ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional (3D) printing, known as the most promising approach for bioartificial organ manufacturing, has provided unprecedented versatility in delivering multi-functional cells along with other biomaterials with precise control of their locations in space. The constantly emerging 3D printing technologies are the integration results of biomaterials with other related techniques in biology, chemistry, physics, mechanics and medicine. Synthetic polymers have played a key role in supporting cellular and biomolecular (or bioactive agent) activities before, during and after the 3D printing processes. In particular, biodegradable synthetic polymers are preferable candidates for bioartificial organ manufacturing with excellent mechanical properties, tunable chemical structures, non-toxic degradation products and controllable degradation rates. In this review, we aim to cover the recent progress of synthetic polymers in organ 3D printing fields. It is structured as introducing the main approaches of 3D printing technologies, the important properties of 3D printable synthetic polymers, the successful models of bioartificial organ printing and the perspectives of synthetic polymers in vascularized and innervated organ 3D printing areas.
Project description:Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a revolutionary manufacturing technique that can fabricate a 3D object by depositing materials layer by layer. Different materials such as metals, polymers, and concretes are generally used for 3D printing. In order to make 3D printing sustainable, researchers are working on the use of different bioderived materials for 3D printing. Because of the abundant and sustainable sources, and versatile properties, biomaterials are considered as the potential candidates that have the ability to replace petroleum-based polymers. This review highlights the basic overview of fused deposition modeling (FDM) technique of 3D printing and recent developments that have occurred on FDM printing using biomaterials. Specifically, FDM printing process, final properties, and characteristics of biopolymers, their composites, and polymers containing biofillers are discussed.
Project description:Three-dimensional (3D) printing enables patient-specific anatomical level productions with high adjustability and resolution in microstructures. With cost-effective manufacturing for high productivity, 3D printing has become a leading healthcare and pharmaceutical manufacturing technology, which is suitable for variety of applications including tissue engineering models, anatomical models, pharmacological design and validation model, medical apparatus and instruments. Today, 3D printing is offering clinical available medical products and platforms suitable for emerging research fields, including tissue and organ printing. In this review, our goal is to discuss progressive 3D printing technology and its application in medical materials. The additive overview also provides manufacturing techniques and printable materials.
Project description:The demand for synthetic biomaterials in medical devices, pharmaceutical products and, tissue replacement applications are growing steadily due to aging population worldwide. The use for patient matched devices is also increasing due to availability and integration of new technologies. Applications of additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing (3DP) in biomaterials have also increased significantly over the past decade towards traditional as well as innovative next generation Class I, II and III devices. In this review, we have focused our attention towards the use of AM in surface modified biomaterials to enhance their in vitro and in vivo performances. Specifically, we have discussed the use of AM to deliberately modify the surfaces of different classes of biomaterials with spatial specificity in a single manufacturing process as well as commented on the future outlook towards surface modification using AM. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE:It is widely understood that the success of implanted medical devices depends largely on favorable material-tissue interactions. Additive manufacturing has gained traction as a viable and unique approach to engineered biomaterials, for both bulk and surface properties that improve implant outcomes. This review explores how additive manufacturing techniques have been and can be used to augment the surfaces of biomedical devices for direct clinical applications.
Project description:Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers the potential for rapid customization of medical devices. The advent of 3D-printable biomaterials has created the potential for device control in the fourth dimension: 3D-printed objects that exhibit a designed shape change under tissue growth and resorption conditions over time. Tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) is a condition of excessive collapse of the airways during respiration that can lead to life-threatening cardiopulmonary arrests. We demonstrate the successful application of 3D printing technology to produce a personalized medical device for treatment of TBM, designed to accommodate airway growth while preventing external compression over a predetermined time period before bioresorption. We implanted patient-specific 3D-printed external airway splints in three infants with severe TBM. At the time of publication, these infants no longer exhibited life-threatening airway disease and had demonstrated resolution of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications of their TBM. Long-term data show continued growth of the primary airways. This process has broad application for medical manufacturing of patient-specific 3D-printed devices that adjust to tissue growth through designed mechanical and degradation behaviors over time.
Project description:Three-Dimensional (3D) printing technologies have been widely used in the medical sector for the production of medical assistance equipment and surgical guides, particularly 3D bio-printing that combines 3D printing technology with biocompatible materials and cells in field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. These additive manufacturing technologies can make patient-made production from medical image data. Thus, the application of 3D bio-printers with biocompatible materials has been increasing. Currently, 3D bio-printing technology is in the early stages of research and development but it has great potential in the fields of tissue and organ regeneration. The present paper discusses the history and types of 3D printers, the classification of 3D bio-printers, and the technology used to manufacture artificial tissues and organs.
Project description:Conducting polymers are promising material candidates in diverse applications including energy storage, flexible electronics, and bioelectronics. However, the fabrication of conducting polymers has mostly relied on conventional approaches such as ink-jet printing, screen printing, and electron-beam lithography, whose limitations have hampered rapid innovations and broad applications of conducting polymers. Here we introduce a high-performance 3D printable conducting polymer ink based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) for 3D printing of conducting polymers. The resultant superior printability enables facile fabrication of conducting polymers into high resolution and high aspect ratio microstructures, which can be integrated with other materials such as insulating elastomers via multi-material 3D printing. The 3D-printed conducting polymers can also be converted into highly conductive and soft hydrogel microstructures. We further demonstrate fast and streamlined fabrications of various conducting polymer devices, such as a soft neural probe capable of in vivo single-unit recording.
Project description:Additive manufacturing, known as three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies, has revolutionized production in all domains of science and technology. Although 3D printing has a high impact on research and development, its capacity to implement low-cost, flexible, and robust sample handling automation has not been exploited in full. To this end, we have created a low-cost, robust, and easy-to-utilize kit to transform an off-the-shelf fused deposition modeling 3D printer to a thin layer chromatography (TLC) sample application device. Our technology solution improves TLC convenience when higher throughput of the established method is required. The developed dual-needle sprayer allows simple and exceptionally robust automatic sample application. The device is especially well-suited for high-performance TLC-assisted method selection in counter-current chromatography. A step-by-step guide and list of required parts, including 3D printable files with instruction, can be obtained from the Supporting Information for research usage and open development.
Project description:Recent advances in the three-dimensional (3D) printing industry have enabled clinicians to explore the use of 3D printing in preprocedural planning, biomedical tissue modeling, and direct implantable device manufacturing. Despite the increased adoption of rapid prototyping and additive manufacturing techniques in the health-care field, many physicians lack the technical skill set to use this exciting and useful technology. Additionally, the growth in the 3D printing sector brings an ever-increasing number of 3D printers and printable materials. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to keep abreast of this rapidly developing field in order to benefit. In this Ahead of the Curve, we review the history of 3D printing from its inception to the most recent biomedical applications. Additionally, we will address some of the major barriers to wider adoption of the technology in the medical field. Finally, we will provide an initial guide to 3D modeling and printing by demonstrating how to design a personalized airway prosthesis via 3D Slicer. We hope this information will reduce the barriers to use and increase clinician participation in the 3D printing health-care sector.
Project description:WS2 inorganic nanotubes (WS2-NT) have been incorporated into Polylactic Acid (PLA) by melt mixing to create a bio-degradable, mechanically reinforced nanocomposite filament. The filament was then processed by Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) 3D-printer, and the morphology and characteristics before and after printing were compared. We found that addition of WS2-NT to PLA by extrusion mixing increases the elastic modulus, yield strength and strain-at-failure by 20%, 23% and 35%, respectively. Moreover, we found that the printing process itself improves the dispersion of WS2-NT within the PLA filament, and does not require changing of the printing parameters compared to pure PLA. The results demonstrate the advantage of WS2-NT as reinforcement specifically in 3D-printable polymers, over more traditional nano-reinforcements such as graphene and carbon nanotubes. WS2-NT based 3D-printable nanocomposites can be used for variety of applications from custom-made biodegradable scaffold of soft implants such as cartilage-based organs and biodegradable soft stents to the more general easy-to-apply nano-reinforced polymers.
Project description:Current environmental concerns have led to a search of more environmentally friendly manufacturing methods; thus, natural fibers have gained attention in the 3D printing industry to be used as bio-filters along with thermoplastics. The utilization of natural fibers is very convenient as they are easily available, cost-effective, eco-friendly, and biodegradable. Using natural fibers rather than synthetic fibers in the production of the 3D printing filaments will reduce gas emissions associated with the production of the synthetic fibers that would add to the current pollution problem. As a matter of fact, natural fibers have a reinforcing effect on plastics. This review analyzes how the properties of the different polymers vary when natural fibers processed to produce filaments for 3D Printing are added. The results of using natural fibers for 3D Printing are presented in this study and appeared to be satisfactory, while a few studies have reported some issues.