Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Nuts Counteract Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in an Acute Experimental Model of Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Anacardium occidentale L. is a medicinal plant with powerful anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Acute inflammatory events cause tissue alterations, decrease of anti-oxidative endogenous enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione, neutrophils infiltration, increase in the activities of myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde, and pro-inflammatory release. METHODS:Paw edema was induced by subplantar injection of carrageenan into the right hind paw in rats, but 30 min before a group of animals were orally treated with 100 mg/kg of cashew nuts to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative response. RESULTS:In the present work, we found that (1) cashew nuts reduced the development of carrageenan-induced paw edema limiting the formation of edema and pain; (2) cashew nuts ameliorated the diminutions of the anti-oxidative enzymes caused by carrageenan injection; (3) cashew nuts decreased myeloperoxidase malondialdehyde activity induced by carrageenan; and (4) cashew nuts acted by blocking pro-inflammatory cytokines response and nitrate/nitrite formation stimulated by carrageenan injection. CONCLUSIONS:The mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects exerted by cashew nuts were relevant to oxygen free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation, and inhibition of the formation of inflammatory cytokines.
Project description:Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is the major organosulfur constituent in garlic, with a variety of pharmacological activities including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Here, we examined the potential antiedematous impact of DADS- versus carrageenan-mediated paw edema in mice. Carrageenan injection potentiated an inflammatory reaction as presented by the elevated serological C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and transcription of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?, Tnf?), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?, Il1b), interleukin-2 (IL-2, Il2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, Ptgs2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, Ccl1), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, while interleukin-10 (IL-10) was declined in the injured paw tissue. Additionally, carrageenan elevated lipid peroxidation in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased glutathione content (GSH). Remarkably, DADS was found to inhibit the inflammatory signaling, suppressed the developed oxidative damage, and protected the histopathological alterations in the inflamed paw tissue in response to carrageenan injection. Our findings suggest that DADS could be used as an alternative therapy used to alleviate the pathophysiological changes associated with the genesis of paw edema through its potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant impacts.
Project description:The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the sulfated polysaccharidic fraction obtained from red marine alga Gracilaria cornea (Gc-FI) were investigated using a paw edema model induced in rats by different inflammatory agents (carrageenan, dextran, serotonin, bradykinin, compound 48/80 or L-arginine). Gc-FI at the doses of 3, 9 or 27 mg/kg, subcutaneously--s.c., significantly inhibited rat paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran, as confirmed by myeloperoxidase and Evans' blue assessments, respectively. Gc-FI (9 mg/kg, s.c.) inhibited rat paw edema induced by histamine, compound 48/80 and L-arginine. Additionally, Gc-FI (9 mg/kg, s.c.) inhibited Cg-induced edema in animals with intact mast cells but did not inhibit that with degranulated mast cells by compound 48/80, revealing a protective role on mast cell membranes. Gc-FI down-regulated the IL-1?, TNF-? and COX-2 mRNA and protein levels compared with those of the carrageenan group, based on qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses. After inhibition with ZnPP IX, a specific heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor, the anti-inflammatory effect of Gc-FI was not observed in Cg-induced paw edema, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effect of Gc-FI is, in part, dependent on the integrity of the HO-1 pathway. Gc-FI can target a combination of multiple points involved in inflammatory phenomena.
Project description:Anacardic acid (AA), a compound extracted from cashew nut liquid, exhibits numerous pharmacological activities. The aim of the current investigation was to assess the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities of AA in mouse models. For this, Swiss albino mice were pretreated with AA (10, 25, 50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, ip) 30 min prior to the administration of carrageenan, as well as 25 mg/kg of prostaglandin E2, dextran, histamine, and compound 48/80. The antinociceptive activity was evaluated by formalin, abdominal, and hot plate tests, using antagonist of opioid receptors (naloxene, 3 mg/kg, ip) to identify antinociceptive mechanisms. Results from this study revealed that AA at 25 mg/kg inhibits carrageenan-induced edema. In addition, AA at 25 mg/kg reduced edema and leukocyte and neutrophilic migration to the intraperitoneal cavity, diminished myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde concentration, and increased the levels of reduced glutathione. In nociceptive tests, it also decreased licking, abdominal writhing, and latency to thermal stimulation, possibly via interaction with opioid receptors. Taken together, these results indicate that AA exhibits anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive actions and also reduces oxidative stress in acute experimental models, suggesting AA as a promising compound in the pharmaceutical arena.
Project description:Research so far has only shown that edible red macroalgae, Sarcodia ceylanica has the ability to eliminate free radicals and anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial properties. This study was conducted both in vitro and in vivo on the ethyl acetate extract (PD1) of farmed red macroalgae in order to explore its anti-inflammatory properties. In order to study the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of PD1, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammatory responses in murine macrophages. For evaluating the potential in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of PD1, we used carrageenan-induced rat paw edema to produce inflammatory pain. The in vitro results indicated that PD1 inhibited the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory protein, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in macrophages. Oral PD1 can reduce carrageenan-induced paw edema and inflammatory nociception. PD1 can significantly inhibit carrageenan-induced leukocyte infiltration, as well as the protein expression of inflammatory mediators (iNOS, interleukin-1?, and myeloperoxidase) in inflammatory tissue. The above results indicated that PD1 has great potential to be turned into a functional food or used in the development of new anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive agents. The results from this study are expected to help scientists in the continued development of Sarcodia ceylanica for other biomedical applications.
Project description:Background:Therapeutic potential of low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS) has become evident in various musculoskeletal diseases. We have previously shown that LIUS has an inhibitory effect on local edema in various diseases including the arthritis and brain injury. In this study, we examined whether LIUS can attenuate paw edema formation vis-à-vis vascular permeability and inflammation in rats induced by carrageenan. LIUS with a frequency of 1?MHz and the intensities of 50, 100, or 200?mW/cm2 were exposed on rat paws for 10?min immediately after carrageenan injection. Results:Carrageenan injection induced paw edema which was peaked at 6?h and gradually decreased nearly to the initial baseline value after 72?h. LIUS showed a significant reduction of paw edema formation at 2 and 6?h at all intensities tested. The highest reduction was observed at the intensity of 50?mW/cm2. Histological analyses confirmed that LIUS clearly decreased the carrageenan-induced swelling of interstitial space under the paw skin and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Moreover, Evans Blue extravasation analyses exhibited a significant decreases of vascular permeability by LIUS. Finally, immunohistochemical staining showed that expression of pro-inflammatory proteins, namely, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) induced by carrageenan injection was reduced back to the normal level after LIUS stimulation. Conclusions:These results provide a new supporting evidence for LIUS as a therapeutic alternative for the treatment of edema in inflammatory diseases such as cellulitis.
Project description:Medicinal plants have been used as a source of effective and safe alternative therapeutic agents for various ailments including inflammation. In fact, the aim of this study is to assess the topical anti-inflammatory and antioxidative potential effects of Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin), Linum usitatissimum (linseed), and Opuntia ficus indica (prickly pear) oils on acute inflammation using carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The study was conducted on 36 rats splitted in 6 groups: a normal control group and 5 carrageenan-treated groups (1%), each treated with either a normal saline, the reference drug ("Inflocine®" 2?mg/paw), pumpkin, linseed, or prickly pear oils (25??l/paw). The response to these treatments was mainly assessed by the measuring of edema paw size, hematological and biochemical analysis, oxidative stress testing, and histological study. All the studied seed oils especially prickly pear oil proved to be efficient in treating acute inflammation. The oil-treated groups revealed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the clinical signs of inflammation, hematological parameters (white blood cells and platelets), concentrations of CRP and fibrinogen, and congestion compared to the normal saline-treated group. The results also showed that the tested oils, endowed with a radical scavenging ability, could significantly increase the activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx in carrageenan-treated skin by reducing the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation (TBARS, AOPP). The anti-inflammatory effect of the tested oils was closely related to both their antioxidant properties as well as their bioactive compounds (polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E, and phytosterols). For the first time, the findings of the current study highlight the "in vivo" anti-inflammatory property of pumpkin, linseed, and prickly pear oils on carrageenan-induced acute inflammation by regulating inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress markers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:One of the most common co-morbidities, that often leads to death, associated with acute pancreatitis (AP) is represented by acute lung injury (ALI). While many aspects of AP-induced lung inflammation have been investigated, the involvement of specific pathways, such as those centered on nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat (NLR) and pyrin domain containing receptor 3 (NLRP3), has not been fully elucidated. METHODS:To investigate the effect of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nuts on pancreatic and lung injury induced by cerulein injection, cerulein (50 ?g/kg) was administered to CD1 mice for 10 h. Oral treatment with cashew nuts at a dose of 100 mg/kg was given 30 min and 2 h after the first cerulein injection. One hour after the final cerulein injection, mice were euthanized and blood, lung and pancreatic tissue samples were collected. RESULTS:Cashew nuts were able to (1) reduce histological damage; (2) mitigate the induction of mast cell degranulation as well as the activity of myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde; (3) decrease the activity levels of amylase and lipase as well as the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines; and (4) enhance the activation of the Nrf2 pathway and suppress the activation of the NLRP3 pathway in response to cerulein in both pancreas and lung. CONCLUSIONS:Cashew nuts could have a beneficial effect not only on pancreatitis but also on lung injury induced by cerulein.
Project description:The present study aimed to test the anti-inflammatory and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of two synthesized molecules and compare them to routinely prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as diclofenac and the serum urate-lowering drug, allopurinol. The anti-inflammatory effects of the designed compounds (A and B) were evaluated in carrageenan (CAR)-induced paw edema in mice. The levels of nitric oxide and myeloperoxidase activity were measured in paw skin using biochemical methods. Additionally, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), C-reactive protein (CRP), cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-2 and IL-10, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of inflammation-related genes was confirmed by real-time qPCR. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) were estimated using immunohistochemistry, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was evaluated using an in vitro assay. The results revealed that compounds A and B decreased inflammation, as was observed by a reduction in the elevation of all the tested markers. In addition, the tested compounds markedly decreased paw swelling, mobilization of inflammatory cells, iNOS-, and NF-?B-immunoreactive cells in a mouse model of paw edema. Interestingly, both compounds were potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors as well as Cox inhibitors with higher activity in favor of compound B providing potential dual acting series of anti-hyperuricemic and anti-inflammatory therapeutic agents.
Project description:Curcumin (CUR), a promising naturally occurring dietary compound, is commonly recognized as the potential anti-inflammatory agent. While the application of CUR was hampered by its low stability and poor systemic bioavailability, it has been suggested that the biological activities of CUR are intimately related to its metabolites. In the current investigation, we aimed to comparatively explore the anti-inflammatory effects of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), octahydrocurcumin (OHC), and CUR, and to elucidate the underlying action mechanisms on experimental mice models of acute inflammation, i.e., xylene-induced ear edema, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability, and carrageenan-induced paw edema. The results showed that THC and OHC exerted significant and dose-dependent inhibitions on the formation of ear edema induced by xylene and paw edema provoked by carrageenan and inhibited the Evans blue dye leakage in peritoneal cavity elicited by acetic acid. Moreover, THC and OHC treatments were more effective than CUR in selectively inhibiting the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and suppressing nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathways via transforming growth factor ? activated kinase-1 (TAK1) inactivation in the carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema model.
Project description:According to the GC-MS analysis, compositional variation was observed between samples of patchouli oil, of which an unknown compound identified as patchoulene epoxide (PAO) was found only in the long-stored oil, whose biological activity still remains unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory activity with three in vivo inflammatory models: xylene-induced ear edema, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability, and carrageenan-induced paw edema. Further investigation into its underlying mechanism on carrageenan-induced paw edema was conducted. Results demonstrated that PAO significantly inhibited the ear edema induced by xylene, lowered vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and decreased the paw edema induced by carrageenan. Moreover, PAO markedly decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO), but increased levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). PAO was also shown to significantly downregulate the protein and mRNA expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS). Western blot analysis revealed that PAO remarkably inhibited p50 and p65 translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus by suppressing IKKβ and IκBα phosphorylation. In conclusion, PAO exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity probably by suppressing the activation of iNOS, COX-2 and NF-κB signaling pathways.