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Docosahexaenoic Acid Reverted the All-trans Retinoic Acid-Induced Cellular Proliferation of T24 Bladder Cancer Cell Line.
ABSTRACT: The treatment of solid cancers with pharmacological all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) concentrations, even if it is a gold standard therapy for the acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), is not always effective due to some resistance mechanisms. Here the resistance to ATRA treatment of T24 cell line, bladder cancer, was investigated. T24 was not only resistant to cell death when treated at concentrations up to 20 µM of ATRA, but it was also able to stimulate the cellular proliferation. An over-expression of the fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5) in conjunction with the cellular retinol-binding protein-II (CRABP-II) down-expression was found. However, the direct inhibition of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/? (PPAR?/?) did not abolish T24 proliferation, but rather potentiated it. Moreover, considering the ability of the long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) to displace ATRA from FABP5, the actions of the saturated palmitic acid (PA), unsaturated omega-6 linoleic acid (LA) and omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were evaluated to counteract ATRA-related proliferation. ATRA-PA co-treatment induces cellular growth inhibition, while ATRA-LA co-treatment induces cellular growth enhancement. However, even if DHA is unsaturated LCFA as LA, it was able to reverse the ATRA-induced cellular proliferation of T24, bringing the viability percentages at the levels of the control.
Project description:To identify a predictive molecular "signature" for sensitivity to retinoic acid in pancreatic cancer.Fourteen patient-derived, low-passage pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) lines with varied expression of fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) and cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 (CRABP2) were used to evaluate the response to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration/invasion assays were used to measure the in vitro response. Tumor growth was monitored in subcutaneous xenografts in athymic nude mice for 4 weeks.Response to ATRA was observed to be dependent upon differential expression of FABP5 versus CRABP2. Thus, elevated FABP5 expression was associated with minimal cytotoxicity and tumor growth inhibition and a paradoxical increase in migration and invasion. Conversely, CRABP2 expression in the absence of FABP5 was associated with significant tumor growth inhibition with ATRA, even in gemcitabine-resistant tumors. The ATRA-resistant phenotype of FABP5(high)CRABP2(null) cells could be circumvented by ectopic expression of CRABP2. Alternatively, reexpression of endogenous CRABP2 could be enabled in FABP5(high)CRABP2(null) PDAC lines by exposure to decitabine and trichostatin A, thereby relieving epigenetic silencing of the CRABP2 gene promoter. Immunohistochemical staining for FABP5 in archival human tissue microarrays identifies a subset of cases (13 of 63, ~20%) which are negative for FABP5 expression and might be candidates for ATRA therapy.The widely used agent ATRA deserves a "second look" in PDAC, but needs to be targeted to patient subsets with biopsy-proven FABP5-negative tumors, or be combined with a chromatin-modifying agent to reexpress endogenous CRABP2.
Project description:The omega-3 long chain poly-unsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plays a central role in fetal and neonatal development in humans, in particular the development of the brain and nervous system, and this has led to numerous studies focussed on determining the effect of exposure to an increased supply of DHA on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of treatment with a DHA-enriched fish-oil emulsion on fatty acid composition, proliferation rate and gene expression in human placental HTR8/SVneo cells in vitro. Overall design: This set contains 12 arrays culture experiments. 4 controls, 4 treated with DHA-enriched fish-oil emulsion, 4 treated with soy-oil emulsion.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease including synovitis and synovial hyperplasia that contribute to joint destruction. Pivotal pathogenic mechanisms in this process are the dysregulated proliferation and apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Unfortunately, the mechanisms of FLS dysregulation are not completely elucidated. Here, we explored a new hypothesis based in the potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of retinoids in some types of cancer. Specifically, we investigated the role of retinoids and of the retinoic acid binding proteins, CRABP2 and FABP5, on the proliferation and apoptosis of FLS from RA by adding all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or silencing CRABP2 and FABP5. We showed an unconventional behaviour of RA FLS, which were relatively insensitive to ATRA. In effect, ATRA increased the resistance to apoptosis despite the high CRABP2/FABP5 ratio of RA FLS; and CRABP2 suppression sensitized RA FLS to Fas-induced apoptosis. This latter effect was associated with changes in expression of kinases, ASK1 up-regulation and ERK down-regulation, and increased phosphorylation of JNK. In addition, the potentiation of FLS apoptosis by CRABP2 silencing persisted in the presence of pro-inflammatory mediators, TNF e IL1?. Therefore, the results point to CRABP2 as a potential target to decrease synovial hyperplasia in RA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Omega-3 fatty acids, including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and derivatives, play a key role in the resolution of inflammation. Higher intake has been linked to decreased morbidity in several diseases, though effects on respiratory diseases like COPD are understudied. METHODS:The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), with a focus on dietary assessment, provides a unique opportunity to explore relationships between omega-3 intake and morbidity in respiratory diseases marked by inflammation in the United States (US) population. We investigated relationships between ALA or EPA + DHA intake and respiratory symptoms among US adults with COPD, as well as variation in relationships based on personal characteristics or exposures. RESULTS:Of 878 participants, mean age was 60.6 years, 48% were current smokers, and 68% completed high school. Omega-3 intake was, 1.71 ± 0.89 g (ALA), and 0.11 ± 0.21 g (EPA + DHA). Logistic regression models, adjusting for age, gender, race, body mass index, FEV1, education, smoking status, pack-years, total caloric intake, and omega-6 (linoleic acid, LA) intake demonstrated no primary associations between omega-3 intake and respiratory symptoms. Interaction terms were used to determine potential modification of relationships by personal characteristics (race, gender, education) or exposures (LA intake, smoking status), demonstrating that at lower levels of LA intake, increasing ALA intake was associated with reduced odds of chronic cough (pint = 0.015) and wheeze (pint = 0.037). EPA + DHA, but not ALA, was associated with reduced symptoms only among current smokers who did not complete high school. CONCLUSIONS:Individual factors should be taken into consideration when studying the association of fatty acid intake on respiratory diseases, as differential responses may reveal susceptible subgroups.
Project description:Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) is the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in the North American diet and is a precursor to circulating bioactive fatty acid metabolites implicated in brain disorders. This exploratory study tested the effects of increasing dietary LA on plasma and cerebral cortex metabolites derived from LA, its elongation-desaturation products dihomo-gamma linolenic (DGLA, 20:3n-6) acid and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), as well as omega-3 alpha-linolenic (?-LNA, 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). Plasma and cortex were obtained from rats fed a 0.4%, 5.2% or 10.5% energy LA diet for 15 weeks and subjected to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Total oxylipin concentrations, representing the esterified and unesterified pool, and unesterified oxylipins derived from LA and AA were significantly increased and EPA metabolites decreased in plasma at 5.2% or 10.5% energy LA compared to 0.4% energy LA. Unesterified plasma DHA metabolites also decreased at 10.5% energy LA. In cortex, total and unesterified LA and AA metabolites increased and unesterified EPA metabolites decreased at 5.2% or 10.5% LA. DGLA and ?-LNA metabolites did not significantly change in plasma or cortex. Dietary LA lowering represents a feasible approach for targeting plasma and brain LA, AA, EPA or DHA-derived metabolite concentrations.
Project description:Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) are important fatty acids for the retina and brain. More than 95% of Americans have suboptimal EPA + DHA blood concentrations. This cross-sectional employer-based study assessed whole blood fatty acid levels of volunteers participating in an onsite wellness biometric screening program and was designed to determine if an incentive, a $5 coupon for a 90-day supply of fish oil supplement typically costing $18-30, stimulated incremental dietary behavior change relative to nutritional status assessment alone to increase EPA + DHA concentrations. Volunteers completed a dietary survey and finger stick blood samples were collected to be analyzed for fatty acid composition. In addition, 636 individuals participated in the initial onsite biometric screening. Three months later, and without prior knowledge, all employees were invited to a second screening. At the second screening, 198 employees volunteered for the first time and 149 employees had a second test (17.9%). At baseline, the average age (n = 834) was 45 year and omega-3 index was 5.0% with 41% female. EPA + DHA concentration, i.e., omega-3 index, was significantly lower in men (4.8%) than women (5.2%), as were DHA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations (p < 0.05). Baseline omega-3 index was positively and linearly associated with omega-3 intake. Only 4% of volunteers had an omega-3 index >8% on initial screening. Among the 149 individuals with two measurements, omega-3 intake from supplements, but not food, increased significantly from 258 to 445 mg/d (p < 0.01) at the second test as did the omega-3 index (+0.21, p < 0.02). In this employed population, only 1% redeemed a coupon for an omega-3 supplement.
Project description:Unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), when fed to dogs improves cognitive and neurological development. Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids such as DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has also been associated with lipid peroxidation, which in turn has been implicated in reduced body weight and altered bone formation. To assess the impact of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on skeletal growth, diets containing three levels of DHA and EPA (0.01 and 0.01%, 0.14 and 0.12%, and 0.21 and 0.18%, respectively) were fed to bitches during gestation and lactation with puppies also supplemented through weaning. Thus, the subjects studied were the puppies supplemented with DHA and EPA through gestation and early postnatal life. The hip joint conformation of the puppies (n = 676) was recorded at adulthood using two radiographic, non-invasive evaluations. In this population, females had higher hip distraction indices (DI) than males. Males from the lower two levels of DHA and EPA supplementation had significantly smaller hip DI than all females and males from the highest DHA and EPA supplementation. In contrast, there were no diet effects on anatomical indicators of hip joint conformation and no visible arthritic changes. These data suggest that dietary supplementation of DHA and EPA during gestation and the perinatal period to weaning does not adversely influence hip joint formation of dogs.
Project description:Epidemiological studies have shown not only a relationship between the intake of dietary lipids and an increased risk of developing metastatic prostate cancer, but also the type of lipid intake that influences the risk of metastatic prostate cancer. The Omega-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acid, Arachidonic acid, has been shown to enhance the proliferation of malignant prostate epithelial cells and increase the risk of advanced prostate cancer. However, its role in potentiating the migration of cancer cells is unknown. Here we show that arachidonic acid at concentrations <or=5 microM is a potent stimulator of malignant epithelial cellular invasion, which is able to restore invasion toward hydrocortisone-deprived adipocyte-free human bone marrow stroma completely. This observed invasion is mediated by the arachidonic acid metabolite prostaglandin E2 and is inhibited by the Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid at a ratio of 1 : 2 Omega-3 : Omega-6, and by the COX-2 inhibitor NS-398. These results identify a mechanism by which arachidonic acid may potentiate the risk of metastatic migration and secondary implantation in vivo, a risk which can be reduced with the uptake of Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Population-based studies often use plasma fatty acids (FAs) as objective indicators of FA intake, especially for n-3 FA and linoleic acid (LA). The relation between dietary and circulating FA in cardiometabolic patients is largely unknown. We examined whether dietary n-3 FA and LA were reflected in plasma lipid pools in post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients. METHODS AND RESULTS:Patients in Alpha Omega Cohort filled out a 203-item food-frequency questionnaire from which eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), and LA intake were calculated. Circulating individual FA (% total FA) were assessed in cholesteryl esters (CE; n = 4066), phospholipids (PL; n = 838), and additionally in total plasma for DHA and LA (n = 739). Spearman correlation coefficients (rs) were calculated for dietary vs. circulating FA. Circulating FA were also compared across dietary FA quintiles, overall and in subgroups by sex, obesity, diabetes, statin use, and high alcohol intake. Patients were on average 69 years old and 79% was male. Moderate correlations between dietary and circulating levels were observed for EPA (rs?0.4 in CE and PL) and DHA (rs ?0.5 in CE and PL, ?0.4 in total plasma), but not for ALA (rs ?0.0). Weak correlations were observed for LA (rs 0.1 to 0.2). Plasma LA was significantly lower in statin users and in patients with a high alcohol intake. CONCLUSIONS:In post-MI patients, dietary EPA and DHA were well reflected in circulating levels. This was not the case for LA, which may partly be influenced by alcohol use and statins.
Project description:Minor alleles of polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster have been associated with reduced desaturation of the precursor polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) in small studies. The effects of these polymorphisms during progressive developmental stages have not previously been reported. Data from blood samples for 4342 pregnant women, 3343 umbilical cords reflecting the newborn's blood supply and 5240 children aged 7 years were analysed to investigate the associations of polyunsaturated FAs with rs1535 and rs174575-two polymorphisms in the FADS2 gene. Strong positive associations were observed between the minor G allele for these two markers, especially rs1535, and the substrates linoleic (18:2n-6) and ?-linolenic (18:3n-3) acid. Negative associations were observed for the more highly unsaturated FAs such as arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), timnodonic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and cervonic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). Bivariable genetic associations using the mother and child genotypes suggested that the newborn metabolism had a greater capacity to synthesize the more highly unsaturated omega-6 FAs than the more highly unsaturated omega-3 FAs. Nevertheless, despite the immaturity of the neonate, there was evidence that synthesis of DHA was occurring. However, by 7 years, no associations were observed with the maternal genotype. This suggested that the children's FA levels were related only to their own metabolism with no apparent lasting influences of the in utero environment.