Coronavirus disease 2019: A tissue engineering and regenerative medicine perspective.
ABSTRACT: Current therapies for novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are generally used to manage rather than cure this highly infective disease. Therefore, there is a significant unmet medical need for a safe and effective treatment for COVID-19. Inflammation is the driving force behind coronavirus infections, and the majority of deaths caused by COVID-19 are the result of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It is crucial to control the inflammation as early as possible. To date, numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) products, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and their derivatives (eg, exosomes) for coronavirus infections, which could be applied for the COVID-19. In this review, first, the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic in the present and future of TERM research and products are briefly presented. Then, the recent clinical trials and the therapeutic benefits of MSCs in coronavirus-induced ARDS are critically reviewed. Last, the recent advances in the field of tissue engineering relevant to the coronavirus infections, including three-dimensional platforms to study the disease progression and test the effects of antiviral agents are described. Moreover, the application of biomaterials for vaccine technology, and drug delivery are highlighted. Despite promising results in the preclinical and clinical applications of MSC therapy for coronavirus infections, the controversy still exists, and thus further investigation is required to understand the efficacy of these therapies.
Project description:More than seven months into the coronavirus disease -19 (COVID-19) pandemic, infection from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to over 21.2 million cases and resulted in over 760,000 deaths worldwide so far. As a result, COVID-19 has changed all our lives as we battle to curtail the spread of the infection in the absence of specific therapies against coronaviruses and in anticipation of a proven safe and efficacious vaccine. Common with previous outbreaks of coronavirus infections, SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome, COVID-19 can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that arises due to an imbalanced immune response. While several repurposed antiviral and host-response drugs are under examination as potential treatments, other novel therapeutics are also being explored to alleviate the effects on critically ill patients. The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for COVID-19 has become an attractive avenue down which almost 70 different clinical trial teams have ventured. Successfully trialled for the treatment of other conditions such as multiple sclerosis, osteoarthritis and graft versus host disease, MSCs possess both regenerative and immunomodulatory properties, the latter of which can be harnessed to reduce the severity and longevity of ARDS in patients under intensive care due to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Project description:Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a member of the coronaviridae that causes respiratory disorders. After infection, large amounts of inflammatory cytokines are secreted, known as the cytokine storm. These cytokines can cause pulmonary damage induced by inflammation resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and even death. One of the therapeutic approaches for treatment of ARDS is a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC). MSCs suppress inflammation and reduce lung injury through their immunomodulatory properties. MSCs also have the potential to prevent apoptosis of the lung cells and regenerate them. But our suggestion is using MSCs-derived exosomes. Because these exosomes apply the same immunomodulatory and tissue repair effects of MSCs and they don't have problems associated to cell maintenance and injections. For investigation the hypothesis, MSCs should be isolated from tissues and characterized. Then, the exosomes should be isolated from the supernatants and characterized. These exosomes should be injected into a transgenic animal for COVID-19. In the final section, lung function assessment, histological examination, micro-CT, differential leukocyte, viral load analysis, cytokine assay, and CRP level analysis can be investigated. COVID-19 treatment is currently focused on supportive therapies and no vaccine has been developed for it. So, numerous researches are needed to find potential therapies. Since the pathogenesis of this disease was identified in previous studies and can cause lung injury with ARDS, investigation of the therapeutic approaches that can suppress inflammation, cytokine storm and ARDS can be helpful in finding a novel therapeutic approach for this disease.
Project description:Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have immune regulatory and tissue regenerative properties. MSCs are being studied as a therapy option for many inflammatory and immune disorders and are approved to treat acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and associated coronavirus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19) has claimed many lives. Innovative therapies are needed. Preliminary data using MSCs in the setting of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 are emerging. We review mechanisms of action of MSCs in inflammatory and immune conditions and discuss a potential role in persons with COVID-19.
Project description:Numerous clinical trials of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) as a new treatment for coronavirus-induced disease (COVID-19) have been registered recently, most of them based on intravenous (IV) infusion. There is no approved effective therapy for COVID-19, but MSC therapies have shown first promise in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) pneumonia, inflammation, and sepsis, which are among the leading causes of mortality in COVID-19 patients. Many of the critically ill COVID-19 patients are in a hypercoagulable procoagulant state and at high risk for disseminated intravascular coagulation, thromboembolism, and thrombotic multi-organ failure, another cause of high fatality. It is not yet clear whether IV infusion is a safe and effective route of MSC delivery in COVID-19, since MSC-based products express variable levels of highly procoagulant tissue factor (TF/CD142), compromising the cells' hemocompatibility and safety profile. Of concern, IV infusions of poorly characterized MSC products with unchecked (high) TF/CD142 expression could trigger blood clotting in COVID-19 and other vulnerable patient populations and further promote the risk for thromboembolism. In contrast, well-characterized products with robust manufacturing procedures and optimized modes of clinical delivery hold great promise for ameliorating COVID-19 by exerting their beneficial immunomodulatory effects, inducing tissue repair and organ protection. While the need for MSC therapy in COVID-19 is apparent, integrating both innate and adaptive immune compatibility testing into the current guidelines for cell, tissue, and organ transplantation is critical for safe and effective therapies. It is paramount to only use well-characterized, safe MSCs even in the most urgent and experimental treatments. We here propose three steps to mitigate the risk for these vulnerable patients: (1) updated clinical guidelines for cell and tissue transplantation, (2) updated minimal criteria for characterization of cellular therapeutics, and (3) updated cell therapy routines reflecting specific patient needs.
Project description:A novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causing lethal acute respiratory disease emerged in December 2019. The World Health Organization named this disease "COVID-19" and declared it a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Many studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their exosomes (MSCs-Exo), which are isolated from allogenic bone marrow stem cells, significantly lower the risk of alveolar inflammation and other pathological conditions associated with distinct lung injuries. For example, in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pneumonia patients, MSCs-Exo and MSCs provide similar healing properties and some clinical trials have used cell-based inhalation therapy which show great promise. MSCs and MSCs-Exo have shown potential in clinical trials as a therapeutic tool for severely affected COVID-19 patients when compared to other cell-based therapies, which may face challenges like the cells' sticking to the respiratory tract epithelia during administration. However, the use of MSCs or MSCs-Exo for treating COVID-19 should strictly adhere to the appropriate manufacturing practices, quality control measurements, preclinical safety and efficacy data, and the proper ethical regulations. This review highlights the available clinical trials that support the therapeutic potential of MSCs or MSCs-Exo in severely affected COVID-19 patients.
Project description:Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) constitute a heterogeneous population of stromal cells with immunomodulatory and regenerative properties that support their therapeutic use. MSCs isolated from many tissue sources replicate vigorously in vitro and maintain their main biological properties allowing their widespread clinical application. To date, most MSC-based preclinical and clinical trials targeted immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases. Nevertheless, MSCs have antiviral properties and have been used in the treatment of various viral infections in the last years. Here, we revised in detail the biological properties of MSCs and their preclinical and clinical applications in viral diseases, including the disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (COVID-19). Notably, rapidly increasing numbers of MSC-based therapies for COVID-19 have recently been reported. MSCs are theoretically capable of reducing inflammation and promote lung regeneration in severe COVID-19 patients. We critically discuss the rationale, advantages and disadvantages of MSC-based therapies for viral infections and also specifically for COVID-19 and point out some directions in this field. Finally, we argue that MSC-based therapy may be a promising therapeutic strategy for severe COVID-19 and other emergent respiratory tract viral infections, beyond the viral infection diseases in which MSCs have already been clinically applied. Graphical Abstract.
Project description:Approximately 15%-20% of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) progress beyond mild and self-limited disease to require supplemental oxygen for severe pneumonia; 5% of COVID-19-infected patients further develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiorgan failure. Despite mortality rates surpassing 40%, key insights into COVID-19-induced ARDS pathology have not been fully elucidated and multiple unmet needs remain. This review focuses on the unmet need for effective therapies that target unchecked innate immunity-driven inflammation which drives unchecked vascular permeability, multiorgan dysfunction and ARDS mortality. Additional unmet needs including the lack of insights into factors predicting pathogenic hyperinflammatory viral host responses, limited approaches to address the vast disease heterogeneity in ARDS, and the absence of clinically-useful ARDS biomarkers. We review unmet needs persisting in COVID-19-induced ARDS in the context of the potential role for damage-associated molecular pattern proteins in lung and systemic hyperinflammatory host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection that ultimately drive multiorgan dysfunction and ARDS mortality. Insights into promising stratification-enhancing, biomarker-based strategies in COVID-19 and non-COVID ARDS may enable the design of successful clinical trials of promising therapies.
Project description:Therapeutic clinical and preclinical studies using cultured cells are on the rise, especially now that the World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a "public health emergency of international concern", in January, 2020. Thus, this study aims to review the outcomes of ongoing clinical studies on stem cells in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). The results will be associated with possible applications to COVID-19. Only three clinical trials related to stem cells are considered complete, whereby two are in Phase 1 and one is in Phase 2. Basically, the ongoing studies on coronavirus are using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow or the umbilical cord to demonstrate their feasibility, safety, and tolerability. The studies not related to coronavirus are all in ARDS conditions; four of them are in Phase 1 and three in Phase 2. With the COVID-19 boom, many clinical trials are being carried out using different sources with an emphasis on MSC-based therapy used to inhibit inflammation. One of the biggest challenges in the current treatment of COVID-19 is the cytokine storm, however MSCs can prevent or mitigate this cytokine storm through their immunomodulatory capacity. We look forward to the results of the ongoing clinical trials to find a treatment for the disease. Researchers around the world are joining forces to help fight COVID-19. Stem cells used in the current clinical studies are a new therapeutic promise for COVID-19 where pharmacological treatments seem insufficient.Graphical Abstract.
Project description:The serious consequences of the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have prompted a rapid global response to develop effective therapies that can lessen disease severity in infected patients. Cell-based approaches, primarily using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), have demonstrated a strong safety profile and possible efficacy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but whether these therapies are effective for treating respiratory virus-induced ARDS is unknown. According to the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and the National Institutes of Health ClinicalTrials.gov databases, 27 clinical investigations of MSC-based cell therapy approaches have begun in China since the onset of the COVID-19 outbreak, with a growing number of academic and industry trials elsewhere as well. Several recent published reports have suggested potential efficacy; however, the available data presented are either anecdotal or from incomplete, poorly controlled investigations. Therefore, although there may be a potential role for MSCs and other cell-based therapies in treatment of COVID-19, these need to be investigated in a rationally designed, controlled approach if safety and efficacy are to be demonstrated accurately. The authors urge that the field proceed by finding a balance between swift experimentation and communication of results and scientifically coherent generation and analysis of clinical data.
Project description:The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is quickly spreading all over the world. This virus, which is called SARS-CoV-2, has infected tens of thousands of people. Based on symptoms, the pathogenesis of acute respiratory illness is responsible for highly homogenous coronaviruses as well as other pathogens. Evidence suggests that high inflammation rates, oxidation, and overwhelming immune response probably contribute to pathology of COVID-19. COVID-19 causes cytokine storm, which subsequently leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), often ending up in the death of patients. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotential stem cells that are recognized via self-renewal capacity, generation of clonal populations, and multilineage differentiation. MSCs are present in nearly all tissues of the body, playing an essential role in repair and generation of tissues. Furthermore, MSCs have broad immunoregulatory properties through the interaction of immune cells in both innate and adaptive immune systems, leading to immunosuppression of many effector activities. MSCs can reduce the cytokine storm produced by coronavirus infection. In a number of studies, the administration of these cells has been beneficial for COVID-19 patients. Also, MSCs may be able to improve pulmonary fibrosis and lung function. In this review, we will review the newest research findings regarding MSC-based immunomodulation in patients with COVID-19.