Site-selective C-H hydroxylation of pentacyclic triterpenoids directed by transient chiral pyridine-imino groups.
ABSTRACT: Pentacyclic triterpenoids (PTs) constitute one of the biggest families of natural products, many with higher oxidation state at the D/E rings possess a wide spectrum of biological activties but are poorly accessible. Here we report a site-selective C-H hydroxylation at the D/E rings of PTs paving a way toward these important natural products. We find that Schönecker and Baran's Cu-mediated aerobic oxidation can be applied and become site-selective on PT skeletons, as being effected unexpectedly by the chirality of the transient pyridine-imino directing groups. To prove the applicability, starting from the most abundant triterpenoid feedstock oleanane, three representative saponins bearing hydroxyl groups at C16 or C22 are expeditiously synthesized, and barringtogenol C which bears hydroxyl groups at C16, C21, and C22 is synthesized via a sequential hydroxylation as the key steps.
Project description:Hepatic mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidation were examined in an Antarctic marine teleost, Notothenia gibberifrons. Enzymic profiles and rates of beta-oxidation by intact organelles were determined by using a range of fatty acyl-CoA substrates to evaluate substrate preferences. Partitioning of beta-oxidation between organelles was estimated. Substrate selectivities are broader for peroxisomal beta-oxidation than for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Mitochondria show marked preference for the oxidation of a monounsaturated substrate, palmitoleoyl-CoA (C16:1), and two polyunsaturates, eicosapentaenoyl-CoA (C20:5) and docosahexaenoyl-CoA (C22:6). Carnitine palmitoyltransferase activities with palmitoleoyl-CoA (C16:1) are 2.4-fold higher than activities with palmitoyl-CoA (C16:0). Most polyunsaturated acyl-CoA esters measured appear to inhibit by over 40% the oxidation of palmitoyl-CoA by peroxisomes. Our findings suggest that the polyunsaturates, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6), found in high concentrations in Antarctic fishes [Lund and Sidell (1992) Mar. Biol. 112, 377-382], are utilized as fuels to support aerobic energy metabolism. Metabolic capacities of rate-limiting enzymes and beta-oxidation rates by intact organelles indicate that up to 30% of hepatic beta-oxidation in N. gibberifrons can be initiated by the peroxisomal pathway.
Project description:Members of the cytochromes P450 superfamily (P450s) catalyze a huge variety of oxidation reactions in microbes and higher organisms. Most P450 families are highly divergent, but in contrast the cytochrome P450 14?-sterol demethylase (CYP51) family is one of the most ancient and conserved, catalyzing sterol 14?-demethylase reactions required for essential sterol synthesis across the fungal, animal, and plant kingdoms. Oats (Avena spp.) produce antimicrobial compounds, avenacins, that provide protection against disease. Avenacins are synthesized from the simple triterpene, ?-amyrin. Previously we identified a gene encoding a member of the CYP51 family of cytochromes P450, AsCyp51H10 (also known as Saponin-deficient 2, Sad2), that is required for avenacin synthesis in a forward screen for avenacin-deficient oat mutants. sad2 mutants accumulate ?-amyrin, suggesting that they are blocked early in the pathway. Here, using a transient plant expression system, we show that AsCYP51H10 is a multifunctional P450 capable of modifying both the C and D rings of the pentacyclic triterpene scaffold to give 12,13?-epoxy-3?,16?-dihydroxy-oleanane (12,13?-epoxy-16?-hydroxy-?-amyrin). Molecular modeling and docking experiments indicate that C16 hydroxylation is likely to precede C12,13 epoxidation. Our computational modeling, in combination with analysis of a suite of sad2 mutants, provides insights into the unusual catalytic behavior of AsCYP51H10 and its active site mutants. Fungal bioassays show that the C12,13 epoxy group is an important determinant of antifungal activity. Accordingly, the oat AsCYP51H10 enzyme has been recruited from primary metabolism and has acquired a different function compared to other characterized members of the plant CYP51 family--as a multifunctional stereo- and regio-specific hydroxylase in plant specialized metabolism.
Project description:4-Sulfoalkanoic acids are a class of important dianionic-headed surfactants. Various 4-sulfoalkanoic acids with straight C8, C10, C12, C14, C16, and C18 chains were synthesized expeditiously through the radical addition of methyl 2-((ethoxycarbonothioyl)thio)acetate to linear terminal olefins and subsequent oxidation with peroxyformic acid. This is a useful and convenient strategy for the synthesis of dianionic-headed surfactants with a carboxylic acid and sulfonic acid functionalities in the head group region.
Project description:Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H is a psychrophilic bacterium able to produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Polyketide synthase pathway is assumed to be responsible for DHA production in marine bacteria.Five pfa genes from strain 34H were confirmed to be responsible for DHA formation by heterogeneous expression in Escherichia coli. The complexity of fatty acid profile of this strain was revealed by GC and GC-MS. Treatment of cells with cerulenin resulted in significantly reduced level of C16 monounsaturated fatty acid (C16:1(Δ9t), C16:1(Δ7)). In contrast, the amount of saturated fatty acids (C10:0, C12:0, C14:0), hydroxyl fatty acids (3-OH C10:0 and 3-OH C12:0), as well as C20:4ω3, C20:5ω3 and C22:6ω3 were increased. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) revealed the altered gene expression pattern when C. psychrerythraea cells were treated with cerulenin. Genes involved in polyketide synthase pathway and fatty acid biosynthesis pathway were not obviously affected by cerulenin treatment. In contrast, several genes involved in fatty acid degradation or β-oxidation pathway were dramatically reduced at the transcriptional level.Genes responsible for DHA formation in C. psychrerythraea was first cloned and characterized. We revealed the complexity of fatty acid profile in this DHA-producing strain. Cerulenin could substantially change the fatty acid composition by affecting the fatty acid degradation at transcriptional level. Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene family involved in the first step of β-oxidation pathway may be important to the selectivity of degraded fatty acids. In addition, inhibition of FabB protein by cerulenin may lead to the accumulation of malonyl-CoA, which is the substrate for DHA formation.
Project description:In this study, we have employed graphene oxide as a matrix to simultaneously and directly quantify serum nonesterified and esterified fatty acids (FAs) using matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTICR MS). Twelve serum nonesterified FAs combined with their individual esterified FAs (i.e., C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, C20:2, C20:3, C20:4, C20:5, C22:5, and C22:6) were quantified based on their calibration curves with the correlation coefficients of >0.99, along with the analytical time of <1 min each sample. As a result, serum levels of twelve total FAs (TFAs) in 1440 serum samples from 487 healthy controls (HCs), 479 patients with benign lung diseases (BLDs) and 474 patients with lung cancer (LC) were determined. Statistical analysis indicated that significantly increased levels of C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:3, C20:3, and C22:6 and decreased levels of C20:5 were observed in LC patients compared with BLDs. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that panel a (C18:2, C20:3, C20:4, C20:5, C22:5, and C22:6), panel b (C18:0, C20:4, C20:5, and C22:6), and panel c (C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C20:3, and C22:6) have exhibited good diagnostic ability to differentiate BLDs from LC relative to clinical uses of tumor markers (CEA and Cyfra 21-1).
Project description:Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) are highly functionalized bacterial diterpenoids of ent-kauranol and ent-atiserene biosynthetic origin. C7 oxidation in the B-ring plays a key biosynthetic role in generating structural complexity known for ent-kaurane and ent-atisane derived diterpenoids. While all three oxidation patterns, ?-hydroxyl, ?-hydroxyl, and ketone, at C7 are seen in both the ent-kaurane and ent-atisane derived diterpenoids, their biosynthetic origins remain largely unknown. We previously established that PTM and PTN are produced by a single biosynthetic machinery, featuring cryptic C7 oxidations at the B-rings that transform the ent-kauranol and ent-atiserene derived precursors into the characteristic PTM and PTN scaffolds. Here, we report a three-enzyme cascade affording C7 ?-hydroxylation in PTM and PTN biosynthesis. Combining in vitro and in vivo studies, we show that PtmO3 and PtmO6 are two functionally redundant ?-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases that generate a cryptic C7 ?-hydroxyl on each of the ent-kauranol and ent-atiserene scaffolds, and PtmO8 and PtmO1, a pair of NAD+/NADPH-dependent dehydrogenases, subsequently work in concert to invert the C7 ?-hydroxyl to ?-hydroxyl via a C7 ketone intermediate. PtmO3 and PtmO6 represent the first dedicated C7 ?-hydroxylases characterized to date and, together with PtmO8 and PtmO1, provide an account for the biosynthetic origins of all three C7 oxidation patterns that may shed light on other B-ring modifications in bacterial, plant, and fungal diterpenoid biosynthesis. Given their unprecedented activities in C7 oxidations, PtmO3, PtmO6, PtmO8, and PtmO1 enrich the growing toolbox of novel enzymes that could be exploited as biocatalysts to rapidly access complex diterpenoid natural products.
Project description:Background Lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) are bioactive signaling phospholipids that have been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is largely unknown whether LPAs are associated with AD pathology and progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD. Methods The current study was performed on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples of 182 MCI patients from two independent cohorts. We profiled LPA-derived metabolites using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We evaluated the association of LPAs with CSF biomarkers of AD, A?-42, p-tau, and total tau levels overall and stratified by APOE genotype and with MCI to AD progression. Results Five LPAs (C16:0, C16:1, C22:4, C22:6, and isomer-LPA C22:5) showed significant positive association with CSF biomarkers of AD, A?-42, p-tau, and total tau, while LPA C14:0 and C20:1 associated only with A?-42 and alkyl-LPA C18:1, and LPA C20:1 associated with tau pathology biomarkers. Association of cyclic-LPA C16:0 and two LPAs (C20:4, C22:4) with A?-42 levels was found only in APOE ?4 carriers. Furthermore, LPA C16:0 and C16:1 also showed association with MCI to AD dementia progression, but results did not replicate in an independent cohort. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that LPAs may contribute to early AD pathogenesis. Future studies are needed to determine whether LPAs play a role in upstream of AD pathology or are downstream markers of neurodegeneration.
Project description:An approach to synthesize the pentacyclic framework of the polyol diterpenoid ryanodol is reported. The ABC tricycle was constructed by a Co-mediated Pauson-Khand reaction, and both radical and anionic cyclization pathways were developed to form the E-ring. In addition, a reaction sequence involving SeO2-mediated enone oxidation and hydroxyl-directed oxy-Michael addition was developed to introduce the A-ring oxidation. The feasibility of forming the bridging D-ring by an oxidative dearomatization was established.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Lung cancer (LC) is the deadliest cancer, with earlier stage patients having a better opportunity of long-term survival. The goal of this study is to screen less-invasive and efficient biomarkers for early detection of non-small cell LC (NSCLC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed the simultaneous quantitative detection of six serum unsaturated free fatty acids (FFAs, C16:1, C18:3, C18:2, C18:1, C20:4, and C22:6) from 317 healthy controls, 78 patients with benign lung diseases (BLD), and 202 patients with NSCLC using chip-based direct-infusion nanoelectrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (CBDInanoESI-FTICR MS) in the negative ion mode. Multiple point internal standard calibration curves between the concentration ratios of individual fatty acids to internal standards (ISs, C17:1 as IS of C16:1, C18:3, C18:2, and C18:1 and C21:0 as IS of C20:4 and C22:6) and their corresponding intensity ratios were constructed, with correlation coefficient of > 0.99. Mann-Whitney U test was employed to compare the differences in the levels of the FFAs between the patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: Significantly decreased levels of the FFAs in NSCLC patients were observed compared with healthy controls and BLD patients. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that a combination of C16:1, C18:1, C18:3, C18:2, C20:4, and C22:6 could excellently differentiate patients with early-stage NSCLC from healthy controls plus BLD patients, with an AUC value of 0.933, a sensitivity of 84.2%, and a specificity of 89.1%. In addition, a biomarker panel (C16:1 and C18:1) was also confirmed preliminarily to monitor disease progression in NSCLC patients treated with icotinib, with a lead time between 8 and 48 weeks relative to clinical medical imaging. CONCLUSION: A combination of C16:1, C18:1, C18:3, C18:2, C20:4, and C22:6 may be a powerful biomarker panel for the early detection of NSCLC and a combination of C16:1 and C18:1for disease progression monitoring of NSCLC.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that circulating concentrations of specific ceramide species may be associated with coronary risk and mortality. We sought to determine the relations between the most abundant plasma ceramide species of differing acyl chain lengths and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and mortality in community-based samples.We developed a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry assay to quantify plasma C24:0, C22:0, and C16:0 ceramides and ratios of these very-long-chain/long-chain ceramides in 2642 FHS (Framingham Heart Study) participants and in 3134 SHIP (Study of Health in Pomerania) participants. Over a mean follow-up of 6 years in FHS, there were 88 CHD and 90 heart failure (HF) events and 239 deaths. Over a median follow-up time in SHIP of 5.75 years for CHD and HF and 8.24 years for mortality, there were 209 CHD and 146 HF events and 377 deaths. In meta-analysis of the 2 cohorts and adjusting for standard CHD risk factors, C24:0/C16:0 ceramide ratios were inversely associated with incident CHD (hazard ratio per average SD increment, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.89; P<0.0001) and inversely associated with incident HF (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-1.00; P=0.046). Moreover, the C24:0/C16:0 and C22:0/C16:0 ceramide ratios were inversely associated with all-cause mortality (C24:0/C16:0: hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.65; P<0.0001; C22:0/C16:0: hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.70; P<0.0001).The ratio of C24:0/C16:0 ceramides in blood may be a valuable new biomarker of CHD risk, HF risk, and all-cause mortality in the community.