The Role of Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators in Colorectal Cancer-Associated Inflammation: Implications for Therapeutic Strategies.
ABSTRACT: Inflammation is a recognized hallmark of cancer that contributes to the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Anti-inflammatory drugs currently used for the treatment of CRC show many adverse side effects that prompted researchers to propose the polyunsaturated fatty acids-derived specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) as promoters of resolution of cancer-associated inflammation. SPMs were found to inhibit the CRC-associated pro-inflammatory milieu via specific G-coupled protein receptors, although clinical data are still lacking. This review aims to summarize the state-of-the-art in this field, ultimately providing insights for the development of innovative anti-CRC therapies that promote the endogenous lipid-mediated resolution of CRC-associated inflammation.
Project description:Exposure to air pollution and other environmental inhalation hazards, such as occupational exposures to dusts and fumes, aeroallergens, and tobacco smoke, is a significant cause of chronic lung inflammation leading to respiratory disease. It is now recognized that resolution of inflammation is an active process controlled by a novel family of small lipid mediators termed "specialized pro-resolving mediators" or SPMs, derived mainly from dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Chronic inflammation results from an imbalance between pro-inflammatory and pro-resolution pathways. Research is ongoing to develop SPMs, and the pro-resolution pathway more generally, as a novel therapeutic approach to diseases characterized by chronic inflammation. Here, we will review evidence that the resolution pathway is dysregulated in chronic lung inflammatory diseases, and that SPMs and related molecules have exciting therapeutic potential to reverse or prevent chronic lung inflammation, with a focus on lung inflammation due to inhalation of environmental hazards including urban particulate matter, organic dusts and tobacco smoke.
Project description:Underlying mechanisms for how bacterial infections contribute to active resolution of acute inflammation are unknown. Here, we performed exudate leukocyte trafficking and mediator-metabololipidomics of murine peritoneal Escherichia coli infections with temporal identification of pro-inflammatory (prostaglandins and leukotrienes) and specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs). In self-resolving E. coli exudates (10(5) colony forming units, c.f.u.), the dominant SPMs identified were resolvin (Rv) D5 and protectin D1 (PD1), which at 12?h were at significantly greater levels than in exudates from higher titre E. coli (10(7) c.f.u.)-challenged mice. Germ-free mice had endogenous RvD1 and PD1 levels higher than in conventional mice. RvD1 and RvD5 (nanograms per mouse) each reduced bacterial titres in blood and exudates, E. coli-induced hypothermia and increased survival, demonstrating the first actions of RvD5. With human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages, RvD1, RvD5 and PD1 each directly enhanced phagocytosis of E. coli, and RvD5 counter-regulated a panel of pro-inflammatory genes, including NF-?B and TNF-?. RvD5 activated the RvD1 receptor, GPR32, to enhance phagocytosis. With self-limited E. coli infections, RvD1 and the antibiotic ciprofloxacin accelerated resolution, each shortening resolution intervals (R(i)). Host-directed RvD1 actions enhanced ciprofloxacin's therapeutic actions. In 10(7) c.f.u. E. coli infections, SPMs (RvD1, RvD5, PD1) together with ciprofloxacin also heightened host antimicrobial responses. In skin infections, SPMs enhanced vancomycin clearance of Staphylococcus aureus. These results demonstrate that specific SPMs are temporally and differentially regulated during infections and that they are anti-phlogistic, enhance containment and lower antibiotic requirements for bacterial clearance.
Project description:Unresolved inflammation is central to the pathophysiology of commonly occurring vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, aneurysm, and deep vein thrombosis - conditions that are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. Surgical or catheter-based procedures performed on affected blood vessels induce acute-on-chronic inflammatory responses. The resolution of vascular inflammation is an important driver of vessel wall remodeling and functional recovery in these clinical settings. Specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids orchestrate key cellular processes driving resolution and a return to homeostasis. The identification of their potent effects in classic animal models of sterile inflammation triggered interest in their vascular properties. Recent studies have demonstrated that SPMs are locally synthesized in vascular tissues, have direct effects on vascular cells and their interactions with leukocytes, and play a protective role in the injury response. Early translational work has established the potential for SPMs as vascular therapeutics, and as candidate biomarkers in vascular disease. Further investigations are needed to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms of resolution in the vasculature, to improve tools for clinical measurement, and to better define the potential for "resolution therapeutics" in vascular patients.
Project description:Although specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) biosynthesized from polyunsaturated fatty acids are critical for the resolution of acute inflammation, the molecules and pathways that induce their production remain elusive. Here, we show that TLR7, a receptor recognizing viral ssRNA and damaged self-RNA, mobilizes the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived biosynthetic pathways that lead to the generation of D-series SPMs. In mouse macrophages and human monocytes, TLR7 activation triggered production of DHA-derived monohydroxy metabolome markers and generation of protectin D1 (PD1) and resolvin D1 (RvD1). In mouse allergic airway inflammation, TLR7 activation enhanced production of DHA-derived SPMs including PD1 and accelerated the catabasis of Th2-mediated inflammation. D-series SPMs were critical for TLR7-mediated resolution of airway inflammation as this effect was lost in Alox15(-/-) mice, while resolution was enhanced after local administration of PD1 or RvD1. Together, our findings reveal a new previously unsuspected role of TLR7 in the generation of D-series SPMs and the resolution of allergic airway inflammation. They also identify TLR stimulation as a new approach to drive SPMs and resolution of inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a recessive genetic disease due to mutations of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene encoding the CFTR chloride channel. The ion transport abnormalities related to CFTR mutation generate a dehydrated airway surface liquid (ASL) layer, which is responsible for an altered mucociliary clearance, favors infections and persistent inflammation that lead to progressive lung destruction and respiratory failure. The inflammatory response is normally followed by an active resolution phase to return to tissue homeostasis, which involves specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs). SPMs promote resolution of inflammation, clearance of microbes, tissue regeneration and reduce pain, but do not evoke unwanted immunosuppression. The airways of CF patients showed a decreased production of SPMs even in the absence of pathogens. SPMs levels in the airway correlated with CF patients' lung function. The prognosis for CF has greatly improved but there remains a critical need for more effective treatments that prevent excessive inflammation, lung damage, and declining pulmonary function for all CF patients. This review aims to highlight the recent understanding of CF airway inflammation and the possible impact of SPMs on functions that are altered in CF airways.
Project description:While the treatment of inflammatory disorders is generally based on inhibiting factors that drive onset of inflammation, these therapies can compromise healing (NSAIDs) or dampen immunity against infections (biologics). In search of new antiinflammatories, efforts have focused on harnessing endogenous pathways that drive resolution of inflammation for therapeutic gain. Identification of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) (lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, maresins) as effector molecules of resolution has shown promise in this regard. However, their action on inflammatory resolution in humans is unknown. Here, we demonstrate using a model of UV-killed Escherichia coli-triggered skin inflammation that SPMs are biosynthesized at the local site at the start of resolution, coinciding with the expression of receptors that transduce their actions. These include receptors for lipoxin A4 (ALX/FPR2), resolvin E1 (ChemR23), resolvin D2 (GPR18), and resolvin D1 (GPR32) that were differentially expressed on the endothelium and infiltrating leukocytes. Administering SPMs into the inflamed site 4 hours after bacterial injection caused a reduction in PMN numbers over the ensuing 6 hours, the phase of active resolution in this model. These results indicate that in humans, the appearance of SPMs and their receptors is associated with the beginning of inflammatory resolution and that their therapeutic supplementation enhanced the resolution response.
Project description:Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) are enzymatically derived from essential fatty acids and have important roles in orchestrating the resolution of tissue inflammation - that is, catabasis. Host responses to tissue infection elicit acute inflammation in an attempt to control invading pathogens. SPMs are lipid mediators that are part of a larger family of pro-resolving molecules, which includes proteins and gases, that together restrain inflammation and resolve the infection. These immunoresolvents are distinct from immunosuppressive molecules as they not only dampen inflammation but also promote host defence. Here, we focus primarily on SPMs and their roles in lung infection and inflammation to illustrate the potent actions these mediators play in restoring tissue homeostasis after an infection.
Project description:Non-resolving inflammation is the main mechanism of morbidity and mortality among patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common life-threatening human genetic disease. Resolution of inflammation is an active process timely controlled by endogenous specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) produced locally in inflammatory loci to restrain this innate response, prevent further damages to the host, and permit return to homeostasis. Lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins are SPM derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids that limit excessive leukocyte infiltration and pro-inflammatory signals, stimulate innate microbial killing, and enhance resolution. Their unique chemical structures, receptors, and bioactions are being elucidated. Accruing data indicate that SPMs carry protective functions against unrelenting inflammation and infections in preclinical models and human CF systems. Here, we reviewed their roles and actions in controlling resolution of inflammation, evidence for their impairment in CF, and proofs of principle for their exploitation as innovative, non-immunosuppressive drugs to address inflammation and infections in CF.
Project description:Chronic unresolved inflammation plays a causal role in the development of advanced atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms that prevent resolution in atherosclerosis remain unclear. Here, we use targeted mass spectrometry to identify specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPM) in histologically-defined stable and vulnerable regions of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques. The levels of SPMs, particularly resolvin D1 (RvD1), and the ratio of SPMs to pro-inflammatory leukotriene B4 (LTB4), are significantly decreased in the vulnerable regions. SPMs are also decreased in advanced plaques of fat-fed Ldlr-/- mice. Administration of RvD1 to these mice during plaque progression restores the RvD1:LTB4 ratio to that of less advanced lesions and promotes plaque stability, including decreased lesional oxidative stress and necrosis, improved lesional efferocytosis, and thicker fibrous caps. These findings provide molecular support for the concept that defective inflammation resolution contributes to the formation of clinically dangerous plaques and offer a mechanistic rationale for SPM therapy to promote plaque stability.
Project description:Inflammation in the brain is a prominent feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies suggest that chronic inflammation can be a consequence of failure to resolve the inflammation. Resolution of inflammation is mediated by a family of lipid mediators (LMs), and the levels of these specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) are reduced in the hippocampus of those with AD. In the present study, we combined analysis of LMs in the entorhinal cortex (ENT) from AD patients with in vitro analysis of their direct effects on neurons and microglia. We probed ENT, an area affected early in AD pathogenesis, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS), and found that the levels of the SPMs maresin 1 (MaR1), protectin D1 (PD1), and resolvin (Rv) D5, were lower in ENT of AD patients as compared to age-matched controls, while levels of the pro-inflammatory prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) were higher in AD. In vitro studies showed that lipoxin A4 (LXA4), MaR1, resolvin D1 (RvD1), and protectin DX (PDX) exerted neuroprotective activity, and that MaR1 and RvD1 down-regulated ?-amyloid (A?)42-induced inflammation in human microglia. MaR1 exerted a stimulatory effect on microglial uptake of A?42. Our findings give further evidence for a disturbance of the resolution pathway in AD, and indicate that stimulating this pathway is a promising treatment strategy for AD.