MiR-142-3p Reduces the Size, Migration, and Contractility of Endometrial and Endometriotic Stromal Cells by Targeting Integrin- and Rho GTPase-Related Pathways That Regulate Cytoskeletal Function.
ABSTRACT: Downregulated microRNA-142-3p signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of endometriosis, an invasive disease where the lining of the uterus grows at ectopic locations, by yet incompletely understood mechanisms. Using bioinformatics and in vitro assays, this study identifies cytoskeletal regulation and integrin signaling as two relevant categories of miR-142-3p targets. qPCR revealed that miR-142-3p upregulation in St-T1b cells downregulates Rho-associated protein kinase 2 (ROCK2), cofilin 2 (CFL2), Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1), neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASL), and integrin ?-V (ITGAV). qPCR and Western-blotting showed miR-142-3p effect on WASL and ITGAV was significant also in primary endometriotic stroma cells. Luciferase reporter assays in ST-T1b cells then confirmed direct regulation of ITGAV and WASL. On the functional side, miR-142-3p upregulation significantly reduced ST-T1b cell size, the size of vinculin plaques, migration through fibronectin-coated transwell filters, and the ability of ST-T1b and primary endometriotic stroma cells to contract collagen I gels. These results suggest that miR-142-3p has a strong mechanoregulatory effect on endometrial stroma cells and its external administration reduces the invasive endometrial phenotype. Within the limits of an in vitro investigation, our study provides new mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of endometriosis and provides a perspective for the development of miR-142-3p based drugs for inhibiting invasive growth of endometriotic cells.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs, micro ribonucleic acids) are pivotal post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. These endogenous small non-coding RNAs play significant roles in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. miR-142-3p expression is dysregulated in several breast cancer subtypes. We aimed at investigating the role of miR-142-3p in breast cancer cell invasiveness. Supported by transcriptomic Affymetrix array analysis and confirmatory investigations at the mRNA and protein level, we demonstrate that overexpression of miR-142-3p in MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells leads to downregulation of WASL (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome-like, protein: N-WASP), Integrin-?V, RAC1, and CFL2, molecules implicated in cytoskeletal regulation and cell motility. ROCK2, IL6ST, KLF4, PGRMC2 and ADCY9 were identified as additional targets in a subset of cell lines. Decreased Matrigel invasiveness was associated with the miR-142-3p-induced expression changes. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, nanoscale atomic force microscopy and digital holographic microscopy revealed a change in cell morphology as well as a reduced cell volume and size. A more cortical actin distribution and a loss of membrane protrusions were observed in cells overexpressing miR-142-3p. Luciferase activation assays confirmed direct miR-142-3p-dependent regulation of the 3'-untranslated region of ITGAV and WASL. siRNA-mediated depletion of ITGAV and WASL resulted in a significant reduction of cellular invasiveness, highlighting the contribution of these factors to the miRNA-dependent invasion phenotype. While knockdown of WASL significantly reduced the number of membrane protrusions compared to controls, knockdown of ITGAV resulted in a decreased cell volume, indicating differential contributions of these factors to the miR-142-3p-induced phenotype. Our data identify WASL, ITGAV and several additional cytoskeleton-associated molecules as novel invasion-promoting targets of miR-142-3p in breast cancer.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs, micro ribonucleic acids) are pivotal post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. These endogenous small non-coding RNAs play significant roles in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. miR-142-3p expression is dysregulated in several breast cancer subtypes. We aimed at investigating the role of miR-142-3p in breast cancer cell invasiveness. Supported by transcriptomic Affymetrix array analysis and confirmatory investigations at the mRNA and protein level, we demonstrate that overexpression of miR-142-3p in MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells leads to downregulation of WASL (Wiskott-Aldrichsyndrome-like, protein: N-WASP), Integrin-aV, RAC1, and CFL2, molecules implicated in cytoskeletal regulation and cell motility. ROCK2, IL6ST, KLF4, PGRMC2 and ADCY9 were identified as additional targets in a subset of cell lines. Decreased matrigel invasiveness was associated with the miR-142-3p-induced expression changes. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, nanoscale atomic force microscopy and digital holographic microscopy revealed a change in cell morphology as well as a reduced cell volume and size. A more cortical actin distribution and a loss of membrane protrusions were observed in cells overexpressing miR-142-3p. Luciferase activation assays confirmed direct miR-142-3p-dependent regulation of the 3'-untranslated region of ITGAV and WASL. siRNA-mediated depletion of ITGAV andWASL resulted in a significant reduction of cellular invasiveness, highlighting the contribution of these factors to the miRNA-dependent invasion phenotype. While knockdown of WASL significantly reduced the number of membrane protrusions compared to controls, knockdown of ITGAV resulted in a decreased cell volume, indicating differential contributions of these factors to the miR-142-3p-induced phenotype. Our data identify WASL, ITGAV and several additional cytoskeleton associated molecules as novel invasion-promoting targets of miR-142-3p in breast cancer. Overall design: Biological triplicates of the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 were transiently transfected with miR-142-3p precursors (ABI) or a control miRNA. miRNA was prepared 72h after transfection, reverse transcribed, and analyzed by Affymetrix GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays. Expression changes in selected targets significantly regulated in the Affymetrix screening were confirmed independently in miR-142-3p-transfected MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 cells by qPCR and Western blotting. Significantly regulated targets included WASL, ITGAV, RAC1, CFL2, IL6ST, PGRMC2, ROCK2, KLF4 and ADCY9.
Project description:The detailed pathogenesis of endometriosis remains largely unclear despite decades of research. Recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs plays an important role in endometriosis. The expression of miR-142-3p was decreased in ectopic endometrial tissues, while KLF9 and VEGFA expression levels were increased. Overexpression of miR-142-3p or knockdown of KLF9 significantly suppressed CRL-7566 cell proliferation and metastasis, induced cell apoptosis, and decreased both cell autophagy and vascularization. Additionally, KLF9 was confirmed to be a direct target of miR-142-3p and to directly bind to the promoter of the VEGFA gene, regulating its expression. Finally, intraperitoneal injection of miR-142-3p lentivirus significantly attenuated ectopic endometriotic lesions in vivo.miR-142-3p directly targeted KLF9, regulated VEGFA expression, and was protective against the growth of ectopic endometriotic lesions. Therefore, the miR-142-3p/KLF9/VEGFA signalling pathway may be a potential target in endometriosis treatment.
Project description:microRNA (miRNA) expression level alterations between endometrial tissue and endometriotic lesions indicate their involvement in endometriosis pathogenesis. However, as both endometrium and endometriotic lesions consist of different cell types in various proportions, it is not clear which cells contribute to variability in miRNA levels and the overall knowledge about cell-type specific miRNA expression in ectopic cells is scarce. Therefore, we utilized fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate endometrial stromal cells from paired endometrial and endometrioma biopsies and combined it with high-throughput sequencing to determine miRNA alterations in endometriotic stroma. The analysis revealed 149 abnormally expressed miRNAs in endometriotic lesions, including extensive upregulation of miR-139-5p and downregulation of miR-375 compared to eutopic cells. miRNA transfection experiments in the endometrial stromal cell line ST-T1b showed that the overexpression of miR-139-5p resulted in the downregulation of homeobox A9 (HOXA9) and HOXA10 expression, whereas the endothelin 1 (EDN1) gene was regulated by miR-375. The results of this study provide further insights into the complex molecular mechanisms involved in endometriosis pathogenesis and demonstrate the necessity for cell-type-specific analysis of ectopic tissues to understand the interactions between different cell populations in disease onset and progression.
Project description:Endometriosis is an inflammatory condition in which endometrial tissue grows in ectopic locations. Survival and growth of these ectopic lesions is associated with pain and infertility. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been postulated to play a role in the pathophysiology of the disease and we have previously demonstrated expression of miR-451 in human endometriotic lesion tissue. Here we report elevated expression of the miR-144-3p/miR-451a cluster in human endometriotic lesion tissue. Use of an endometriotic epithelial cell line (12Z) in which the miRNA processing enzyme, DROSHA, was knocked down resulted in an enrichment in the primary (pri) form of miR-144-3p but not that of pri-miR-451a. Using an experimental mouse model of endometriosis in which ectopic endometriotic lesions were deficient for both of these miRNAs revealed that miR-451a, but not miR-144-3p may be derived from exogenous sources such as the circulation/erythrocytes. Together, these data suggest that the miR-144-3p/miR-451a cluster is expressed in human endometriotic lesion tissue, the level of expression correlates with survival status of the lesion tissue and that miR-451a, but not miR-144-3p may be derived from exogenous sources such as erythrocytes.
Project description:Endometriosis is associated with benign but adversely developed cysts in the extrauterine environment. The oxidative imbalanced environment induces DNA damage and affects cell cycle progression of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and endometrial epithelial cells, but how endometriotic cells maintain proliferation in the presence of oxidative stress is not clear. Growing evidence has indicated that the ectopic hypoxic microenvironment and oxidative stress can stimulate the growth of endometriotic cells, which is mainly due to the increase of HIF-1?. We found that the master hypoxia-associated miRNA miR-210-3p was increased in stromal and glandular cells of ectopic lesions compared with that of eutopic and normal endometria and was consistent with the expression of HIF-1? and the local oxidative stress-induced DNA damage predictor 8-OHdG. Moreover, miR-210-3p was upregulated in ESCs and Ishikawa cells under hypoxic conditions but not in normoxic culture. Knockdown of miR-210-3p induced a G2/M arrest of ESCs and Ishikawa cells under hypoxia, while no effect was found under normoxia. BARD1 was identified as a target of miR-210-3p. BARD1 expression was decreased in endometriotic tissues compared with eutopic and normal endometria and negatively correlated with the expression of miR-210-3p. Multivariate regression analysis showed that BARD1 downregulation could serve as an indicator for endometriotic severity. Our results suggest that miR-210-3p attenuates the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint by inactivating BRCA1 complex function in response to DNA damage under hypoxia via targeting the 3' untranslated region of BARD1 mRNA. Endometriotic mouse model experiments showed that intraperitoneal injection of the miR-210-3p inhibitor or vitamin C suppressed the growth of endometriotic lesions. Together, our results demonstrate that endometriotic cells inhibit BARD1/BRCA1 function by upregulating miR-210-3p, which might be the underlying mechanism for endometriotic cell maintenance of growth in oxidative stress. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-210-3p and administration of vitamin C are promising approaches for the treatment of endometriosis.
Project description:Purpose: Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most frequent metastatic ocular tumor in adults. Therapeutic intervention remains ineffective since none of the novel procedures used to treat this disease increased survival rates. To deal with this limitation, additional studies are required to clarify its pathogenesis. The current study focused on describing how epigenetic modulation by miR-142-3p affects changes in some cellular functions underlying UM pathogenesis. Methods and results: Microarray analysis identified 374 miRNAs which were differentially expressed between UM cells and uveal melanocytes. miR-142-3p was one of the 10 most downregulated miRNAs. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that miR-142-3p expression levels were significantly decreased in both UM cell lines and clinical specimens. The results of the MTS, clone formation, scratch wound, transwell assays, and in vivo biofluorescence imaging showed that miR-142-3p overexpression significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasiveness. Nevertheless, miR-142-3p did not affect cell apoptotic activity or sensitivity to doxorubicin. Cell cycle and EdU analysis showed that miR-142-3p overexpression induced G1/G2 cell cycle arrest and reduced DNA synthesis in UM cells. Microarray analysis showed that miR-142-3p mainly regulates the TGF? signaling pathway, and those in which MAPK and PI3K-Akt are constituents. Functional interactions between miR-142-3p and CDC25C, TGF?R1, GNAQ, WASL, and RAC1 target genes were confirmed based on the results of the luciferase reporter assay and Western blot analysis. CDC25C or RAC1 downregulation is in agreement with cell cycle arrest and DNA synthesis disorder induction, while downregulation of TGF?R1, GNAQ, WASL, or RAC1 accounts for declines in cell migration. Conclusion: miR-143-3p is a potential therapeutic target to treat UM since overriding its declines in expression that occur in this disease reversed the pathogenesis of this disease. Such insight reveals novel biomarker for decreasing UM vitality and for improved tracking of tumor progression.
Project description:Packaging of small molecular factors, including miRNAs, into small extracellular vesicles (SEVs) may contribute to malignant phenotypes and facilitate communication between cancer cells and tumor stroma. The process by which some miRNAs are enclosed in SEVs is selective rather than indiscriminate, with selection in part governed by specific miRNA sequences. Herein, we describe the selective packaging and removal via SEVs of four miRNAs (miR-142-3p, miR-150-5p, miR-451a, and miR-223-3p) in a panel of oral dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Inhibition of exosome export protein Rab27A increased intracellular concentration of these miRNA candidates and prevented their exclusion via SEVs. Increased intracellular miR-142-3p specifically was found to target TGFBR1, causing a decrease in TGFBR1 expression in donor cells and a reduction of malignant features such as growth and colony formation. Conversely, increased excretion of miR-142-3p via donor cell SEVs and uptake by recipient endothelial cells was found to reduce TGFBR1 activity and cause tumor-promoting changes in these cells in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:Accumulating data have shown the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in endometriosis pathogenesis. In this study, we used a novel approach to determine the endometriotic lesion-specific miRNAs by high-throughput small RNA sequencing of paired samples of peritoneal endometriotic lesions and matched healthy surrounding tissues together with eutopic endometria of the same patients. We found five miRNAs specific to epithelial cells--miR-34c, miR-449a, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-141 showing significantly higher expression in peritoneal endometriotic lesions compared to healthy peritoneal tissues. We also determined the expression levels of miR-200 family target genes E-cadherin, ZEB1 and ZEB2 and found that the expression level of E-cadherin was significantly higher in endometriotic lesions compared to healthy tissues. Further evaluation verified that studied miRNAs could be used as diagnostic markers for confirming the presence of endometrial cells in endometriotic lesion biopsy samples. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the miRNA profile of peritoneal endometriotic lesion biopsies is largely masked by the surrounding peritoneal tissue, challenging the discovery of an accurate lesion-specific miRNA profile. Taken together, our findings indicate that only particular miRNAs with a significantly higher expression in endometriotic cells can be detected from lesion biopsies, and can serve as diagnostic markers for endometriosis.
Project description:Endometriosis is a chronic, painful condition with unknown etiology. A differential expression of microRNAs in the endometriotic tissues from women with endometriosis with pain compared to those without suggested a plausible role for miRNA or epigenetic mechanisms in the etiology of endometriotic pain. The peritoneal milieu is involved in maintenance of endometriotic lesion and nociception. We recently showed the mechanistic role for oxidized-lipoproteins (ox-LDLs) present in peritoneal fluid (PF) in endometriosis and pain. We explored the possibility of ox-LDLs modulating the expression of miRNAs in a manner similar to PF from women with endometriosis. Expression levels of miRNAs and their predicted nociceptive and inflammatory targets were determined in PF and ox-LDL treated human endometrial cell-lines. Samples from IRB-approved and consented patients with and without endometriosis or pain were used. These were compared to endometrial cell-lines treated with various forms of oxidized-lipoproteins. RNA (including miRNAs) were isolated from treated endometrial cells and expression levels were determined using commercial miRNome arrays. Cell lysates were used in immunoblotting for inflammatory proteins using a protein array. Twenty miRNAs including isoforms of miR-29, miR-181 and let-7 were mutually differentially expressed in cells treated with PF from endometriosis patients with pain and those treated with ox-LDL components. The ox-LDLs and endo-PF treatment also produced significant overexpression of microRNA predicted target genes nerve growth factor, interleukin-6 and prostaglandin E synthase and overexpression of their downstream protein targets Mip1? and MCP1. This study showed similarities between miRNA regulation in PF from endometriotic women and ox-LDLs present in abundance in the PF of these women. Key miRNAs responsible for targeting nociceptive and inflammatory molecules were downregulated in the presence of ox-LDLs and endo-PF, thus playing a role in the etiology of endometriotic pain. These redox-sensitive miRNAs can be of potential use as targets in the treatment of endometriosis-associated pain.