Meat quality traits and fatty acid composition of breast muscles from ducks fed with yellow lupin.
ABSTRACT: The protein sources in feed have a huge impact on good-quality and -quantity meat traits. Yellow lupin (YL) seeds have a similar level of protein as soybean meal (SBM). The most popular is SBM that is genetically modified (GMO). During this age, the consumer market requires non-GMO products. Yellow lupin used as a high-protein substitute for SBM in feed has an effect on the quality of meat from broiler ducks. The aim of the study was to analyse and compare meat quality traits in breast and leg muscles as well as fatty acid (FA) composition in breast muscles from ducks fed mixtures containing YL as an alternative to SBM. Two hundred 1-day-old Cherry Valley ducks were kept in pens on litter in two equal dietary groups, four replications with 25 birds per group. The control group (1) received balanced feed containing SBM. The treatment group (2) received balanced feed containing YL. The feed provided to both groups contained 55% of concentrate and 45% of wheat. Birds received feed and water ad libitum and were reared for 8 weeks. After that, 16 ducks (eight from each group) of BW close to the mean for the whole group were slaughtered. Plucked and gutted carcasses were analysed in a laboratory for quality parameters. Meat was analysed for pH, colour, water-holding capacity and drip loss. Samples of breast muscles were analysed for the content of cholesterol, collagen, intramuscular fat and FA composition. The proposed feed mixture containing YL had no impact on meat traits, content of muscles or fat in duck carcasses (P > 0.05). The values of lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) and collagen content in breast muscles were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in group 2 (YL). A lower ability to retain water, that is, higher water-holding capacity (percentage of water lost from meat) (P < 0.05), was found for leg muscles from group 2 (YL). The content of C16:0, C18:0, C20:4 n-6, C22:4 n-6, C22:5 n-3, total content of saturated fatty acids (SFA), values of atherogenic index and thrombogenic index were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in group 2 (YL) than in group 1 (SBM). The content of C18:2 n-6 and the polyunsaturated fatty acids-to-SFA ratio (P/S) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in ducks fed the diet with the inclusion of YL. Diets with YL could be proposed as a partial substitute for SBM in duck-rearing.
Project description:The aim of the study was to compare the carcass and meat quality of geese fed with soybean meal or yellow lupin. In total, 210 White Ko?uda® geese were divided into 2 groups (1, soybean meal (SBM); 2, yellow lupin (YL), potato protein, and brewer's yeast) of 5 replications (21 birds per each). After 16 weeks, 10 geese (5 females, 5 males) from each group were slaughtered. Carcass dissection was done, and major physicochemical traits were analysed (pH, water holding capacity, drip loss, color, and chemical composition of muscles). Weight of leg muscles and their proportion in the carcass were higher (p < 0.05) in SBM. Breast muscles from SBM were characterized by increased (p < 0.05) drip loss, enhanced (p < 0.05) content of protein, water, collagen and connective tissue, and lower (p < 0.05) fat content. Leg muscles from SBM were characterized by higher (p < 0.05) protein and water content but decreased (p < 0.05) salt and fat content compared to YL. The addition of YL (approx. 28%), potato protein, and brewer's yeast had no negative effect on most meat traits and could partly replace SBM as a protein source in geese feeding. Hence, yellow lupin, potato protein and brewer's yeast can be used in geese rearing followed by fattening with oats. Some producers do not have the option of using soybean meal. Small-scale farms use their own crop resources, so lupins can be an alternative source of protein for soybean meal.
Project description:The study aimed to examine the growth performance and meat quality of Pekin ducks fed diets consisting of various protein source alternatives (groups: II-yellow lupin (YL) and rapeseed meal (RSM); III-YL and narrow-leaved lupin (NLL); IV-pea and YL; V-RSM, YL, NLL and pea) to (I) soybean meal (SBM) and RSM. Four hundred and twenty ducks were assigned to five groups with six replicates (14 birds per group). After 7 weeks, 10 ducks from each group were slaughtered. Breast muscles were analyzed for water-holding capacity, drip loss, color, and elasticity. Productivity parameters did not differ between groups I and II but were lower in V. The weight of carcass, neck with skin, skin with subcutaneous fat and total fat were highest in group II. The proportion of wings was higher in group V. In group II, lightness (L*) was higher, but redness (a*) was lower. In groups, I and III, L* was lower and a* was higher. Breast muscles contained more protein in groups I and II, more fat in groups I and III and more water in groups II and IV. The inclusion of vegetable protein alternatives to SBM in duck diets provided the best results in birds fed with YL and RSM (ratio of 1:0:31 in starter and 1:0.81 in grower).
Project description:Duck meat enjoys growing popularity among consumers. Alternative protein sources to soybean are being investigated to eliminate genetically modified components from the poultry' diet. The aim of this study was to compare growth performance, quality of meat, and fatty acid composition in subcutaneous and abdominal fat from ducks fed a diet based on yellow lupin and rapeseed meal, sources of protein alternative to soybean meal (SBM). Ducks were allocated to different dietary treatment groups and reared for 8 weeks (N?=?102 per group). Group A received a diet based on SBM, while group B was fed a diet based on yellow lupin with the addition of rapeseed meal. Both groups were divided into two subgroups, of male and female birds. Growth performance parameters and zoometric traits of ducks were monitored during the growth period. After 8 weeks selected birds were slaughtered and dissected (N?=?10 per group). Carcass composition was calculated and selected traits of meat quality important for further processing were analysed. Subcutaneous and abdominal fat were collected to analyse fatty acid composition. The alternative diet had no negative effect on ducks' growth performance parameters and dressing percentage. The replacement of SBM with yellow lupin and rapeseed meal increased n-3 fatty acid content, which is important for consumers. In conclusion, SBM can be replaced with feed containing 60.10% of yellow lupin and 14.00% of rapeseed meal in concentrate. These sources of protein are mainly recommended for small poultry farms, which do not always have access to SBM and prepare poultry feed from their own crops.
Project description:This study evaluated the effects of muscle fiber characteristics on meat quality traits in 45 female fast- and slow-growing ducks. Three duck breeds at typical market ages were selected and slaughtered, including fast-growing ducks (Cherry Valley duck) and slow-growing ducks (Small-sized Beijing duck and Liancheng White duck). M. pectoralis major (PM), m. soleus (SOL), m. gastrocnemius (GAS) and m. extensor digitorum longus (EDL) were used to assess muscle fiber characteristics as well as meat quality properties. The results showed that the fiber compositions in PM, GAS, and EDL muscles only consisted of fast-twitch fibers irrespective of the breeds, while a low percentage of slow-twitch fibers were observed in slow-growing ducks (17.03% and 29.14%). The significant clear differences of fiber diameter, fiber density and fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) was observed among three duck breeds. Small-sized Beijing ducks had the highest diameter and cross-sectional fiber area coupled with a dramatically lowest fiber density when compared to other 2 breeds both in breast and leg muscles. In addition, the meat quality traits such as moisture content, release water, and intramuscular fat content were significantly affected by the breeds. Slow-growing ducks, especially Liancheng White ducks, exhibited higher release water, intramuscular fat content, as well as lower moisture content (P < 0.05) compared to the fast-growing ducks. The lower pH<sub>24 h</sub> value and shear force tended to be present in breast of Liancheng White ducks (P < 0.05). The higher protein content and collagen content were detected in breast of Liancheng White ducks and the leg muscle of Small-sized Beijing ducks (P < 0.05), respectively. Finally, the correlation coefficients between muscle fiber characteristics and meat quality showed that the diameter, density and CSA of fibers had a moderate or significant correlation with pH, shear force value, moisture content, and protein content of meat in fast-growing ducks. In slow-growing ducks, muscle fiber characteristics had a moderate or significant correlation with pH, shear force value, release water, protein content, and intramuscular fat content of meat. These results indicated that muscle fiber characteristics is a useful parameter to explain in parts the variation of meat quality including pH, shear force value, and protein content of meat, both in slow-growing ducks and fast-growing ducks.
Project description:The aim of the study was to analyze the quality of geese meat receiving feed with soybean meal (group 1), yellow lupin (group 2), narrow-leaved lupin (group 3), or white lupin (group 4). In total, 400 male White Ko?uda® geese were randomly assigned to four groups, with 10 replicates and 10 birds each, during the 77-day rearing period. After the end of the rearing period, 10 birds from each group were slaughtered and dissected. Meat quality traits were measured. Based on the production results, it can be concluded that geese use fodder with yellow and white lupin to the same degree as in the case of the control group and higher body weight gain was recorded in the first rearing period. In contrast, the use of narrow-leaved lupin in mixtures for geese worsened the feed used. Meat traits were similar in all groups, including the content of muscles and fat in the carcass (p > 0.05), excluding abdominal fat. The weight of abdominal fat and its proportion in the carcass were higher (p < 0.05) in geese from group 4. A higher (p < 0.05) pH was found in group 1. The protein and intramuscular fat content in breast muscles was highest (p < 0.05) in geese from group 4, and a higher water content was found in group 1. The protein content in leg muscles was higher in group 3, and the fat content was higher in group 4 (p < 0.05). The color and water-holding capacity of meat were comparable in all groups (p > 0.05). The analysis revealed a positive effect of replacing soybean meal with alternative protein sources, especially yellow and white lupin, on the growth performance and quality of goose meat.
Project description:The aim of this study was to compare the growth performance parameters, carcass quality, and meat traits in broiler chickens fed on diets containing legume seeds and rapeseed meal as an alternative to soybean meal. In this study, 448 male ROSS 308 chicks were divided into subgroups: a control group (I) fed on soybean meal (SBM), and six experimental groups II-rapeseed meal (RSM); III-white lupin (WY); IV-yellow lupin (YL); V-narrow-leaved lupin NLL; VI-pea (Pe); and VII-faba bean (FB). After 42 days of rearing, 10 birds from each group were slaughtered and dissected. The control group was characterized by better growth performance compared to the other groups. In addition, the European Broiler Index was lower in each experimental group compared to the SBM group. A lower dressing percentage was found only in the NLL group. The muscle content in birds from the RSM and FB groups was significantly higher than in the other groups, but the fat content was lower. Meat from SBM group was characterized by the highest protein content, but a reduced content of fat and water in the muscles. The most similar results were found between the control group and the FB group receiving a diet based on faba beans. Furthermore, lupins had a similar effect on the carcass traits when used in the diets. The quality of meat in broilers fed on faba beans with the addition of potato protein and brewers' yeast was similar to that of those fed on soybean meal, because the antinutrients were the lowest in faba bean seeds. Faba beans are proposed as a possible alternative source of protein in poultry diets. Other legume seeds should be analyzed in future studies.
Project description:The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of feed containing faba bean on the physicochemical properties of breast and leg muscles. The study was conducted on 340 Ross 308 broiler chickens reared for 6 weeks. The control group received feed based on soybean meal. The treatment group received a feed mixture with faba bean as the source of protein. Different sources of protein in the diet were also associated with changes in the content of n-6 fatty acids (C16:0, C22:4) and the n-6/n-3 ratio in breast muscles, which was higher (P?<?0.05) in treatment group. The collagen content was higher (P?<?0.05) in breast muscles from control group. The study revealed that the use of faba bean as a substitute for soybean meal had no significant effect (P?>?0.05) on water holding capacity, drip loss, or major chemical components of breast and leg muscles. The P/S ratio, AI and TI, and the content of cholesterol in breast muscles were comparable (P?>?0.05) in both groups. The values of lightness (L*) for leg muscles were lower (P?<?0.05) in treatment group. The use of faba bean instead to soybean meal in diets for broiler chickens had positive effects on meat quality traits.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Natural minerals have many beneficial properties in poultry production, taking into account production as well as hygiene, health, safety, and quality of broiler meat. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of aluminosilicates in feed and litter on the growth performance and meat quality in chickens. Aluminosilicates, including halloysite and zeolite, could be a good alternative for synthetics, as a good solution for the environment in line with the current trends.<h4>Methods</h4>Five-hundred male Ross 308 chickens were managed in 5 groups (10 replicates/group): LITTER: 1, control; 2, 0.95 kg/m<sup>2</sup> of halloysite; 3, 0.475 kg/m<sup>2</sup> of halloysite and 0.475 zeolite; 4, 0.95 kg/m<sup>2</sup> of zeolite; 5, 0.25 kg/m<sup>2</sup>of halloysite and 0.7 kg/m<sup>2</sup> of zeolite. FEED: groups 2-5, halloysite and zeolite addition (25:75 ratio; 0.5-2%). Growth performance (body weight and feed indicators), carcass, and meat quality (pH, colour, water-holding capacity, chemical composition of muscles) were recorded. The experimental setup, where the aluminosilicate additives were applied simultaneously, was proposed and approved by experts after pilot testing and on the basis of extensive literature where feed or litter additives were tested.<h4>Results</h4>Body weight and its gain were higher in groups 3 and 4 than in 1, and feed intake was higher in 4. The weight of the carcass and some of its components, including muscles and skin with subcutaneous fat, were higher in 2-4. Water loss from leg muscles was lower in 4. The content of protein in muscles was significantly higher in 3. The addition of aluminosilicates in feed and litter had a positive effect on the growth performance and some traits of carcasses and meat quality, especially in group 3. Halloysite and zeolite can be used in feed and litter (especially 0.475 kg/m<sup>2</sup> for each mineral in the wheat litter).
Project description:Manganese (Mn) is a trace element present in all tissues and is essential for animal growth and health; it also has an antioxidant capacity in tissues. The effect of Mn on meat quality and the mechanism of fat deposition of the breast muscle is still unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of Mn supplementation on the growth performance, meat quality, the activity and transcription of antioxidant enzymes, and fatty acid profile in the breast muscle, and the Mn deposition in tissues of Pekin ducks. A total of 896 one-day-old Pekin ducks were allocated into 7 groups, with 8 replicates, each replicate containing 16 ducks. The treatment diets consisted of basal diet supplemented with manganese sulfate at levels 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 240 mg/kg (as Mn). Results showed that ducks fed diets supplemented with Mn had no effect on the growth performance but decrease in the feed-to-gain ratio of day 1-14 (P < 0.01). Dietary Mn increased significantly the a∗ (redness) value of the duck breast meat at 24 h and intramuscular fat (P < 0.05), and decreased drip loss and shear force of the breast meat (P < 0.05). Manganese supplement significantly reduced the malondialdehyde content (P < 0.05), and significantly increased the mRNA expressions of manganese superoxide dismutase, thioredoxin 2, peroxiredoxin 3, and catalase (P < 0.05). About the fatty acid profile, dietary Mn increased (P < 0.05) the proportions of the C20 family. Manganese accumulation in the heart, breast muscle, and tibia was increased with Mn supplementation (P < 0.05), and Mn content of the heart conforms to the quadratic curve. Besides, Mn supplementation notably increased mRNA expression in genes involved in lipogenesis and deposition and decreased in genes associated with lipolytic in the breast muscle. These findings reveal that dietary Mn could improve meat quality and enhance antioxidant activity and intramuscular fat, which via regulated gene expression involved in lipogenesis and lipolytic.
Project description:As a species of waterfowl, ducks rely on access to water to facilitate feeding behaviors. Further, wet preening behavior in ducks relies on access to water and is a key behavior for duck welfare. Traditionally, Chinese duck farms provide not only free access to drinking water in the duck house but also an open water pool outside of the house. However, recent restrictions prohibit the use of an open water pool for raising ducks in some areas of China. Little is known about the effects of not providing an open water pool on duck welfare, in particular, the development of the preen gland and wet preening behaviors. The preen gland secretes oil which is crucial for maintaining plumage conditions. A total of one hundred twenty 1-day-old Sanshui White ducks (SSWD) were randomly divided into 2 groups and fed for 6 wk with access to a water pool (WP) or without access to a water pool and provided drinking water only (LWP). The live body weights of ducks from the WP group were significantly increased compared with those of ducks in the LWP group starting from 3 wks of age (P < 0.05). Feed intake was increased in the WP group at 2 wk of age and from 4 to 6 wk of age (P < 0.05). The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly different only at 4 and 5 wks of age, when the FCR was increased by 5.7% and 9.5%, respectively, in the LWP group compared with the WP group (P < 0.05). Lack of access to an open water pool significantly inhibited the growth of the preen gland based on its weight, size, and quantity of oil secretions (P < 0.05). In addition, the proportion of ducks exhibiting wet preening behavior was significantly reduced in the LWP group compared with the WP group (5.5 ± 0.2% vs. 24.8 ± 2.1%, P < 0.05). This study indicated that a lack of access to an open water source had negative impacts on the development of the preen gland and on the preening behavior of SSWD.