Mirtazapine Reduces Adipocyte Hypertrophy and Increases Glucose Transporter Expression in Obese Mice.
ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome is known to engender type 2 diabetes as well as some cardiac, cerebrovascular, and kidney diseases. Mirtazapine-an atypical second-generation antipsychotic drug with less severe side effects than atypical first-generation antipsychotics-may have positive effects on blood glucose levels and obesity. In our executed study, we treated male high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice with mirtazapine (10 mg/kg/day mirtazapine) for 4 weeks to understand its antiobesity effects. We noted these mice to exhibit lower insulin levels, daily food efficiency, body weight, serum triglyceride levels, aspartate aminotransferase levels, liver and epididymal fat pad weight, and fatty acid regulation marker expression when compared with their counterparts (i.e., HFD-fed control mice). Furthermore, we determined a considerable drop in fatty liver scores and mean fat cell size in the epididymal white adipose tissue in the treated mice, corresponding to AMP-activated protein kinase expression activation. Notably, the treated mice showed lower glucose tolerance and blood glucose levels, but higher glucose transporter 4 expression. Overall, the aforementioned findings signify that mirtazapine could reduce lipid accumulation and thus prevent HFD-induced increase in body weight. In conclusion, mirtazapine may be useful in body weight control and antihyperglycemia therapy.
Project description:Aliskiren has been found to reduce chronic injury and steatosis in the liver of methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet-fed mice. This study investigated whether aliskiren has an anti-steatotic effect in HFD-fed mice, which are more relevant to human patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than MCD mice. Mice fed with 4-week normal chow or HFD randomly received aliskiren (50 mg/kg/day) or vehicle via osmotic minipumps for further 4 weeks. Aliskiren reduced systemic insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, epididymal fat mass and increased gastrocnemius muscle glucose transporter type 4 levels with lower tissue angiotensin II levels in the HFD-fed mice. In addition, aliskiren lowered nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and its down-signaling molecules and increased cytochrome P450 4A14 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1a) in liver. In epididymal fat, aliskiren inhibited expressions of lipogenic genes, leading to decrease in fat mass, body weight, and serum levels of leptin and free fatty acid. Notably, in the gastrocnemius muscle, aliskiren increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 and Akt. Based on these beneficial effects on liver, peripheral fat and skeletal muscle, aliskiren is a promising therapeutic agent for patients with NAFLD.
Project description:Sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors increase urinary glucose excretion (UGE), leading to blood glucose reductions and weight loss. However, the impacts of SGLT2 inhibition on energy homeostasis and obesity-induced insulin resistance are less well known. Here, we show that empagliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, enhanced energy expenditure and attenuated inflammation and insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a HFD with empagliflozin for 16weeks. Empagliflozin administration increased UGE in the DIO mice, whereas it suppressed HFD-induced weight gain, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. Moreover, empagliflozin shifted energy metabolism towards fat utilization, elevated AMP-activated protein kinase and acetyl-CoA carbolxylase phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, and increased hepatic and plasma fibroblast growth factor 21 levels. Importantly, empagliflozin increased energy expenditure, heat production, and the expression of uncoupling protein 1 in brown fat and in inguinal and epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT). Furthermore, empagliflozin reduced M1-polarized macrophage accumulation while inducing the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype of macrophages within WAT and liver, lowering plasma TNF? levels and attenuating obesity-related chronic inflammation. Thus, empagliflozin suppressed weight gain by enhancing fat utilization and browning and attenuated obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance by polarizing M2 macrophages in WAT and liver.
Project description:Here, we aimed to investigate the potential role of DUSP6, a dual specificity phosphatase, that specifically inactivates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), for the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. We further assessed whether metabolic challenges affect Dusp6 expression in selected brain areas or white adipose tissue. Hypothalamic Dusp6 mRNA levels remained unchanged in chow-fed lean vs. high fat diet (HFD) fed obese C57Bl/6J mice, and in C57Bl/6J mice undergoing prolonged fasting or refeeding with fat free diet (FFD) or HFD. Similarly, Dusp6 expression levels were unchanged in selected brain regions of Lepob mice treated with 1 mg/kg of leptin for 6 days, compared to pair-fed or saline-treated Lepob controls. Dusp6 expression levels remained unaltered in vitro in primary adipocytes undergoing differentiation, but were increased in eWAT of HFD-fed obese C57Bl/6J mice, compared to chow-fed lean controls. Global chow-fed DUSP6 KO mice displayed reduced body weight and lean mass and slightly increased fat mass at a young age, which is indicative for early-age weight retardation. Subsequent exposure to HFD led to a significant increase in lean mass and body weight in DUSP6 deficient mice, compared to WT controls. Nevertheless, after 26 weeks of high-fat diet exposure, we observed comparable body weight, fat and lean mass in DUSP6 WT and KO mice, suggesting overall normal susceptibility to develop obesity. In line with the increased weight gain to compensate for early-age weight retardation, HFD-fed DUSP6 KO displayed increased expression levels of anabolic genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism in the epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), compared to WT controls. Glucose tolerance was perturbed in both chow-fed lean or HFD-fed obese DUSP6 KO, compared to their respective WT controls. Overall, our data indicate that DUSP6 deficiency has limited impact on the regulation of energy metabolism, but impairs systemic glucose tolerance. Our data are in conflict to earlier reports that propose protection from diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in DUSP6 deficient mice. Reasons for the discrepancies remain elusive, but may entail differential genetic backgrounds, environmental factors such as the type and source of HFD, or alterations in the gut microbiome between facilities.
Project description:This study aims to investigate the effect of feeding low-fat diet (LFD) to diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice lacking TLR5 (TLR5(-/-)), which have a tendency to develop glucose intolerance with increased adiposity, compared to that in C57BL/6 mice.TLR5(-/-) and C57BL/6 male mice were divided into three subgroups: (1) control, mice were fed a standard AIN-76A (fat: 11.5 kcal%) diet for 12 weeks; (2) DIO, mice were fed a 58 kcal% high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks; and (3) diet, mice were fed a HFD for 8 weeks to induce obesity and then switched to a 10.5 kcal% LFD for 4 weeks. The glucose intolerance in DIO TLR5(-/-) mice was more significant than that in DIO C57BL/6 mice and was not attenuated by a switch to the LFD. Weight-reduction with LFD had significantly decreased the epididymal fat mass in C57BL/6 mice but not in TLR5(-/-) mice. In addition, the LFD-fed TLR5(-/-) mice showed significantly higher expression of ghrelin in the serum and resistin in the epididymal fat than that in C57BL/6 mice.This study demonstrated that TLR5 gene knockout impairs some effects of weight-reduction in DIO.
Project description:The synthetic retinoid Fenretinide (FEN) increases insulin sensitivity in obese rodents and is in early clinical trials for treatment of insulin resistance in obese humans with hepatic steatosis (46). We aimed to determine the physiological mechanisms for the insulin-sensitizing effects of FEN. Wild-type mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without FEN from 4-5 wk to 36-37 wk of age (preventive study) or following 22 wk of HF diet-induced obesity (12 wk intervention study). Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) knockout mice were also fed the HFD with or without FEN in a preventive study. FEN had minimal effects on HFD-induced body weight gain but markedly reduced HFD-induced adiposity and hyperleptinemia in both studies. FEN-HFD mice gained epididymal fat but not subcutaneous or visceral fat mass in contrast to HFD mice without FEN. FEN did not have a measurable effect on energy expenditure, food intake, physical activity, or stool lipid content. Glucose infusion rate during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was reduced 86% in HFD mice compared with controls and was improved 3.6-fold in FEN-HFD compared with HFD mice. FEN improved insulin action on glucose uptake and glycogen levels in muscle, insulin-stimulated suppression of hepatic glucose production, and suppression of serum FFA levels in HFD mice. Remarkably, FEN also reduced hepatic steatosis. In RBP4 knockout mice, FEN reduced the HFD-induced increase in adiposity and hyperleptinemia. In conclusion, long-term therapy with FEN partially prevents or reverses obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in mice on HFD. The anti-adiposity effects are independent of the RBP4 lowering effect.
Project description:Obesity induces accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and ATM-driven inflammatory responses that promote the development of glucose and lipid metabolism disorders. ClC-3 chloride channel/antiporter, encoded by the Clcn3, is critical for some basic cellular functions. Our previous work has shown significant alleviation of type 2 diabetes in Clcn3 knockout (Clcn3-/-) mice. In the present study we investigated the role of Clcn3 in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and ATM inflammation. To establish the mouse obesity model, both Clcn3-/- mice and wild-type mice were fed a HFD for 4 or 16 weeks. The metabolic parameters were assessed and the abdominal total adipose tissue was scanned using computed tomography. Their epididymal fat pad tissue and adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells were isolated for analyses. We found that the HFD-fed Clcn3-/- mice displayed a significant decrease in obesity-induced body weight gain and abdominal visceral fat accumulation as well as an improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism as compared with HFD-fed wild-type mice. Furthermore, the Clcn3 deficiency significantly attenuated HFD-induced ATM accumulation, HFD-increased F4/80+ CD11c+ CD206- SVF cells as well as HFD-activated TLR-4/NF-?B signaling in epididymal fat tissue. In cultured human THP-1 macrophages, adenovirus-mediated transfer of Clcn3 specific shRNA inhibited, whereas adenovirus-mediated cDNA overexpression of Clcn3 enhanced lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-?B and TLR-4. These results demonstrate a novel role for Clcn3 in HFD-induced obesity and ATM inflammation.
Project description:Using a C57BL6/J mouse model of diet-induced obesit,we observed that mannose supplementation of high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice prevents weight gain,lowers adiposity, reduces liver steatosis, and improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. We used microarrays to determine the gene expression pattern in epididymal fat frommice weaned on Normal diet (ND), HFD and HFD with mannose (HFDM) Overall design: Epididymal fat was collected from 3 mice each weaned on ND or HFD or HFDM for RNA isolation.
Project description:Obesity is a multifactorial metabolic disorder characterized by low-grade chronic inflammation, hyper-permeability of the gut epithelium, and perturbation of the intestinal microbiome. Despite the numerous therapeutic efficacies of <i>Dictyophora indusiata</i> mushroom, its biological activity in alleviating obesity through regulation of the gut microbiota and inflammatory cascades remain obscure. Henceforth, we determined the modulatory impact of <i>D. indusiata</i> polysaccharide (DIP) in the high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mice model. The experimental subjects (BALB/C mice) were supplemented with chow diet (Control group), high-fat diet (HFD group), or HFD along with DIP at a low dose [HFD + DIP(L)] and high dose [HFD + DIP(H)]. Obesity-related parameters, including body weight gain, epididymal adipocyte size, fat accumulation, adipogenic markers, lipogenic markers, inflammatory associated markers, intestinal integrity, and intestinal microbiome, were elucidated. Our findings demonstrated that the oral administration of DIP at low dose partially and at high dose significantly reversed HFD-induced obesity parameters. Furthermore, the body weight, fat accumulation, adipocyte size, adipogenic and liver associated markers, glucose levels, inflammatory cytokines, and endotoxin (Lipopolysaccharide, LPS) levels were reduced considerably. Moreover, the study revealed that DIP treatment reversed the dynamic alterations of the gut microbiome community by decreasing the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio. These findings led us to infer the therapeutic potential of DIP in alleviating HFD-induced obesity <i>via</i> regulating inflammatory cascades, modulating intestinal integrity and intestinal microbiome community.
Project description:Rice koji is considered a readily accessible functional food that may have health-promoting effects. We investigated whether white, yellow, and red koji have the anti-obesity effect in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), which is a model for obesity. Mice were fed HFD containing 10% (w/w) of rice koji powder or steamed rice for 4 weeks. Weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue, and total adipose tissue weight were significantly lower in all rice koji groups than in the HFD-rice group after 4 weeks. Feed efficiency was significantly reduced in the yellow koji group. Blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the white and red koji groups with HOMA-R and leptin levels being reduced in the white koji group. White and red koji increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 protein expression in L6 myotube cells. These results showed that all rice koji have the anti-obesity or anti-diabetes effects although the mechanisms may differ depending on the type of rice koji consumed.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of Sasa veitchii leaf extract (SE) on features of obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD), such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and inflammatory response. Four-week-old male ddY mice were freely fed HFD or control normal diet for 12 weeks; half was given SE in addition twice per day in weeks 8-12. Glucose and insulin intolerance were estimated, and body weight measured, weekly throughout the study. Following the experiment, the mice were fasted for 16 h, euthanized, and plasma was collected. Liver and epididymal adipose tissue was collected and weighed. Treatment with SE significantly decreased body weight, adipose tissue weight, plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor ? compared with HFD groups, and markedly reduced the impairment of glucose and insulin tolerance in obese mice. Furthermore, hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin receptor substrate were improved by treatment with SE. Our findings demonstrate that SE may reduce obesity-induced glucose and insulin tolerance, not only by suppressing inflammatory responses but also by improving insulin signaling.