MicroRNA-199b Deregulation Shows a Strong SET-Independent Prognostic Value in Early-Stage Colorectal Cancer.
ABSTRACT: The endogenous PP2A inhibitor SET Nuclear Proto-Oncogene (SET) has been reported to play oncogenic roles and determines poor outcomes in colorectal cancer (CRC). Our group previously showed that miR-199b is deregulated in metastatic CRC, and reduced the cell viability and enhanced the sensitivity of CRC cells to standard induction chemotherapy drugs, mainly through direct negative SET regulation. Clinically, miR-199b downregulation was identified as the molecular mechanism responsible for SET overexpression in around half of metastatic CRC patients. However, the potential clinical value of miR-199b in early-stage CRC remains totally unknown. Thus, here we explored the expression levels of this microRNA in a cohort of 171 early-stage CRC patients using real-time polymerase chain reactions. MiR-199b downregulation was found in 21.6% of cases (37 out of 171) and was significantly associated with those patients with a worse Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status (p = 0.045). Moreover, miR-199b downregulation predicted shorter overall (p < 0.001) and progression-free survival (p = 0.015). As expected, we next immunohistochemically analyzed SET, observing that it was significantly associated with miR-199b in our cohort. However, multivariate analyses showed that miR-199b was an independent biomarker of poor outcomes in early-stage CRC with a predictive value stronger than SET. In conclusion, our results highlight the potential clinical usefulness of miR-199b and suggest that it could represent a novel molecular target in this disease.
Project description:The tumor suppressor microRNA-199b (miR-199b) is a negative SET regulator associated with poor outcome in some human cancers. However, its expression levels as well as potential biological and clinical significance in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain completely unexplored. The PP2A inhibitor SET has shown promising therapeutic and clinical implications in metastatic CRC (mCRC) but the molecular mechanisms underlying SET deregulation are currently unknown. We show here miR-199b downregulation in 4 out of 5 CRC SET-overexpressing cell lines and its inverse correlation with SET overexpression in CRC patients. Moreover, miR-199b led to PP2A activation through a direct SET inhibition, impaired cell viability and enhanced oxaliplatin sensitivity in CRC cells. MiR-199b was found downregulated in 25% of cases, and associated with lymph metastasis (p = 0.049), presence of synchronous metastasis at diagnosis (p = 0.026) and SET overexpression (p < 0.001). Furthermore, low miR-199b levels determined shorter overall (p < 0.001), progression-free survival (p = 0.003) and predicted clinical benefit to oxaliplatin treatment. The miR-199b prognostic impact was particularly evident in both younger and KRAS wild-type subgroups. Multivariate analyses confirmed its independent prognostic impact. Altogether, our results show that miR-199b is a tumor suppressor whose downregulation independently determines worse outcome and emerges as a potential contributing mechanism to inhibit PP2A via SET overexpression in a subgroup of mCRC patients.
Project description:Neoadjuvant 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemoradiotherapy followed by mesorectal excision is the current standard treatment in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) and the lack of complete response represents a major problem that compromises long-term patient survival. However, there is a lack of robust established markers predictive of response to this preoperative treatment available in the clinical routine. The tumor suppressor microRNA (miR)-199b directly targets the PP2A inhibitor SET, which has been involved in 5-FU resistance, and its downregulation has been found to correlate with poor outcome in metastatic colorectal cancer. Here, we studied the functional effects of miR-199b on 5-FU sensitivity after its ectopic modulation, and its expression was quantified by real-time-PCR in a cohort of 110 LARC patients to evaluate its potential clinical significance. Interestingly, our findings demonstrate that miR-199b enhances the sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to 5-FU in a SET-dependent manner, and that both miR-199b overexpression and SET inhibition are able to overcome resistance to this drug using an acquired 5-FU-resistant model. MiR-199b was found downregulated in 26.4% of cases and was associated with positive lymph node levels after chemoradiotherapy (CRT, p = 0.007) and high pathological stage (p = 0.029). Moreover, miR-199b downregulation determined shorter overall (p = 0.003) and event-free survival (p = 0.005), and was an independent predictor of poor response to preoperative CRT (p = 0.004). In conclusion, our findings highlight the clinical impact of miR-199b downregulation predicting poor outcome and pathological response in LARC, and suggest the miR-199b/SET signaling axis as a novel molecular target to prevent the development of resistance to 5-FU treatment.
Project description:SET nuclear proto-oncogene (SET) deregulation is a novel molecular target in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its role in CRC progression and its potential clinical impact in early-stage CRC patients remain unknown. Here, we studied the biological effects of SET on migration using wound-healing and transwell assays, and anchorage-independent cell growth using soft agar colony formation assays after ectopic SET modulation. SET was analyzed by immuno-staining in 231 early-stage CRC patients, and miR-199b expression was quantified by real-time PCR in a set of CRC patients. Interestingly, SET enhances cell migration, markedly affects the colony-forming ability, promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and induces the expression of the MYC proto-oncogene (c-MYC) in CRC cells. SET overexpression was detected in 15.4% of cases and was associated with worse Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status (p = 0.021) and relapse in stage-II CRC patients (p = 0.008). Moreover, SET overexpression predicted shorter overall survival (p < 0.001) and time to metastasis (p < 0.001), and its prognostic value was particularly evident in elderly patients. MiR-199b downregulation was identified as a molecular mechanism to deregulate SET in patients with localized disease. In conclusion, SET overexpression is a common alteration in early-stage CRC, playing an oncogenic role associated with progression and aggressiveness, and portends a poor outcome. Thus, SET emerges as a novel potential molecular target with clinical impact in early-stage in CRC.
Project description:The progression of distant metastasis cascade is a multistep and complicated process, frequently leading to a poor prognosis in cancer patients. Recently, growing evidence has indicated that deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to tumorigenesis and tumor progression in colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, by comparing the miRNA expression profiles of CRC tissues and corresponding hepatic metastasis tissues, we established the downregulation of miR-199b in CRC metastasis tissues. The decrease in miR-199b expression was significantly correlated to late TNM stage and distant metastasis. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier curves showed that CRC patients with high expression level of miR-199b had a longer median survival. Functional assays results indicated that the restoration of miR-199b considerably reduced cell invasion and migration in vitro and in vivo, and increased the sensitivity to 5-FU and oxaliplatin. Further dual-luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that SIRT1 was the direct target of miR-199b in CRC. The expression of miR-199b was inversely correlated with SIRT1 in CRC specimens. SIRT1 knockdown produced effects on biological behavior that were similar to those of miR-199b overexpression. Furthermore, through Human Tumor Metastasis PCR Array we discovered KISS1 was one of the downstream targets of SIRT1. Silencing of SIRT1 upregulated KISS1 expression by enhancing the acetylation of the transcription factor CREB. The latter was further activated via binding to the promoter of KISS1 to induce transcription. Thus, we concluded that miR-199b regulates SIRT1/CREB/KISS1 signaling pathway and might serve as a prognosis marker or a novel therapeutic target for patients with CRC.
Project description:Micro-RNA (miR) 199b-5p targets Hes1 in medulloblastoma, one of the downstream effectors of both the canonical Notch and noncanonical Sonic Hedgehog pathways. In medulloblastoma patients, expression of miR-199b-5p is significantly decreased in metastatic cases, thus suggesting a downregulation mechanism. We studied this mechanism, which is mediated mostly by Hes1 and epigenetic promoter modifications. The miR-199b-5p promoter region was characterized, which identified a Hes1 binding site, thus demonstrating a negative feedback loop of regulation. MiR-199b-5p was shown to be downregulated in several medulloblastoma cell lines and in tumors by epigenetic methylation of a cytosine-phosphate-guanine island upstream of the miR-199b-5p promoter. Furthermore, the cluster of differention (CD) carbohydrate antigen CD15, a marker of medulloblastoma tumor-propagating cells, is an additional direct target of miR-199b-5p. Most importantly, regulation of miR-199b-5p expression in these CD15+/CD133+ tumor-propagating cells was influenced by only Hes1 expression and not by any epigenetic mechanism of regulation. Moreover, reverse-phase protein array analysis showed both the Akt and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase pathways as being mainly negatively regulated by miR-199b-5p expression in several medulloblastoma cell lines and in primary cell cultures. We present here the finely tuned regulation of miR-199b-5p in medulloblastoma, underlining its crucial role by its additional targeting of CD15.
Project description:Accumulating evidence indicates that N-cadherin is a cell adhesion molecule that has critical roles in tumour progression. However, the role of N-cadherin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial.This study aims to investigate the expression status of N-cadherin and its molecular mechanisms in HCC.The expression of N-cadherin was markedly overexpressed in HCC tissues and cell lines. We identified that miR-199b-5p binds to the 3'-UTR of N-cadherin mRNA, thus decreasing N-cadherin expression in HCC cells. We also found the downregulation of miR-199b-5p in HCC specimens, which was inversely correlated with N-cadherin upregulation, predicted poor clinical outcomes in HCC patients. Next, we determined that miR-199b-5p overexpression promoted cell aggregation, suppressed cell migration and invasion in HCC cells, and inhibited xenografts tumour metastasis in nude mice. Moreover, we demonstrated that miR-199b-5p attenuated TGF-?1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) -associated traits, while its effects could be partially reversed by N-cadherin restoration. Finally, we examined that N-cadherin downregulation or miR-199b-5p overexpression suppressed TGF-?1-induced Akt phosphorylation, and inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway blocked TGF-?1-induced N-cadherin overexpression in HCC cells.Our data demonstrate that N-Cadherin was markedly overexpressed and miR-199b-5p was significantly downregulated in HCC. MiR-199b-5p exerts inhibitory effects on EMT, and directly targets N-cadherin in HCC, supporting the potential utility of miR-199b-5p as a promising strategy to treat HCC. Also, a positive regulatory loop exists between N-cadherin and Akt signalling represents a novel mechanism of TGF-?1-mediated EMT in HCC cells.
Project description:Through negative regulation of gene expression, microRNAs (miRNAs) can function in cancers as oncosuppressors, and they can show altered expression in various tumor types. Here we have investigated medulloblastoma tumors (MBs), which arise from an early impairment of developmental processes in the cerebellum, where Notch signaling is involved in many cell-fate-determining stages. MBs occur bimodally, with the peak incidence seen between 3-4 years and 8-9 years of age, although it can also occur in adults. Notch regulates a subset of the MB cells that have stem-cell-like properties and can promote tumor growth. On the basis of this evidence, we hypothesized that miRNAs targeting the Notch pathway can regulated these phenomena, and can be used in anti-cancer therapies.In a screening of MB cell lines, the miRNA miR-199b-5p was seen to be a regulator of the Notch pathway through its targeting of the transcription factor HES1. Down-regulation of HES1 expression by miR-199b-5p negatively regulates the proliferation rate and anchorage-independent growth of MB cells. MiR-199b-5p over-expression blocks expression of several cancer stem-cell genes, impairs the engrafting potential of MB cells in the cerebellum of athymic/nude mice, and of particular interest, decreases the MB stem-cell-like (CD133+) subpopulation of cells. In our analysis of 61 patients with MB, the expression of miR-199b-5p in the non-metastatic cases was significantly higher than in the metastatic cases (P = 0.001). Correlation with survival for these patients with high levels of miR-199b expression showed a positive trend to better overall survival than for the low-expressing patients. These data showing the down-regulation of miR-199b-5p in metastatic MBs suggest a potential silencing mechanism through epigenetic or genetic alterations. Upon induction of de-methylation using 5-aza-deoxycytidine, lower miR-199b-5p expression was seen in a panel of MB cell lines, supported an epigenetic mechanism of regulation. Furthermore, two cell lines (Med8a and UW228) showed significant up-regulation of miR-199b-5p upon treatment. Infection with MB cells in an induced xenograft model in the mouse cerebellum and the use of an adenovirus carrying miR-199b-5p indicate a clinical benefit through this negative influence of miR-199b-5p on tumor growth and on the subset of MB stem-cell-like cells, providing further proof of concept.Despite advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of MB, one-third of these patients remain incurable and current treatments can significantly damage long-term survivors. Here we show that miR-199b-5p expression correlates with metastasis spread, identifying a new molecular marker for a poor-risk class in patients with MB. We further show that in a xenograft model, MB tumor burden can be reduced, indicating the use of miR199b-5p as an adjuvant therapy after surgery, in combination with radiation and chemotherapy, for the improvement of anti-cancer MB therapies and patient quality of life. To date, this is the first report that expression of a miRNA can deplete the tumor stem cells, indicating an interesting therapeutic approach for the targeting of these cells in brain tumors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dysregulation of miRNAs that can act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes can result in tumorigenesis. Previously we demonstrated that miR-199b was significantly downregulated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and targets podocalyxin and discoidin domain receptor 1. Herein we investigated the functional role of miR-199b in AML and its prognostic implications. METHODS:Major approaches include transduction of hematopoietic stem cells and bone marrow transplantation, analyses of blood lineages, histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitors, and molecular and clinical data analyses of AML patients using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). RESULTS:We first examined the relative miR-199b expression in steady state hematopoiesis and showed CD33(+) myeloid progenitors had the highest miR-199b expression. Further, silencing of miR-199b in CD34(+) cells resulted in significant increases in CFU-GM colonies. Via TCGA we analyzed the molecular and clinical characteristics of 166 AML cases to investigate a prognostic role for miR-199b. The Kaplan-Meier curves for high and low expression values of miR-199b and the observed distribution of miRNA expression revealed the highly expressed group had significantly better survival outcomes (p < 0.016, log rank test). Additionally, there was significant difference between miR-199b expression across the AML subtypes with particularly low expression found in the FAB-M5 subtype. Furthermore, FAB-M5 subtype showed a poor prognosis with a 1-year survival rate of only 25 %, compared with 51 % survival in the overall sample (p < 0.024). Furthermore, significant inverse correlation of HoxA7 and HoxB6 expression with miR-199b was observed in FAB-M5 AML patients. Molecular mutations were analyzed among miR-199b high and low AML cases. Significant correlations in terms of association and survival outcomes were observed for NPMc and IDH1 mutations. Treatment of THP-1 cells (represents M5-subtype) with HDAC inhibitors AR-42, Panobinostat, or Decitabine showed miR-199b expression was significantly elevated upon AR-42 and Panobinostat treatment. To further understand the hematopathological consequences of decreased miR-199b, we employed a bone-marrow transduce/transplant (BMT) mouse model. Interestingly, in vivo miR-199b silencing per-se in HSCs did not result in profound perturbations. CONCLUSIONS:Loss of miR-199b can lead to myeloproliferation while HDAC inhibitors restore miR-199b expression and promote apoptosis. Low miR-199b in AML patients correlates with worse overall survival and has prognostic significance for FAB-M5 subtype.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are post-transcriptional regulators of eukaryotic cells and knowledge of differences in miR levels may provide new approaches to diagnosis and therapy.The present study measured the levels of nine miRs in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) and determined whether clinical pathological features are associated with differences in miR levels. SET (I2PP2A) and PTEN protein levels were also measured, since their levels can be regulated by miR-199b and miR-21, respectively. Nine miRs (miR-15a, miR-21, miR-29b, miR-34c, miR-100, miR-125b, miR-137, miR-133b and miR-199b) were measured by real time qRT-PCR in HNSCC samples from 32 patients and eight resection margins. SET (I2PP2A) and PTEN protein levels were estimated by immunohistochemistry in paired HNSCC tissues and their matched resection margins.In HNSCC, the presence of lymph node invasion was associated with low miR-15a, miR-34c and miR-199b levels, whereas the presence of perineural invasion was associated with low miR-199b levels. In addition, miR-21 levels were high whereas miR-100 and miR-125b levels were low in HNSCC compared to the resection margins. When HNSCC line HN12, with or without knockdown of SET, were transfected with miR-34c inhibitor or miR-34c mimic, the miR-34c inhibitor increased cell invasion capacity while miR-34c mimic decreased the cell invasion.We showed that the levels of specific miRs in tumor tissue can provide insight into the maintenance and progression of HNSCC.MiRNAs are up- or down-regulated during cancer development and progression; they can be prognosis markers and therapeutic targets in HNSCC.
Project description:Myocardial infarction (MI), the globally leading cause of heart failure, morbidity and mortality, involves post-MI ventricular remodeling, a complex process including acute injury healing, scar formation and global changes in the surviving myocardium. The molecular mechanisms involved in adverse post-infarct left ventricular remodeling still remain poorly defined. Recently, microRNAs have been implicated in the development and progression of various cardiac diseases as crucial regulators of gene expression. We previously demonstrated that in a murine model of pressure overload, a model of heart failure secondary to aortic stenosis or chronic high blood pressure, elevated myocardial expression of miR-199b-5p is sufficient to activate calcineurin/NFAT signaling, leading to exaggerated cardiac pathological remodeling and dysfunction. Given the differences in left ventricular remodeling secondary to post-infarct healing and pressure overload, we evaluated miR-199b function in post-MI remodeling. We confirmed that the expression of miR-199b is elevated in the post-infarcted heart. Transgenic animals with cardiomyocyte-restricted overexpression of miR-199b-5p displayed exaggerated pathological remodeling after MI, reflected by severe systolic and diastolic dysfunction and fibrosis deposition. Conversely, therapeutic silencing of miR-199b-5p in MI-induced cardiac remodeling by using an antagomir to specifically inhibit endogenous miR-199b-5p in vivo, resulted in efficient suppression of cardiac miR-199b-5p expression and attenuated cardiac dysfunction and dilation following MI. Mechanistically, miR-199b-5p influenced the expression of three predicted target genes in post-infarcted hearts, dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1a), the notch1 receptor and its ligand jagged1. In conclusion, here we provide evidence supporting that stress-induced miR-199b-5p participates in post-infarct remodeling by simultaneous regulation of distinct target genes.