Dietary Supplementation with Sugar Beet Fructooligosaccharides and Garlic Residues Promotes Growth of Beneficial Bacteria and Increases Weight Gain in Neonatal Lambs.
ABSTRACT: The proper development of the early gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota is critical for newborn ruminants. This microbiota is susceptible to modification by diverse external factors (such as diet) that can lead to long-lasting results when occurring in young ruminants. Dietary supplementation with prebiotics, ingredients nondigestible and nonabsorbable by the host that stimulate the growth of beneficial GIT bacteria, has been applied worldwide as a potential approach in order to improve ruminant health and production yields. However, how prebiotics affect the GIT microbiota during ruminants' early life is still poorly understood. We investigated the effect of milk supplementation with a combination of two well-known prebiotics, fructooligosaccharides (FOS) from sugar beet and garlic residues (all together named as "additive"), exerted on preweaned lamb growth and the composition of their fecal microbiota, by using 16S rRNA gene amplicon high-throughput sequencing. The results showed a significant increase in the mean daily weight gain of lambs fed with the additive. Lamb fecal microbiota was also influenced by the additive intake, as additive-diet lambs showed lower bacterial diversity and were significantly more abundant in Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Veillonella. These bacteria have been previously reported to confer beneficial properties to the ruminant, including promotion of growth and health status, and our results showed that they were strongly linked to the additive intake and the increased weight gain of lambs. This study points out the combination of FOS from sugar beet and garlic residues as a potential prebiotic to be used in young ruminants' nutrition in order to improve production yields.
Project description:The digestive functions of the pre-weaned lamb gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) have been the subject of much research in recent years, but the microbial and host functions underlying these complex processes remain largely unknown. Here, we undertook a proof-of-principle metaproteogenomic investigation on luminal and mucosal samples collected from 10 GITs of a 30-day-old pre-weaned lamb. We demonstrate that the analysis of the diverse ecological niches along the GITs can reveal microbiota composition and metabolic functions, although low amounts of microbial proteins could be identified in the small intestinal and mucosal samples. Our data suggest that a 30-day lamb has already developed mature microbial functions in the forestomachs, while the effect of the milky diet appears to be more evident in the remaining GITs. We also report the distribution and the relative abundance of the host functions, active at the GIT level, with a special focus on those involved in digestive processes. In conclusion, this pilot study supports the suitability of a metaproteogenomic approach to the characterization of microbial and host functions of the lamb GITs, opening the way to further studies aimed at investigating the impact of early dietary interventions on the GIT microbiota of small ruminants.
Project description:1. Isolated lamb liver cells were prepared from 24-h-starved animals by venous perfusion of the excised caudate lobe with buffer containing collagenase. On the basis of Trypan-Blue exclusion, rate of O2 uptake, adenine nucleotide content and retention of constitutive enzymes, these cells were judged to be intact. 2. Isolated caudate-lobe liver cells showed rates of gluconeogenesis from 10 mM-propionate and 10 mM-lactate that compared favourably with rates determined in isolated median-lobe cells and with rates determined with the isolated perfused lamb liver. 3. The gluconeogenic potential of substrates tested depended on the lamb's age. Cells prepared from suckling lambs (up to 20 days of age and essentially non-ruminant) showed highest rates from galactose, serine and alanine; those prepared from post-weaned lambs (older than 30 days of age and ruminant) showed highest rates from propionate, lactate and fructose. 4. Gluconeogenic rates from endogeneous precursors, 10 mM-propionate and 10mM-galactose, were linear for 1 h and were both stimulated by 1 muM-glucagon. Provided the endogenous rate of gluconeogenesis remained unchanged after substrate addition, glucagon caused a net stimulation of gluconeogenesis from each of these substrates. 5. Gluconeogenic capacity and glucagon sensitivity were examined in cells maintained in substrate-free oxygenated buffer at 37 degrees, 22 degrees and * degrees C. Even under the best of the three conditions of storage that were tested (i.e. at 22 degrees C in gelatin-containing buffer) deterioration of the lamb cells proceeded rapidly, and loss of glucagon responsiveness preceeded the loss of ability to convert precursor into glucose. 6. n-Butyric acid, 2-methylpropanoic acid and 3-methylbutanoic acid at concentrations comparable with those found in lamb portal-vein blood each stimulated gluconeogenesis from 10mM-galactose or 10mM-propionate; gluconeogenesis from galactose was stimulated to the greater extent. 7. The regulatory effects of glucagon and sodium butyrate on lamb liver-cell gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis were compared. Glucagon (1 muM) and 2mM-butyrate accelerated the rate of glucose formation of liver cells of 24h-starved animals from lactate+pyruvate or fructose. Insulin (20nM) decreased both gluconeogenesis and the efficacy of 1 muM-glucagon. For lactate+pyruvate as substrate, the stimulatory effect of butyrate was additive to that of 1muM-glucagon and for both lactate+pyruvate and fructose the stimulatory effect of butyrate was not influenced by 20nM-insulin. In contrast with glucagon, which stimulated the rate of glycogenolysis in cells prepared from fed lambs, butyrate (0.1-20mM) had no effect. 8. It is concluded that glucagon and butyrate stimulate lamb liver-cell gluconeogenesis by different mechanisms.
Project description:The rumen microbiota plays an important role in animal functional attributes. These microbes are indispensable for the normal physiological development of the rumen, and may also convert the plant polysaccharides from grass into available milk and meat, making it highly valuable to humans. Exploring the microbial composition and metabolites of rumen across developmental stages is important for understanding ruminant nutrition and metabolism. However, relatively few reports have investigated the microbiome and metabolites across developmental stages in ruminants. Using 16S rRNA gene sequnecing, metabolomics and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques, we compared the rumen microbiota, metabolites and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) between lambs and sub-adult Tibetan sheep (Ovis aries) from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Bacteroidetes and Spirochaetae were enriched in sub-adult sheep, while Firmicutes and Tenericutes were more abundant in young individuals. The sub-adult individuals had higher alpha diversity values than those in young sheep. Metabolomics analysis showed that the content of essential amino acids and related gene functional pathways in rumen were different between the lambs and sub-adult population. L-Leucine that participates in valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis was more abundant in the lambs, while phenylethylamine that takes part in phenylalanine metabolism was more enriched in the sub-adults. Both rumen microbial community structures and metabolite profiles were impacted by age, but rumen SCFA concentration was relatively stable between different age stages. Some specific microbes (e.g., Clostridium and Ruminococcaceae) were positively associated with L-Leucine but negatively correlated with phenylethylamine, implying that rumen microbes may play different roles for metabolite production at different ages. Mantel test analysis showed that rumen microbiota was significantly correlated with metabolomics and SCFA profiles. Our results indicates the close relationship between microbial composition and metabolites, and also reveal different nutritional requirement for different ages in ruminants, thus having important significance for regulating animal nutrition and metabolism by microbiome intervention.
Project description:This study estimated genetic parameters for ewe reproductive traits [number of lambs born (NLB) and weaned (NLW) per ewe lambing] and fecal egg counts (FEC) during the peri-parturient rise (PPR) for use in genetic evaluation of Katahdin sheep. Data included NLB and NLW for 23,060 lambings by 9,295 Katahdin ewes, 1,230 PPR at lambing (PPR0) for 750 ewes, 1,070 PPR at approximately 30 d postpartum (PPR30) for 611 ewes, BW at birth, weaning, and (or) post-weaning for 12,869 lambs, and FEC at weaning and (or) post-weaning for 4,676 lambs. Direct additive, permanent environmental, and residual (co)variances were estimated in univariate and bivariate animal models. Fixed effects included effects of ewe management group and ewe age for all traits, and, for PPR, a continuous effect of days between lambing and measurement. Effects of litter size on PPR0 and number of lambs suckled on PPR30 were included in univariate models but excluded from bivariate models for PPR and NLB or NLW. Heritability estimates in univariate models for NLB, NLW, PPR0, and PPR30 were 0.09 ± 0.01, 0.06 ± 0.01, 0.35 ± 0.06, and 0.24 ± 0.07, respectively. Estimates of permanent environmental variance as a proportion of total phenotypic variance were 0.02 ± 0.01 for NLB, 0.03 ± 0.01 for NLW, 0.05 ± 0.06 for PPR0, and 0.13 ± 0.07 for PPR30. Direct additive, phenotypic, permanent environmental, and residual correlations between NLB and NLW were 0.88 ± 0.03, 0.74 ± 0.004, 0.54 ± 0.15, 0.74 ± 0.003, respectively; corresponding correlations between PPR0 and PPR30 were 0.96 ± 0.07, 0.46 ± 0.03, 0.98 ± 0.50, 0.18 ± 0.05, respectively. The additive genetic correlation (rd) between ewe reproductive traits and PPR ranged from 0.12 to 0.18. Estimates of rd between lamb BW and subsequent ewe NLB and NLW ranged from 0.07 to 0.20, and those between PPR and lamb BW ranged from -0.03 to 0.29. The rd between ewe reproductive traits and lamb FEC ranged from 0.27 to 0.40, and those between PPR and lamb FEC ranged from 0.56 to 0.77. Correlations between maternal additive effects on BW and direct additive effects on PPR were low (-0.08 to 0.10), and those between maternal additive effects on BW and direct additive effects on ewe reproductive traits were variable (-0.36 to 0.11). We conclude that FEC in growing lambs and peri-parturient ewes are controlled by similar genes and that modest, but manageable, genetic antagonisms may exist between FEC and ewe productivity.
Project description:The aim of this study was molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species and assessment of their prevalence in different breeds of sheep and goat reared in Poland. In addition, the relationship between animal age, breed type, and the frequency of Cryptosporidium infections was determined. Fecal samples from 234 lambs and 105 goat kids aged up to 9 weeks, representing 24 breeds and their cross-breeds were collected from 71 small ruminant farms across Poland. The identification of Cryptosporidium species was performed at the 18 SSU ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and COWP loci followed by subtyping of C. parvum and C. hominis strains at GP60 gene locus. The presence of Cryptosporidium DNA at the 18 SSU rRNA locus was detected in 45/234 (19.2%) lamb feces samples and in 39/105 (37.1%) taken from goats. The following Cryptosporidium species: C. xiaoi, C. bovis, C. ubiquitum, C. parvum, and C. hominis were detected in small ruminants. Infections caused by C. xiaoi were predominant without favoring any tested animal species. Subsequent GP60 subtyping revealed the presence of C. parvum IIaA17G1R1 subtype in sheep and IIdA23G1 subtype in goats. IIdA23G1 subtype was detected in a goat host for the first time. There were no significant differences found in frequency of infections between the age groups (<3 and 3-9 weeks) of lambs (P = 0.14, ? > 0.05) or goat kids (P = 0.06, ? > 0.05). In addition, there was no correlation observed between the frequency in occurrence of particular parasite species and breed type in relation to native sheep breeds (F = 0.11; P = 0.990 > 0.05). In the case of goats, more breed-related differences in parasite occurrence were found. The results of this study improve our knowledge on the breed-related occurrence of Cryptosporidium infections in the population of small ruminants reared in Poland.
Project description:Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microorganisms play important roles in the health of ruminant livestock and affect the production of agriculturally relevant products, including milk and meat. Despite this link, interventions to alter the adult microbiota to improve production have proven ineffective, as established microbial communities are resilient to change. In contrast, developing communities in young animals may be more easily altered but are less well studied. Here, we measured the GIT-associated microbiota of 45 Holstein dairy cows from 2?weeks to the first lactation cycle, using Illumina amplicon sequencing of bacterial (16S rRNA V4), archaeal (16S rRNA V6 to V8), and fungal (internal transcribed region 1 [ITS1]) communities. Fecal and ruminal microbiota of cows raised on calf starter grains and/or corn silage were correlated to lifetime growth as well as milk production during the first lactation cycle, in order to determine whether early-life diets have long-term impacts. Significant diet-associated differences in total microbial communities and specific taxa were observed by weaning (8?weeks), but all animals reached an adult-like composition between weaning and 1 year. While some calf-diet-driven differences were apparent in the microbiota of adult cows, these dissimilarities did not correlate with animal growth or milk production. This finding suggests that initial microbial community establishment is affected by early-life diet but postweaning factors have a greater influence on adult communities and production outcomes.IMPORTANCE The gut microbiota is essential for the survival of many organisms, including ruminants that rely on microorganisms for nutrient acquisition from dietary inputs for the production of products such as milk and meat. While alteration of the adult ruminant microbiota to improve production is possible, changes are often unstable and fail to persist. In contrast, the early-life microbiota may be more amenable to sustained modification. However, few studies have determined the impact of early-life interventions on downstream production. Here, we investigated the impact of agriculturally relevant calf diets, including calf starter and corn silage, on gut microbial communities, growth, and production through the first lactation cycle. Thus, this work serves to further our understanding of early-life microbiota acquisition, as well as informing future practices in livestock management.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The development of the rumen is an important physiological challenge for young ruminants. Previous studies have shown that starter feeding can effectively facilitate the growth and development of the rumen in ruminants. However, the mechanism through which starter feeding stimulates the development of the rumen is not clear. Here, we performed an integrated analysis in ruminal microbiota and a host transcriptomic profile in a lamb model with the intervention of starter feed to understand the ruminal microbiome-host crosstalk in stimulating the development of the ruminal epithelium. RESULTS:Decreased ruminal pH and increased acetate and butyrate concentrations in the rumen, followed by increasing rumen organ index, were observed in lambs supplemented with starter. Using metagenome sequencing in combination with 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, the results showed the abundance of acetate-producing Mitsuokella spp., lactate-producing Sharpea spp., lactate-utilizing Megasphaera spp., and Entodinium spp. was enriched in rumen microbial communities in the starter-feed group. The abundances of genes involved in sugar degradation were decreased in starter-feed lambs, but the GH13 encoding α-amylase was obviously increased. Rumen epithelial transcriptome analysis revealed that seven differentially expressed genes, including MAPK1, PIK3CB, TNFSF10, ITGA6, SNAI2, SAV1, and DLG, related to the cell growth module were upregulated, and BAD's promotion of cell death was downregulated. Correlation analysis revealed that the increase in the concentrations of acetate and butyrate significantly correlated with the expression of these genes, which indicates acetate and butyrate likely acted as important drivers in the ruminal microbiome-host crosstalk. CONCLUSIONS:The present study comprehensively describes the symbiotic relationship between the rumen microbiota and the host in lambs after starter feeding. Our data demonstrates that the microbiome-driven generation of acetate and butyrate mediated the growth-related genes' regulation of the growth-associated signalling pathway in the ruminal epithelium. These co-development networks regulated many physiological processes in the epithelium, including papillae morphology and rumen epithelial growth.
Project description:Rumen microbiota is of paramount importance for ruminant digestion efficiency as the microbial fermentations supply the host animal with essential sources of energy and nitrogen. Early separation of newborns from the dam and distribution of artificial milk (Artificial Milking System or AMS) could impair rumen microbial colonization, which would not only affect rumen function but also have possible negative effects on hindgut homeostasis, and impact animal health and performance. In this study, we monitored microbial communities in the rumen and the feces of 16 lambs separated from their dams from 12?h of age and artificially fed with milk replacer and starter feed from d8, in absence or presence of a combination of the live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077 and selected yeast metabolites. Microbial groups and targeted bacterial species were quantified by qPCR and microbial diversity and composition were assessed by 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing in samples collected from birth to 2 months of age. The fibrolytic potential of the rumen microbiota was analyzed with a DNA microarray targeting genes coding for 8 glycoside hydrolase (GH) families. In Control lambs, poor establishment of fibrolytic communities was observed. Microbial composition shifted as the lambs aged. The live yeast supplement induced significant changes in relative abundances of a few bacterial OTUs across time in the rumen samples, among which some involved in crucial rumen function, and favored establishment of Trichostomatia and Neocallimastigaceae eukaryotic families. The supplemented lambs also harbored greater abundances in Fibrobacter succinogenes after weaning. Microarray data indicated that key cellulase and hemicellulase encoding-genes were present from early age in the rumen and that in the Supplemented lambs, a greater proportion of hemicellulase genes was present. Moreover, a higher proportion of GH genes from ciliate protozoa and fungi was found in the rumen of those animals. This yeast combination improved microbial colonization in the maturing rumen, with a potentially more specialized ecosystem towards efficient fiber degradation, which suggests a possible positive impact on lamb gut development and digestive efficiency.
Project description:Yak (Bos grunniens) is an unique ruminant species in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The ruminant gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota is not only associated with the nutrients metabolism, but also contributes to the host's local adaptation. Examining the microbiota between cattle and yak in different geography could improve our understanding about the role of microbiota in metabolism and adaptation. To this end, we compared the microbiota in rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum of dairy cattle, yellow cattle, and three yak herds (WQ yak, SZ yak, and ZB yak) lived in different altitude, based on sequencing the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on Illumina Miseq. The bacterial diversity was significantly different among five breeds, whereas the difference among four stomach regions is limited. The phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominated bacteria regardless of breeds and regions. The nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) results showed that the microbiota in dairy cattle, yellow cattle and WQ yak significantly differed from that in SZ yak and ZB yak for all four stomach compartments. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that Prevotella and Succiniclasticum spp. were abundant in dairy cattle, yellow cattle and WQ yak, whereas the Christensenellaceae R7 group and the Lachnospiraceae UCG 008 group were prevalent in SZ yak and ZB yak. Moreover, the microbiota in WQ yak was significantly different from that in SZ yak and ZB yak, which were characterized by the higher relative abundance Romboutsia spp., Eubacterium coprostanoligenes, Acetobacter spp., Mycoplasma spp., and Rikenellaceae RC9 group. Overall, these results improves our knowledge about the GIT microbiota composition of QTP ruminant.
Project description:1. The fatty acid compositions of the plasma lipids of newborn unsuckled lambs, kids, calves and piglets have been determined and compared with those of maternal plasma lipids at parturition. 2. The predominating plasma fatty acids in the newborn of all species are palmitic acid, C(16:1) acid, stearic acid and C(18:1) acid. This finding is consistent with the synthesis of the major proportion of fatty acids from non-lipid sources within the foetus. 3. Very small amounts of C(18:2) acid and C(18:3) acid are present in the plasma lipids of newborn ruminants, although considerable amounts of these fatty acids are contained in maternal plasma. The plasma fatty acids of the newborn piglet contained 5.5% of C(18:2) acid, those of the calf 2.0%, and those of the lamb and kid less than 1.0%. This finding is discussed in relation to the higher content of C(18:2) acid in the plasma non-esterified fatty acid fraction of the sow (15%) compared with that of the ruminant (less than 4%). 4. In the lamb and kid, but not in the calf or piglet, a C(20:3) acid was detected in plasma lipids that was very similar to, if not identical with, the C(20:3) acid that accumulates in the plasma of animals given diets low in essential fatty acids. The possible significance of this finding is discussed. 5. The cholesteryl esters of cow plasma were found to contain a higher percentage (43%) of C(18:3) acid than those of goat and sheep plasma (5-10%). The possible reasons for this difference are discussed.