Diagnostic and Clinical Impact of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Staging and Restaging Soft-Tissue Sarcomas of the Extremities and Trunk: Mono-Institutional Retrospective Study of a Sarcoma Referral Center.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) represent a wide heterogeneous class of rare tumors. The exact role 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in the evaluation of STS is not well established. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT in STS could influence patient therapy planning, looking for a possible added value over computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging-the most used modalities in the study of STS. Differences in SUVmax according to histologic subtype and tumor grade were also considered. METHODS:a total of 345 consecutive 18F-FDG PET/CT scans performed for initial staging (n = 171) or for suspected disease relapse (n = 174) in 282 patients with STS extracted from the local Information System database were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS:18F-FDG PET/CT altered therapy planning in 80 cases (16.4% for staging and 29.9% in restaging), both for disease upstaging (58.8%) and downstaging (41.2%) Conclusions: 18F-FDG PET/CT could significantly influence management of patients with STS, particularly for restaging.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the second most common subtype of RCC, after clear cell RCC. This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of FDG PET/CT in primary and recurrent papillary RCC, and the role of staging FDG PET/CT in predicting survival.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 66 patients with histopathologically confirmed papillary RCC who underwent either staging or restaging FDG PET/CT scans (30 had staging scans only, 28 had restaging scans only, 8 had both) were retrospectively included in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of restaging FDG PET/CT for detecting recurrence were assessed by histopathology and/or clinical follow-up as standard reference.<h4>Results</h4>Staging FDG PET/CT scans were performed in 38 patients, of which 31 (81.5%) showed FDG-positive primary renal lesions. The SUVmax of high-grade (WHO grade 3 and 4) papillary RCCs were significantly higher than that of low-grade (WHO grade 1 and 2) tumors (9.44?±?6.18 vs 4.83?±?3.19, P?=?0.008). The SUVmax was not significantly different between type 1 and type 2 papillary RCCs (5.71?±?2.88 vs. 6.99?±?5.57, P?=?0.563). Of the 38 patients, 12 developed disease progression during the follow-up period. Patients with primary tumor SUVmax>?5.85 were associated with significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) than those with tumor SUVmax?5.85 (P?=?0.005). Restaging FDG PET/CT scans were performed in 36 patients with suspected recurrent papillary RCCs. FDG PET/CT showed a sensitivity and specificity of 100 and 72.7% for detecting recurrent disease. Comparison of PET/CT scans with CT/MRI imaging was available in 23 patients. FDG PET/CT revealed additional findings in 11 patients, mainly including lymph node and bone metastases. FDG PET/CT findings led to change in management in 5.3% (2/38) of patients in the staging setting and 16.7 (6/36) of patients in the restaging setting.<h4>Conclusions</h4>FDG PET/CT had a sensitivity of 81.5% for detecting primary papillary RCC, and tumor SUVmax derived from staging FDG PET/CT was a predictor of PFS. In the restaging process of papillary RCC, FDG PET/CT was very effective for detecting recurrent disease.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To compare WB-MRI with an [<sup>18</sup>F]FDG-PET/CT-based reference for early response assessment and restaging in children with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL).<h4>Methods</h4>Fifty-one children (ages 10-17) with HL were included in this prospective, multicentre study. All participants underwent WB-MRI and [<sup>18</sup>F]FDG-PET/CT at early response assessment. Thirteen of the 51 patients also underwent both WB-MRI and [<sup>18</sup>F]FDG-PET/CT at restaging. Two radiologists independently evaluated all WB-MR images in two separate readings: without and with DWI. The [<sup>18</sup>F]FDG-PET/CT examinations were evaluated by a nuclear medicine physician. An expert panel assessed all discrepancies between WB-MRI and [<sup>18</sup>F]FDG-PET/CT to derive the [<sup>18</sup>F]FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard. Inter-observer agreement for WB-MRI was calculated using kappa statistics. Concordance, PPV, NPV, sensitivity and specificity for a correct assessment of the response between WB-MRI and the reference standard were calculated for both nodal and extra-nodal disease presence and total response evaluation.<h4>Results</h4>Inter-observer agreement of WB-MRI including DWI between both readers was moderate (κ 0.46-0.60). For early response assessment, WB-MRI DWI agreed with the reference standard in 33/51 patients (65%, 95% CI 51-77%) versus 15/51 (29%, 95% CI 19-43%) for WB-MRI without DWI. For restaging, WB-MRI including DWI agreed with the reference standard in 9/13 patients (69%, 95% CI 42-87%) versus 5/13 patients (38%, 95% CI 18-64%) for WB-MRI without DWI.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The addition of DWI to the WB-MRI protocol in early response assessment and restaging of paediatric HL improved agreement with the [<sup>18</sup>F]FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard. However, WB-MRI remained discordant in 30% of the patients compared to standard imaging for assessing residual disease presence.<h4>Key points</h4>• Inter-observer agreement of WB-MRI including DWI between both readers was moderate for (early) response assessment of paediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma. • The addition of DWI to the WB-MRI protocol in early response assessment and restaging of paediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma improved agreement with the [18F]FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard. • WB-MRI including DWI agreed with the reference standard in respectively 65% and 69% of the patients for early response assessment and restaging.
Project description:Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour of the head and neck. The initial TNM staging, the evaluation of the tumour response during treatment, and the long-term surveillance are crucial moments in the approach to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Thus, at each of these moments, the choice of the best diagnostic tool providing the more precise and larger information is crucial. Positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 fludeoxyglucose integrated with CT (18F-FDG-PET/CT) rapidly gained clinical acceptance, and it has become an important imaging tool in routine clinical oncology. However, controversial data are currently available, for example, on the role of 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging during radiotherapy planning, the prognostic value or its real clinical impact on treatment decisions. In this article, the role of 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging in HNSCC during pre-treatment staging, radiotherapy planning, treatment response assessment, prognosis and follow-up is reviewed focusing on current evidence and controversial issues. A proposal on how to integrate 18F-FDG-PET/CT in daily clinical practice is also described.
Project description:Lymphomas are heterogeneous but potentially curable group of neoplasms. Treatment of lymphomas has rapidly evolved overtime with significant improvement in the cure rate and reductions in treatment-related toxicities. Despite excellent results, treatment programs are continued to be developed to achieve better curative and safety profiles. In these patients individualized therapy schemes can be devised based on a well-defined risk categorization. The therapy efficacy can be increased early during therapy in non-responding patients with escalated therapy protocols or with the addition of radiation therapy, particularly, in advanced-stage or unfavorable risk patients. The increasing availability of positron emission tomography using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, particularly fused with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) has lead to the integration of this modality into the routine staging and restaging for lymphoma with convincing evidence that it is a more accurate imaging modality compared with conventional imaging techniques. FDG-PET/CT is also is a promising surrogate for tumor chemosensitivity early during therapy. This review will summarize published data on the utility of FDG-PET/CT imaging in the staging, restaging, and predicting therapy response in patients with lymphoma.
Project description:Radiotherapy and radical prostatectomy are the definitive treatment options for patients with localized prostate cancer. A rising level of prostate-specific antigen after radical prostatectomy indicates prostate cancer recurrence, and these patients may still be cured with salvage radiotherapy. To maximize chance for cure, the irradiated volumes should completely encompass the extent of disease. Therefore, accurate estimation of the location of disease is critical for radiotherapy planning in both the definitive and the salvage settings. Current first-line imaging for prostate cancer has limited sensitivity for detection of disease both at initial staging and at biochemical recurrence. Integration of PET into routine evaluation of prostate cancer patients may improve both staging accuracy and radiotherapy planning. 18F-FDG PET/CT is now routinely used in radiation planning for several cancer types. However, 18F-FDG PET/CT has low sensitivity for prostate cancer. Additional PET probes evaluated in prostate cancer include 18F-sodium fluoride, 11C-acetate, 11C- or 18F-choline, 18F-fluciclovine, and 68Ga- or 18F-labeled ligands that bind prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). PSMA ligands appear to be the most sensitive and specific but have not yet received Food and Drug Administration New Drug Application approval for use in the United States. Retrospective and prospective investigations suggest a potential major impact of PET/CT on prostate radiation treatment planning. Prospective trials randomizing patients to routine radiotherapy planning versus PET/CT-aided planning may show meaningful clinical outcomes. Prospective clinical trials evaluating the addition of 18F-fluciclovine PET/CT for planning of salvage radiotherapy with clinical endpoints are under way. Prospective trials evaluating the clinical impact of PSMA PET/CT on prostate radiation planning are indicated.
Project description:Background: Molecular imaging methods are currently used in the management of patients with lung cancer. Compared to non-small cell lung cancer, less data are available about the impact of molecular imaging using fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in staging patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Performing a systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to provide quantitative data about the impact of 18F-FDG PET/CT in staging SCLC. Methods: A comprehensive literature search of studies on the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with SCLC was performed. Three different databases were screened (PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases) until June 2019. Only articles describing the impact of 18F-FDG PET/CT in staging patients with SCLC were selected. A pooled analysis evaluating the change of binary SCLC staging (limited-stage vs. extensive-stage disease) using 18F-FDG PET/CT was carried out. Results: Nine articles including 721 patients with SCLC were included in the systematic review. Compared to conventional staging, a superior diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT was found. A change of binary SCLC staging using 18F-FDG PET/CT was demonstrated in 15% (95% confidence interval, 9-21%) of patients with SCLC. Currently, it is not clearly demonstrated that the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT for staging may improve the survival outcome of patients with SCLC. Conclusions: 18F-FDG PET/CT is a useful molecular imaging method for staging patients with SCLC because it can change the management in a significant number of patients. More large prospective studies and cost-effectiveness analyses on the impact of 18F-FDG PET/CT in staging patients with SCLC are needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To investigate and compare the diagnostic performance of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/MR and MR alone in whole-body primary staging and restaging of patients with rectal cancer. METHODS:A retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate diagnostic accuracies of combined reading of PET/MR and MR alone in T, N and M staging against the reference standard. Inter-observer agreement regarding TNM staging was calculated separately for PET/MR and MR alone. RESULTS:A total of 39 studies of 34 patients could be evaluated. Diagnostic accuracies of PET/MR and MR alone were the same in locoregional T staging. For predicting N+ stage, the specificity of combined reading of PET and MR (0.917 and 0.833 for reader 1 and 2, respectively) was slightly higher than MR alone (0.833 and 0.75) without significantly increasing the overall accuracy (0.783 vs. 0.783 and 0.783 vs. 0.739). For detecting distant metastasis, the sensitivities of PET/MR and MR alone were shown equal (1.0 vs. 1.0 and 0.938 vs. 0.938), while the specificity of PET/MR was marginally lower (0.87 vs. 0.913 and 0.826 vs. 0.87). The inter-observer agreements were good to excellent in M (? = 0.64 and 0.637 for PET/MR and MR alone, p < 0.001) and N staging (0.819 and 0.738, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION:PET did not yield a significant improvement in diagnostic accuracy of PET/MR in TNM staging of rectal cancer, since MR alone facilitated accurate classification of disease stage with good to excellent inter-observer agreement.
Project description:PURPOSE:The role of hybrid imaging using 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to improve preoperative evaluation of rectal cancer is largely unknown. To investigate this, the RECTOPET (REctal Cancer Trial on PET/MRI/CT) study has been launched with the aim to assess staging and restaging of primary rectal cancer. This report presents the study workflow and the initial experiences of the impact of PET/CT on staging and management of the first patients included in the RECTOPET study. METHODS:This prospective cohort study, initiated in September 2016, is actively recruiting patients from Region Västerbotten in Sweden. This pilot study includes patients recruited and followed up until December 2017. All patients had a biopsy-verified rectal adenocarcinoma and underwent a minimum of one preoperative FDG-PET/CT and FDG-PET/MRI examination. These patients were referred to the colorectal cancer multidisciplinary team meeting at Umeå University Hospital. All available data were evaluated when making management recommendations. The clinical course was noted and changes consequent to PET imaging were described; surgical specimens underwent dedicated MRI for anatomical matching between imaging and histopathology. RESULTS:Twenty-four patients have so far been included in the study. Four patients were deemed unresectable, while 19 patients underwent or were scheduled for surgery; one patient was enrolled in a watch-and-wait programme after restaging. Consequent to taking part in the study, two patients were upstaged to M1 disease: one patient was diagnosed with a solitary hepatic metastasis detected using PET/CT and underwent metastasectomy prior to rectal cancer surgery, while one patient with a small, but metabolically active, lung nodulus experienced no change of management. PET/MRI did not contribute to any recorded change in patient management. CONCLUSIONS:The RECTOPET study investigating the role of PET/CT and PET/MRI for preoperative staging of primary rectal cancer patients will provide novel data that clarify the value of adding hybrid to conventional imaging, and the role of PET/CT versus PET/MRI. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT03846882 .
Project description:BACKGROUND:Preoperative accurate assessment of endometrial cancer can assist in the planning of additional surgical options, and in predicting the prognosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of non-contrast PET/MRI with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) for assessment in preoperative staging of endometrial cancer. METHODS:Thirty-six patients with biopsy-proven endometrial cancer underwent preoperative 18F-FDG PET/MRI, contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT) and pelvic dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (ceMRI) for initial staging. The diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/MRI and ceMRI for assessing the extent of the primary tumor (T stage), and 18F-FDG PET/MRI and ceCT for assessing nodal (N stage) and distant (M stage) metastasis, was evaluated by two experienced readers. Histopathological and follow-up imaging results were used as the gold standard. The McNemar test was employed for statistical analysis. RESULTS:Accuracy for T status was 77.8 and 75.0% for 18F-FDG PET/MRI and ceMRI, respectively. Patient-based accuracy for detecting regional nodal and distant metastasis was 91.3 and 81.8% for 18F-FDG PET/MRI, and 87.0 and 81.8% for ceCT. None of these parameters was statistically significant (p?>?0.05). Lesion-based sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for detecting regional nodal metastasis were 100, 96.9 and 97.0% for 18F-FDG PET/MRI, and 14.3, 97.6 and 93.3% for ceCT; sensitivity was statistically significant (p?<?0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Non-contrast 18F-FDG PET/MRI, which combines the individual advantages of PET and MRI, offers a high diagnostic value equivalent to that of ceMRI for assessment of the primary tumor, and equivalent to that of ceCT for the assessment of nodal and distant metastatic staging, in patients with endometrial cancer. These findings suggest that 18F-FDG PET/MRI might provide an alternative diagnostic strategy to conventional imaging modalities in the preoperative staging of endometrial cancer.
Project description:We previously reported that (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan (FDG-PET) is almost universally positive in patients with T cell lymphoma. In the present analysis we examined the impact of FDG-PET on the initial staging of peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCLs), and the prognostic value of interim FDG-PET. This retrospective analysis identified patients with mature T or natural killer (NK) lymphomas who had PET scans as part of initial staging or staging at relapse [(n = 95) (staging cohort)] in the PTCL database at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. A subset of these patients had repeat PET for interim restaging during initial therapy with curative intent [(n = 50) (interim restaging cohort)]. The frequency of specific T cell histologies included in this analysis were: PTCL not otherwise specified (NOS) (n = 35); angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL) (n = 17); anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), ALK-1+ (n = 11) and ALK-1- (n = 12); adult T cell lymphoma/leukemia (ATLL) (n = 7); NK/T cell lymphoma (NKTCL) (n = 10); and enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma (EATL) (n = 3). In the staging cohort, 77 patients were newly diagnosed, and 18 had relapsed disease. Pretreatment FDG-PET was positive in 96% of patients. PET identified additional disease sites in 47/95 patients (50%) when added to conventional staging. Most frequently identified additional sites were: other nodal (n = 24); bone (n = 10); skin (n = 8); nasopharynx (n = 4); spleen (n = 3); and lung (n = 2). However, FDG-PET modified computed tomography (CT)-based staging in only 5/95 patients (5.2%): two patients were upstaged and three patients were downstaged. FDG-PET-based staging did not alter planned treatment for any patient. Interim restaging with PET was performed after a median of 4 cycles of chemotherapy. In this cohort, treatment regimens included cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone CHOP (n = 19); CHOP/ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide (ICE) (n = 26); and other (n = 7). Subsequently, 29 patients were consolidated with either autologous (n = 22) or allogeneic (n = 7) stem cell transplant. After a median follow-up of 3.4 years for surviving patients, those with negative interim PET had superior progression-free survival (PFS) compared to patients with positive interim PET (p = 0.03). There were no differences in overall survival (OS). In PTCL, FDG-PET commonly identifies additional sites of disease but infrequently impacts CT-based staging and does not influence therapy. Interim FDG-PET may predict for PFS. FDG-PET should be integrated into prospective trials to confirm these findings.