Viennamycins: Lipopeptides Produced by a Streptomyces sp.
ABSTRACT: Extracts from Streptomyces sp. S4.7 isolated from the rhizosphere of edelweiss, an alpine medicinal plant, exhibited activity against Gram-positive bacteria. LC-HRMS analyses of the extracts resulted in the detection of two unknown, structurally related lipopeptides that were assumed to be responsible for the antibiotic activity. LC-MS guided isolation and structure elucidation of viennamycins A and B (1 and 2) by HR-MS/MS, 1D and 2D NMR, and Marfey's analyses revealed them to be novel compounds, with viennamycin A containing cysteic acid, a unique feature for lipopeptides. Tests for antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic activities of purified viennamycins, both with and without divalent cations, did not reveal any bioactivity, suggesting that their biological function, which could not be determined in the tests used, is atypical for lipopeptides. The genome of Streptomyces sp. S4.7 was sequenced and analyzed, revealing the viennamycin biosynthetic gene cluster. Detailed bioinformatics-based analysis of the viennamycin gene cluster allowed elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway for these lipopeptides.
Project description:The marine sponge <i>Amphimedon</i> sp., collected from Hurghada (Egypt) was investigated for its sponge-derived actinomycetes diversity. Nineteen actinomycetes were cultivated and phylogenetically identified using 16S rDNA gene sequencing were carried out. The strains belong to genera <i>Kocuria, Dietzia, Micrococcus, Microbacterium and Streptomyces</i>. Many silent biosynthetic genes clusters were investigated using genome sequencing of actinomycete strains and has revealed in particular the genus <i>Streptomyces</i> that has indicated their exceptional capacity for the secondary metabolites production that not observed under classical cultivation conditions. In this study, the effect of N-acetylglucosamine on the metabolome of <i>Streptomyces</i> sp. RM66 was investigated using three actinomycetes media (ISP2, M1 and MA). In total, twelve extracts were produced using solid and liquid fermentation approaches. Liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS) data were analysed using metabolomics tools to compare natural product production across all crude extracts. Our study highlighted the elicitation effect of N-acetylglucosamine on the secondary metabolite profiles of <i>Streptomyces</i> sp. RM66. These results highlight the of N-acetylglucosamine application as an elicitor to induce the cryptic metabolites and for increasing the chemical diversity. All the twelve extracts were tested for their antibacterial activity was tested against <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> NCTC 8325, antifungal activity against <i>Candida albicans</i> 5314 (ATCC 90028) and anti-trypanosomal activity against <i>Trypanosoma brucei</i> brucei. Extract St1 showed the most potent one with activities 2.3, 3.2 and 4.7 ug/ml as antibacterial, antifungal and anti-trypanosomal, respectively.
Project description:Antarctic have been suggested as an attractive source for antibiotics discovery and members of Streptomyces genus have historically been studied as natural producers of antimicrobial metabolites. Nonetheless, our knowledge on antibiotic-producing Streptomyces from Antarctic is very limited. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of organic extracts from Antarctic Streptomyces strains was evaluated by disk diffusion assays and minimum inhibitory concentration. The strain Streptomyces sp. So13.3 showed the greatest antibiotic activity (MIC?=?15.6??g/mL) against Gram-positive bacteria and growth reduction of Gram?negative pathogens. The bioactive fraction in the crude extract was revealed by TLC?bioautography at Rf?=?0.78 with molecular weight between 148 and 624?m/z detected by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The strain So13.3 was taxonomically affiliated as Streptomyces fildesensis. Whole genome sequencing and analysis suggested a 9.47?Mb genome size with 42 predicted biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) and 56 putative clusters representing a 22% of total genome content. Interestingly, a large number of them (11 of 42 BGCs and 40 of 56 putative BGCs), did not show similarities with other known BGCs. Our results highlight the potential of the Antarctic Streptomyces strains as a promising source of novel antimicrobials, particularly the strain Streptomyces fildesensis So13.3, which first draft genome is reported in this work.
Project description:Three new polyketides, lactomycins A (1)-C (3), were isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. ACT232 as cathepsin B inhibitors. Their structures were determined by a combination of NMR and MS data analyses to be the dephosphorylated derivatives of a phoslactomycin class of metabolites. Lactomycins exhibited cathepsin B inhibitory activity (IC50 0.8 to 4.5 ?g/mL). Even though the biosynthetic gene clusters found in the genome of the current strain have high similarity to those of phoslactomycin, neither phoslactomycins nor leustroducsins were detected by LC-MS analyses of the crude extract.
Project description:The structures of 12 new "enantiomeric"-like abyssomicin metabolites (abyssomicins M-X) from Streptomyces sp. LC-6-2 are reported. Of this set, the abyssomicin W (11) contains an unprecedented 8/6/6/6 tetracyclic core, while the bicyclic abyssomicin X (12) represents the first reported naturally occurring linear spirotetronate. Metabolite structures were determined based on spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallography, and Streptomyces sp. LC-6-2 genome sequencing also revealed the corresponding putative biosynthetic gene cluster.
Project description:Genome sequences of marine streptomycetes are valuable for the discovery of useful enzymes and bioactive compounds by genome mining. However, publicly available complete genome sequences of marine streptomycetes are still limited. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a marine streptomycete Streptomyces sp. S063 CGMCC 14582. Species delineation based on the pairwise digital DNA-DNA hybridization and genome comparison ANI (average nucleotide identity) value showed that Streptomyces sp. S063 CGMCC 14582 possesses a unique genome that is clearly different from all of the other available genomes. Bioactivity tests showed that Streptomyces sp. S063 CGMCC 14582 produces metabolites with anti-complement activities, which are useful for treatment of numerous diseases that arise from inappropriate activation of the human complement system. Analysis of the genome reveals no biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) which shows even low similarity to that of the known anti-complement agents was detected in the genome, indicating that Streptomyces sp. S063 CGMCC 14582 may produce novel anti-complement agents of microbial origin. Four BGCs which are potentially involved in biosynthesis of non-ribosomal peptides were disrupted, but no decrease of anti-complement activities was observed, suggesting that these four BGCs are not involved in biosynthesis of the anti-complement agents. In addition, LC-MS/MS analysis and subsequent alignment through the Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS) platform led to the detection of novel peptides produced by the strain. Streptomyces sp. S063 CGMCC 14582 grows rapidly and is salt tolerant, which benefits efficient secondary metabolite production via seawater-based fermentation. Our results indicate that Streptomyces sp. S063 has great potential to produce novel bioactive compounds, and also is a good host for heterologous production of useful secondary metabolites for drug discovery.
Project description:Both donors and acceptors of communication-mediating (COM) domains are essential for coordinating intermolecular communication within nonribosomal peptides synthetases (NRPSs) complexes. Different sets of COM domains provide selectivity, allowing NRPSs to utilize different natural biosynthetic templates. In this study, novel lipopeptides were synthesized by reprogramming the plipastatin biosynthetic machinery. A Thr-to-Asp point mutation was sufficient to shift the selectivity of the donor COM domain of ppsB toward that of ppsD. Deletion and/or interchangeability established donor and acceptor function. Variations in acceptor COM domain did not result in novel product formation in the presence of its partner donor, whereas plipastatin formation was completely abrogated by altering donor modules. Five novel lipopeptides (cyclic pentapeptide, linear hexapeptide, nonapeptide, heptapeptide, and cyclic octapeptide) were identified and verified by high-resolution LC-ESI-MS/MS. In addition, we demonstrated the potential to generate novel strains with the antimicrobial activity by selecting compatible COM domains, and the novel lipopeptides exhibited antimicrobial activity against five of the fungal species at a contention of 31.25-125 ?g/ml.
Project description:Metabolomics and genomics are two complementary platforms for analyzing an organism as they provide information on the phenotype and genotype, respectively. These two techniques were applied in the dereplication and identification of bioactive compounds from a Streptomyces sp. (SM8) isolated from the sponge Haliclona simulans from Irish waters. Streptomyces strain SM8 extracts showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. NMR analysis of the active fractions proved that hydroxylated saturated fatty acids were the major components present in the antibacterial fractions. Antimycin compounds were initially putatively identified in the antifungal fractions using LC-Orbitrap. Their presence was later confirmed by comparison to a standard. Genomic analysis of Streptomyces sp. SM8 revealed the presence of multiple secondary metabolism gene clusters, including a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of the antifungal antimycin family of compounds. The antimycin gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. SM8 was inactivated by disruption of the antimycin biosynthesis gene antC. Extracts from this mutant strain showed loss of antimycin production and significantly less antifungal activity than the wild-type strain. Three butenolides, 4,10-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (1), 4,11-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (2), and 4-hydroxy-10-methyl-11-oxo-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (3) that had previously been reported from marine Streptomyces species were also isolated from SM8. Comparison of the extracts of Streptomyces strain SM8 and its host sponge, H. simulans, using LC-Orbitrap revealed the presence of metabolites common to both extracts, providing direct evidence linking sponge metabolites to a specific microbial symbiont.
Project description:Halophytes are associated with the intertidal forest ecosystem of Saudi Arabia and seemingly have an immense potential for yielding useful and important natural products. In this study we have aimed to isolate and characterize the endophytic and rhizospheric bacterial communities from the halophyte, Salsola imbricata, In addition these bacterial strains were identified and selected strains were further studied for bioactive secondary metabolites. At least 168 rhizspheric and endophytic bacteria were isolated and of these 22 were active antagonists against the oomycetous fungal plant pathogens, Phytophthora capsici and Pythium ultimum. Active cultures were mainly identified with molecular techniques (16S r DNA) and this revealed 95.7-100% sequence similarities with relevant type strains. These microorgansims were grouped into four major classes: Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, ?-Proteobacteria, and ?-Proteobacteria. Production of fungal cell wall lytic enzymes was detected mostly in members of Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. PCR screening for type I polyketide synthases (PKS-I), type II polyketide synthases (PKS-II) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) revealed 13 of the 22 strains (59%) were positive for at least one of these important biosynthetic genes that are known to be involved in the synthesis of important antibiotics. Four bacterial strains of Actinobacteria with potential antagonistic activity including two rhizobacteria, EA52 (Nocardiopsis sp.), EA58 (Pseudonocardia sp.) and two endophytic bacteria Streptomyces sp. (EA65) and Streptomyces sp. (EA67) were selected for secondary metabolite analyses using LC-MS. As a result, the presence of different bioactive compounds in the culture extracts was detected some of which are already reported for their diverse biological activities including antibiotics such as Sulfamethoxypyridazine, Sulfamerazine, and Dimetridazole. In conclusion, this study provides an insight into antagonistic bacterial population especially the Actinobacteria from S. imbricata, producing antifungal metabolites of medical significance and characterized taxonomically in future.
Project description:Glycosyl groups are an essential mediator of molecular interactions in cells and on cellular surfaces. There are very few methods that directly relate sugar-containing molecules to their biosynthetic machineries. Here, we introduce glycogenomics as an experiment-guided genome-mining approach for fast characterization of glycosylated natural products (GNPs) and their biosynthetic pathways from genome-sequenced microbes by targeting glycosyl groups in microbial metabolomes. Microbial GNPs consist of aglycone and glycosyl structure groups in which the sugar unit(s) are often critical for the GNP's bioactivity, e.g., by promoting binding to a target biomolecule. GNPs are a structurally diverse class of molecules with important pharmaceutical and agrochemical applications. Herein, O- and N-glycosyl groups are characterized in their sugar monomers by tandem mass spectrometry (MS) and matched to corresponding glycosylation genes in secondary metabolic pathways by a MS-glycogenetic code. The associated aglycone biosynthetic genes of the GNP genotype then classify the natural product to further guide structure elucidation. We highlight the glycogenomic strategy by the characterization of several bioactive glycosylated molecules and their gene clusters, including the anticancer agent cinerubin B from Streptomyces sp. SPB74 and an antibiotic, arenimycin B, from Salinispora arenicola CNB-527.
Project description:The biosynthetic gene clusters for herbicidins ( hbc) and aureonuclemycin ( anm) were identified in Streptomyces sp. KIB-027 and Streptomyces aureus, respectively. The roles of genes possibly involved in post-core-assembly steps in herbicidin biosynthesis in these clusters and a related her cluster were studied. Through systematic gene deletions, structural elucidation of the accumulated intermediates in the mutants, and in vitro verification of the encoded enzymes, the peripheral modification pathway for herbicidin biosynthesis is now fully established.