Inverted Internal Limiting Membrane Flap Technique versus Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Vitrectomy in Highly Myopic Eyes with Macular Hole-Induced Retinal Detachment: An Updated Meta-Analysis.
ABSTRACT: Background:The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare morphological and functional outcomes between vitrectomy with the inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique and vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling in highly myopic eyes with macular hole- (MH-) induced retinal detachment (MHRD). Methods:The PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were comprehensively searched from inception to November 10, 2019, for published studies comparing the two techniques for the treatment of MHRD. The outcomes in the collected articles included the postoperative MH closure rate, retinal reattachment rate, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Review Manager (version 5.3) was used for analyses. Results:In total, seven retrospective studies comparing the inverted ILM flap technique with ILM peeling for the treatment of MHRD were included. The MH closure rate was significantly higher in the inverted ILM flap group than in the ILM peeling group at 6 and 12 months after initial surgery (OR?=?15.39; 95% CI: 6.68 to 35.43;P < 0.00001 and OR?=?12.58, 95% CI: 3.51 to 45.08; P=0.0001), while the retinal reattachment rate was similar in both groups at 6?months after initial surgery (OR?=?2.40; 95% CI: 0.89 to 6.50; P=0.08). Besides, the postoperative BCVA was significantly better in the inverted ILM flap group than in the ILM peeling group at 12 months after initial surgery (MD?=?-0.35; 95% CI: -0.52 to -0.18; P < 0.0001). Conclusions:Thus, the MH closure rate and postoperative BCVA may be better with the inverted ILM flap technique than with ILM peeling for myopic MHRD, while the postoperative retinal reattachment rate appears to be similar with both techniques. Therefore, in the future, vitrectomy with the inverted ILM flap technique should be preferred over standard ILM peeling technique for the treatment of MHRD in highly myopic eyes.
Project description:PurposeTo determine whether the inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique contributes to high reattachment and closure rates in patients with macular hole-associated retinal detachment (MHRD).Patients and methodsIn all, 15 eyes of 15 patients with MHRD undergoing 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with the inverted ILM flap technique or ILM peeling. The patients were divided into the inverted ILM flap technique group (6 eyes) and ILM peeling group (9 eyes). The logarithm of minimal angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and retinal attachment and macular hole closure rates were compared between the two groups before and after surgery.ResultsNo significant differences were found in the pre- and postoperative BCVA at 1 and 3 months after surgery in either group (inverted ILM flap technique group, preoperatively 1.04±0.55, 1 month 0.95±0.30, 3 months 0.83±0.22; ILM peeling group, preoperatively 1.00±0.44, 1 month 1.05±0.38, 3 months 1.06±0.49; P>0.05, respectively). The postoperative BCVA at 6 months after surgery was significantly better in the inverted ILM flap technique group than in the ILM peeling group (inverted ILM flap technique group, 0.62±0.35; ILM peeling group, 1.02±0.41, P=0.045). The improvement in BCVA was significantly better in the inverted ILM flap technique group than in the ILM peeling group (inverted ILM flap technique group, -0.41±0.29; ILM peeling group, 0.02±0.36; P=0.021). The primary macular hole closure rates were 100% in the inverted ILM flap technique group and 55.5% in the ILM peeling group. The primary reattachment rates were 100% in the inverted ILM flap technique group and 55.5% in the ILM peeling group. The primary macular hole closure and reattachment rates were not significantly different in both groups (P=0.056, respectively).ConclusionThe inverted ILM flap technique is a useful procedure for MHRD in highly myopic eyes.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate the effect of vitrectomy with inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap for the treatment of macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD) in high myopia compared with that of ILM peeling. METHODS:PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, MEDLINE, Ovid, Wan Fang and CNKI were systematically reviewed. The primary outcome parameters were the MH closure rate, retinal reattachment rate and postoperative BCVA. Secondary outcome parameters, included intraoperative or postoperative complications. RESULTS:Seven retrospective comparative studies including 228 eyes were selected. No significant difference was detected in either postoperative BCVA (MD -0.07; 95% CI: -0.17 to 0.03; p?=?0.16) or the improvement in postoperative BCVA (MD -0.17; 95% CI: -0.50 to 0.16; p?=?0.32) between the ILM flap group and ILM peeling group. The retinal reattachment rate using inverted ILM flap was not significantly different from that using ILM peeling (odds ratio (OR) 2.24; 95% CI: 0.75-6.73; p?=?0.15). The MH closure rate was higher with inverted ILM flap than with ILM peeling (OR 11.86; 95% CI: 5.65 to 24.92; p?<?0.00001). There was no significant difference in intraoperative or postoperative complications, including concomitant cataract rate (OR 1.22; 95% CI: 0.42-3.58; p?=?0.71). CONCLUSION:The inverted ILM flap technique could contribute to a higher MH closure rate than ILM peeling, but visual improvement was similar. Both surgical methods could obtain a high-retinal reattachment rate with fewer intraoperative and postoperative complications.
Project description:Purpose:To report a new surgical technique with a Finesse Flex loop during internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for a case of macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD). Observations:A 55-year-old woman with a history of macular hemorrhage due to high myopia underwent 25-gauge vitrectomy combined with cataract surgery for MHRD. After core vitrectomy, ILM peeling was performed for macular hole (MH) closure with a novel use of a Finesse Flex loop. While holding down the detached retina with the Finesse Flex loop with one hand, ILM peeling was conducted from the temporal to nasal side with the other hand using ILM forceps. Inverted ILM flap technique was combined, and fluid-gas exchange with 12% octafluoropropane tamponade was performed. The MH was closed, and the retina was attached with no postoperative complication. The logMAR best-corrected visual acuity improved post-treatment. Conclusions and Importance:The Finesse Flex loop can be used to control the retina when performing ILM peeling on a detached retina in MHRD patients.
Project description:PURPOSE:To describe a modified technique of internal limiting membrane (ILM) insertion for macular hole- (MH-) associated retinal detachment (RD) in highly myopic eyes. METHODS:Nine eyes underwent pars plana vitrectomy, cortical vitreous removal, and fovea-sparing ILM peeling. Double ILM insertion into the hole was performed with inverted perifoveal ILM and a free ILM flap followed by air-fluid exchange. RESULTS:Two of the 9 eyes had perifoveal ILM partially torn after cortical vitreous or epiretinal removal. All eyes had the ILM plug stabilized within the MH after double ILM insertion. Postoperatively, MH was sealed with the retina reattached in all the eyes. CONCLUSION:Double ILM insertion may further secure the ILM flap in place in the eyes with MH-associated RD, especially in cases in which insufficient perifoveal ILM was left. This trial is registered with the clinical registration number Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03174639.
Project description:Purpose:To assess the safety and effectiveness of the single-layered inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique for treating chronic, large, or highly myopic macular holes (MHs). Methods:The medical records of 20 eyes of 20 consecutive Japanese patients with large MHs (n=6) (minimal diameter, >400??m), chronic MHs (n=2) (symptom duration, >24?months), MHs in high myopia (n=11) (axial length, >26?mm), and MHs in a patient unable to maintain prone positioning postoperatively (n=1) were reviewed retrospectively. All patients underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and the temporal inverted ILM flap technique. A semicircular ILM notch was made temporally two disc diameters from the MH using a 25-gauge knife, and the ILM was peeled temporally to create a semicircular ILM flap using a 25-gauge forceps. The single-layered ILM flap was inverted in a nasal direction to cover the MH. When an epiretinal membrane (ERM) was present, it was peeled before the ILM flap was inverted. Results:The MHs closed successfully in all (100%) eyes postoperatively. In the MHs associated with an ERM, after hole closure, gradual foveal deformation occurred in both the area from which the ILM was not peeled and the ILM flap inverted side. Conclusions:The single-layered inverted ILM flap technique, a simple surgery to treat MHs, provides scaffolding for retinal gliosis and may facilitate bridge formation between the walls of the MH under the flap. Considering the 100% success rate of MH closure, this technique seems to be effective and safe for treating chronic, large, or highly myopic MHs and MHs in patients unable to maintain postoperative prone positioning. In the MHs associated with ERMs, gradual foveal deformation was observed after ERM peeling. Further studies are needed to minimize surgical complications and understand the mechanism of this technique. This trial is registered with UMIN000035091.
Project description:Purpose. To investigate the surgical outcomes of Viscoat® assisted inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique for large macular holes (MHs) associated with high myopia. Design. Prospective, interventional case series. Methods. Fifteen eyes of 15 patients with high myopia underwent vitrectomy and Viscoat assisted inverted ILM flap technique to treat MH without RD. Patients were followed up over 6 months. The main outcome measures were MH closure evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and best-corrected visual acuities (BCVAs). Result. MH closure was observed in all eyes (100%) following the initial surgery. Type 1 closure was observed in 13 eyes (86.7%); type 2 closure was observed in the remaining 2 eyes (13.3%). Compared to the preoperative baseline, the mean BCVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) improved significantly at 3 months and 6 months after surgery (P = 0.025, 0.019, resp.). The final BCVA improved in 10 eyes (66.7%), remained unchanged in 3 eyes (20.0%), and worsened in 2 eyes (13.3%). Conclusion. Vitrectomy combined with Viscoat assisted inverted ILM flap technique is an effective treatment for large MHs in highly myopic eyes. It may increase the success rate of the initial surgery and enhance the anatomical and functional outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD) occurs most commonly in high myopia and causes severe visual impairment and greatly reduces the quality of life. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of inverted internal limiting membrane insertion combined with air tamponade in the treatment of MHRD in high myopia, and also to compare the treatment efficacy with that of the conventional "vitrectomy plus internal limiting membrane peeling plus silicone oil tamponade" method for high myopia-associated MHRD. METHODS/DESIGN:In this clinical trial, 38 patients with MHRD in high myopia will be randomly assigned to two groups (Group 1: standard 3-port 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy plus internal limiting membrane peeling plus air-fluid exchange plus silicone oil infusion; Group 2: standard 3-port 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy plus internal limiting membrane peeling plus inverted internal limiting membrane insertion plus air-fluid exchange). The primary outcome is macular hole closure rate in 3 months after the initial surgery. The secondary outcomes are best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), reattachment rate of retinal detachment, and postoperative complication rate. DISCUSSION:The study results may help to evaluate the efficacy and safety of inverted internal limiting membrane insertion combined with air tamponade in the treatment of MHRD in high myopia, and also compare the efficacy of the new treatment with the conventional "vitrectomy plus internal limiting membrane peeling plus silicone oil tamponade" method. This trial may provide a novel surgical treatment for MHRD in high myopia with more effectiveness and less pain. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03383731 . Registered on 19 December 2017. Retrospectively registered.
Project description:PURPOSE:To compare the anatomical and visual outcomes of inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique with the conventional ILM peeling for idiopathic large macular holes (MHs). METHODS:A meta-analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs) using online databases including NCBI PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ISI Web of Science was performed. Anatomic success and type 1 closure rates, the mean postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the mean change of BCVA from baseline were analyzed. RESULTS:Out of 251 articles, four described clinical trials matching the inclusion criteria and were selected. They included 276 eyes (135 eyes in the inverted ILM flap group and 141 eyes in the ILM peeling group). All the studies used gas tamponade, with two studies having a follow-up duration of 3 months, while one study had a follow-up of 6 months and one study- 12 months. The meta-analysis demonstrated that anatomic success and type 1 closure rates (presence of neurosensory retina in MH) were better in the inverted ILM flap technique (odds ratio (OR) = 4.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.09-11.47; P = 0.0003 and OR = 5.23; 95% CI, 2.83-9.66; P<0.00001). Similarly, the inverted flap technique was superior in terms of postoperative logMAR BCVA and mean change of logMAR BCVA from baseline (weighted mean difference (WMD) = 0.17, 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.24, P<0.00001 and WMD = 0.08, 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.16, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION:Inverted ILM flap treatment resulted in better closure rates and visual acuity when compared to the standard ILM peeling for large MHs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling increases the idiopathic macular hole (IMH) closure rate but causes the inner retina dimplings. This study is to introduce a method to minimally peel the ILM, and with the ILM flap to ensure the IMH closure.<h4>Methods</h4>Twelve consecutive IMH eyes were treated with the minimal ILM peeling with ILM flap technique. The ILM around the MH is peeled off in an annular shape with a width of approximately 200 to 300??m. A tongue-shape ILM flap is created in the superior retina and the inferior margin of ILM is not peeled off. The ILM flap is then inverted to cover the MH, followed by fluid-air exchange and air or silicon tamponade. Spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and en face OCT for morphological assessment, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and multifocal electroretinogram (ERG) for functional evaluation were performed at baseline and at each postoperative follow-up.<h4>Results</h4>All the 12 eyes achieved macular hole closure on SD-OCT after surgery (100%). At baseline, the mean preoperative BCVA was 0.83?±?0.33 and it improved to 0.39?±?0.28 postoperatively (p?<? 0.001). En face OCT showed the inner retinal dimplings were localized only in superior ILM-free retinas (7 eyes). The mERG response density in the central (R1), para-central (R2), R1/R2 ring ratios were remarkably improved at the last follow-up (p?=?0.001, p?=?0.033, p?=?0.018, respectively).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The minimal ILM peeling with ILM flap technique can achieve favorable MH closure with less inner retinal dimplings and has promising visual recovery for IMH eyes.
Project description:PURPOSE:The internal limiting membrane (ILM) is a normal part of the retina, and the outcomes of ILM removal have not been fully investigated. ILM flap inversion is a recently developed technique that increases the success rate of macular hole (MH) surgery. Thus, we compared the anatomical closure rate and visual outcome in patients undergoing microincision vitrectomy surgery (MIVS) with ILM flap inversion or conventional ILM peeling for the treatment of MH. METHODS:The medical records of 90 eyes with MH were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were classified into two groups based on MIVS procedure (group 1: ILM flap inversion, 46 eyes; group 2: ILM peeling, 44 eyes). RESULTS:Preoperative characteristics were similar in the two groups, and there were no significant differences in 1 month- or 6 month-postoperative VA between the groups (P = 0.25 and P = 0.42, respectively). However, the surgical success rate was significantly higher in group 1 than group 2 (P = 0.04; 46/46: 100% and 41/44: 93%, respectively). Multiple regression analysis revealed that axial length and MH diameter were independent factors predicting 6-month postoperative BCVA in group 2 (P = 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively), and that MH diameter was an independent factor predicting 6-month postoperative VA in group 1 (P = 0.03). Logistic regression analysis revealed that axial length (OR = 2.11; P = 0.02; area under the curve: 0.94; cut off score: 28.4 mm) was an independent factor indicating surgical failure in group 2. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that MIVS with ILM flap inversion might be best suited to treat MH, particularly in patients with high myopia.