Heteroaromatic Polyamides with Improved Thermal and Mechanical Properties.
ABSTRACT: We prepared high-performance aromatic copolyamides, containing bithiazole and thiazolo-thiazole groups in their main chain, from aromatic diamines and isophthaloyl chloride, to further improve the prominent thermal behavior and exceptional mechanical properties of commercial aramid fibers. The introduction of these groups leads to aramids with improved strength and moduli compared to commercial meta-oriented aromatic polyamides, together with an increase of their thermal performance. Moreover, their solubility, water uptake, and optical properties were evaluated in this work.
Project description:The use of renewable feedstock is one of the twelve key principles of sustainable chemistry. Unfortunately, bio-based compounds often suffer from high production cost and low performance. To fully tap the potential of natural compounds it is important to utilize their functionalities that could make them superior compared to fossil-based resources. Here we show the conversion of (+)-3-carene, a by-product of the cellulose industry into ?-lactams from which polyamides. The lactams are selectively prepared in two diastereomeric configurations, leading to semi-crystalline or amorphous, transparent polymers that can compete with the thermal properties of commercial high-performance polyamides. Copolyamides with caprolactam and laurolactam exhibit an increased glass transition and amorphicity compared to the homopolyamides, potentially broadening the scope of standard polyamides. A four-step one-vessel monomer synthesis, applying chemo-enzymatic catalysis for the initial oxidation step, is established. The great potential of the polyamides is outlined.
Project description:This research focuses on the preparation of biobased copolyamides containing biacetalized galactaric acid (GalX), namely, 2,3:4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-galactaric acid (GalXMe) and 2,3:4,5-di-O-methylene-galactaric acid (GalXH), in bulk by melt polycondensation of salt monomers. In order to allow the incorporation of temperature-sensitive sugar-derived building blocks into copolyamides at temperatures below the degradation temperature of the monomers and below their melting temperatures, a clever selection of salt monomers is required, such that the sugar-derived salt monomer dissolves in the other salt monomers. The polymerization was investigated by temperature dependent FT-IR and optical microscopy. The structure of the obtained copolyamides was elucidated by NMR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) techniques. The positive outcome of this modified polycondensation method depends on the solubility of sugar-derived polyamide salts in polyamide salts of comonomers and the difference between their melting temperatures, however does not depend on the melting temperature of the used sugar-derived monomer. A variety of comonomers was screened in order to establish the underlying mechanisms of the process.
Project description:The mechanical and surface properties of aramid fiber were simultaneously improved by grafting with 1,4-dichlorobutane in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). 1,4-dichlorobutane was penetrated and reacted with heterocyclic an aromatic polyamide backbone along with supercritical CO2 fluids. The surface roughness and surface energy of the modified aramid fiber-which were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the dynamic contact angle (DCA) test, respectively-significantly increased. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) measurements indicated that the crystallinity of the aramid fiber obviously increased after treatment in scCO2 under stretching. A single fiber tensile test showed that the tensile strength of the aramid fiber greatly enhanced after the modification due to its improved crystallinity characteristics. Moreover, the monofilament pull-out tests indicated that the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) test of the aramid fiber/epoxy composite increased by 24.3% from 51.30 to 63.91 MPa after the modification. This research provides a novel method for the simultaneous surface modification and mechanical improvement of aramid fiber properties.
Project description:To achieve high-T g and low-dielectric epoxy thermosets, four dicyclopentadiene-derived polyarylates (26-P, 26-M, 236-P, and 236-M) were prepared from 2,6-dimethyl (or 2,3,6-trimethyl) phenol-dicyclopentadiene adduct with terephthaloyl (or isophthaloyl) chloride by high-temperature solution polymerization. The resulting polyarylates, exhibiting active ester linkages (Ph-O-(C=O)-) are found to be reactive toward a commercial dicyclopentadiene phenol epoxy (HP7200) in the presence of some lone-pair electron-containing compounds. Five compounds including 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP), imidazole, 2-methylimidazole, triphenylphosphine, and triphenylimidazole have been evaluated as a catalyst for the curing reactions. We found that DMAP, with the smallest pK b among them, is the best catalyst according to differential scanning calorimetry, infrared, and thermal analyses. The thermal and dielectric properties of the polyarylate/HP7200 thermosets are evaluated. We found that they exhibit a high T g characteristic (e.g., T g is 238 °C for DMAP-catalyzed, 236-P/HP7200 thermoset). Furthermore, because of the hydrophobic methyl and cycloaliphatic moieties, and the secondary hydroxyl-free structure, polyarylate/HP7200 thermosets show a relative low-dielectric constant of around 2.75 U. The detailed structure-properties relationship is discussed in this work.
Project description:BACKGROUND: There are only limited publications devoted to the synthesis of especially thiazolo[3,2-a]quinazoline which involved reaction of 2-mercaptopropargyl quinazolin-4-one with various aryl iodides catalyzed by Pd-Cu or by condensation of 2-mercapto-4-oxoquinazoline with chloroacetic acid, inspite of this procedure was also reported in the literature to afford the thiazolo [2,3-b] quinazoline. So the multistep synthesis of the thiazolo[3,2-a]- quinazoline suffered from some flaws and in this study we have synthesized a novel class of thiazoloquinazolines by a simple and convenient method involving catalysis by 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO). RESULTS: A new and convenient one-pot synthesis of a novel class of 2-arylidene-2H-thiazolo[3,2-a]quinazoline-1,5-diones 9a-i was established through the reaction between methyl-2-(2-thio-cyanatoacetamido)benzoate (4) and a variety of arylidene malononitriles 8a-i in the presence of DABCO as a mild and efficient catalytic system via a Michael type addition reaction and a mechanism for formation of the products observed is proposed. Moreover 4 was converted to ethyl-2-[(4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-yl)thio]acetate (10) upon reflux in ethanol containing DABCO as catalyst. The latter was reacted with aromatic aldehydes and dimethylformamide dimethylacetal (DMF-DMA) to afford a mixture of two regioselectively products with identical percentage yield, these two products were identified as thiazolo[3,2-a]quinazoline 9,13 and thiazolo[2,3-b]quinazoline 11,12 derivatives respectively. The structure of the compounds prepared in this study was elucidated by different spectroscopic tools of analyses also the X-ray single crystal technique was employed in this study for structure elucidation, Z/E potential isomerism configuration determination and to determine the regioselectivity of the reactions. CONCLUSION: A simple and efficient one-pot synthesis of a novel class of 2-arylidene-2H-thiazolo[3,2-a]quinazoline-1,5-diones 9a-i was established through DABCO catalyzed Michael type addition reaction. In addition many fused quinazoline and quinazoline derivatives were synthesized which appeared as valuable precursors in synthetic and medicinal chemistry.
Project description:In this study we investigate π-stacking interactions of a variety of aromatic heterocycles with benzene using dispersion corrected density functional theory. We calculate extensive potential energy surfaces for parallel-displaced interaction geometries. We find that dispersion contributes significantly to the interaction energy and is complemented by a varying degree of electrostatic interactions. We identify geometric preferences and minimum interaction energies for a set of 13 5- and 6-membered aromatic heterocycles frequently encountered in small drug-like molecules. We demonstrate that the electrostatic properties of these systems are a key determinant for their orientational preferences. The results of this study can be applied in lead optimization for the improvement of stacking interactions, as it provides detailed energy landscapes for a wide range of coplanar heteroaromatic geometries. These energy landscapes can serve as a guide for ring replacement in structure-based drug design.
Project description:N-(5-(2-(5-Chloro-2-methoxyphenylamino)thiazol-4-yl)-4-methylthiazol-2-yl)pivalamide 1 (compound 15Jf) was found previously to correct defective cellular processing of the cystic fibrosis protein DeltaF508-CFTR. Eight C4'-C5 C,C-bond-controlling bithiazole analogues of 1 were designed, synthesized, and evaluated to establish that constraining rotation about the bithiazole-tethering has a significant effect on corrector activity. For example, constraining the C4'-C5 bithiazole tether in the s-cis conformation [N-(2-(5-chloro-2-methoxyphenylamino)-7,8-dihydro-6 H-cyclohepta[1,2- d:3,4- d']bithiazole-2'-yl)pivalamide, 29] results in improved corrector activity. Heteroatom placement in the bithaizole core is also critical as evidenced by the decisive loss of corrector activity with s-cis constrained N-(2-(5-chloro-2-methoxyphenylamino)-5,6-dihydro-4 H-cyclohepta[1,2- d:3,4- d']bithiazole-2'-yl)pivalamide 33. In addition, computational models were utilized to examine the conformational preferences for select model systems. Following our analysis, the " s-cis-locked" cycloheptathiazolothiazole 29 was found to be the most potent bithiazole corrector, with an IC50 of approximately 450 nM.
Project description:Ceramifiable ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) composites with fiber network structures were prepared by using aramid fiber (AF), ammonium polyphosphate (APP), and silicate glass frits (SGF). The effect of AF on the curing characteristic of the ceramifiable EPDM composites was studied. The morphology of AF in the composites system was observed by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effects of the observed AF network structures on the solvent resistance, mechanical properties, ablative resistance, self-supporting property, and ceramifiable properties of the composites were investigated. Results suggested that the existence of the AF network structure improved the vulcanization properties, solvent resistance, thermal stability, and ablative resistance of the EPDM composites. An excellent self-supporting property of the EPDM composites was obtained by combining the formation of the AF network and the formation of crystalline phases at higher temperature (above 600 °C). The thermal shrinkage performance of AF and the increased thermal stability of the EPDM composites improved the ceramifiable properties of the EPDM composites.
Project description:The crystallization behavior of novel polyamide 6 (PA6) copolyamides with different amounts of bis (2-aminoethyl) adipamide/adipic acid (BAEA/AA) segment was investigated. The wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) results showed that as the amount of BAEA/AA segment increased to 10 mole%, the crystalline forms of all PA6 copolyamide were transferred from the stable ?-form to the unstable ?-form because of the complex polymer structure. According to studies of crystallization kinetics, the Avrami exponent (n) values for all copolyamide samples ranged from 1.43 to 3.67 under isothermal conditions, implying that the crystallization is involved in the two- to three-dimensional growth at a high temperature of isothermal condition. The copolyamides provided a slower crystallization rate and higher crystallization activation energy (?Ea) than neat PA6. Polyamide containing 10 mole% of BEAE/AA content exhibited a unique crystallization behavior in the coexistence of the ? and ? forms. These results deepen our understanding of the relationship between BAEA/AA content, crystal structure, and its crystallization behavior in low-melting PA6, and they make these types of copolyamides useful for their practical application.
Project description:UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Many efforts have been recently devoted to design, investigate and synthesize biocompatible, biodegradable polymers for applications in medicine for either the fabrication of biodegradable devices or as drug delivery systems. Many of them consist of condensation of polymers having incorporated peptide linkages susceptible to enzymatic cleavage. Polyamides (PAs) containing ?-amino acid residues such as L-leucine, L-alanine and L-phenylalanine have been reported as biodegradable materials. Furthermore, polyamides (PAs) derived from C10 and C14 dicarboxylic acids and amide-diamines derived from 1,6-hexanediamine or 1,12-dodecanediamine and L-phenylalanine, L-valyl-L-phenylalanine or L-phenylalanyl-L-valine residues have been reported as biocompatible polymers. We have previously described the synthesis and thermal properties of a new type of polyamides-containing amino acids based on eight new symmetric meta-oriented protected diamines derived from coupling of amino acids namely; Fomc-glycine, Fmoc-alanine, Fomc-valine and Fomc-leucine with m-phenylene diamine or 2,6-diaminopyridine. Results revealed that incorporation of pyridine onto the polymeric backbone of all series decreases the thermal stability.Here we describe another family of polyamides based on benzene dicarboxylic acid, pyridine dicarboxylic acid, and ?-amino acid linked to benzidine and 4,4'-oxydianiline to study the effect of the dicarboxylic acid as well as the amino acids on the nature and thermal stability of the polymers. RESULTS: We report here the preparation of a new type of polyamides based on benzene dicarboxylic acid, pyridine dicarboxylic acid, and ?-amino acid linked to benzidine and 4,4'-oxydianiline to study the effect of the dicarboxylic acid as well as the amino acids on the nature and thermal stability of polymers. The thermal properties of the polymers were evaluated by different techniques. Results revealed that structure-thermal property correlation based on changing the dicarboxylic acid monomer or the diamine monomer demonstrated an interesting connection between a single change (changing the dicarboxylic acids in each series while the diamine is fixed) and thermal properties. The newly prepared polymers may possess biodegradability and thus may find some applications as novel biomaterials. CONCLUSIONS: The thermal properties of the new type of polyamides based on benzene dicarboxylic acid, pyridine dicarboxylic acid, and ?-amino acid (alanine and valine) linked to benzidine and 4,4'-oxydianiline were evaluated by thermal gravimetric (TG), differential thermal gravimetric (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques. Results revealed that the structure-thermal property correlation based on changing the dicarboxylic acid monomer or the diamine monomer demonstrated an interesting connection between a single change (changing the dicarboxylic acids in each series while the diamine is fixed) and thermal properties. In addition, pyridine-containing polymers exhibited semicrystalline characteristic with melting temperature, Tm. where none of the valine-containing polymers showed a melting and crystallization peak indicating that the polymers were amorphous. This is expected since L-valine side chain can inhibit close packing and eliminate crystallization. The newly prepared polymers may possess biodegradability and thus may find some applications as novel biomaterials.