). Urban Komi, Udmurts and Komi-Permiaks (n=150) living in a non-Arctic area (57-61°N) formed a control group. The concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), as a transport form of vitamin D, was assessed by enzyme immunoassay analysis.The group average 25OHD levels in both rural and urban Arctic residents are within the range of values seen in the non-Arctic urban subjects adjusted for season: 39.7-47.7 nmol/l. Abandoning traditional lifestyle associates with lower vitamin D levels in indigenous Arctic people. Mean±standard deviation 25OHD values among Nenets were lower in those living in the administrative centre (a big settlement) with a population of 1,460 (32.2±12.90 nmol/l) than in the residents of small settlements (39.6±14.08 nmol/l), and in reindeer herders (42.4±13.45 nmol/l; p<0.05 in both cases). Komi townspeople had lower 25OHD concentrations (47.7±12.00 nmol/l) than Komi reindeer herders (68.7±25.20; p<0.01).The transition from seminomadic to post-traditional and "modernized" way of life has led to a decrease in the consumption of traditional foods among the indigenous people of the Russian Arctic. Our data support the notion that the traditional northern diet promotes healthy vitamin D levels, while adherence to the "western" type of diet correlates with a lower 25OHD concentration.
Project description:Frozen permafrost Pleistocene mammal carcasses with soft tissue remains are subject to intensive study and help elucidate the palaeoenvironment where these animals lived. Here we present an inventory of the freshwater fauna and flora found in a sediment sample from the mummified Woolly Mammoth carcass found in August 2010, from the Oyogos Yar coast near the Kondratievo River in the Laptev Sea region, Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, NE Russia. Our study demonstrates that the waterbody where the carcass was buried could be characterized as a shallow pond or lake inhabited mainly by taxa which are present in this area today, but additionally by some branchiopod crustacean taxa currently absent or unusual in the region although they exist in the arid zone of Eurasia (steppes and semi-deserts). These findings suggest that some "non-analogue" crustacean communities co-existed with the "Mammoth fauna". Our findings raise questions about the nature of the waterbodies that existed in Beringia during the MIS3 climatic optimum when the mammoth was alive.