Concurrent TP53 and CDKN2A Gene Aberrations in Newly Diagnosed Mantle Cell Lymphoma Correlate with Chemoresistance and Call for Innovative Upfront Therapy.
ABSTRACT: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a subtype of B-cell lymphoma with a large number of recurrent cytogenetic/molecular aberrations. Approximately 5-10% of patients do not respond to frontline immunochemotherapy. Despite many useful prognostic indexes, a reliable marker of chemoresistance is not available. We evaluated the prognostic impact of seven recurrent gene aberrations including tumor suppressor protein P53 (TP53) and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) in the cohort of 126 newly diagnosed consecutive MCL patients with bone marrow involvement ?5% using fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). In contrast to TP53, no pathologic mutations of CDKN2A were detected by NGS. CDKN2A deletions were found exclusively in the context of other gene aberrations suggesting it represents a later event (after translocation t(11;14) and aberrations of TP53, or ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)). Concurrent deletion of CDKN2A and aberration of TP53 (deletion and/or mutation) represented the most significant predictor of short EFS (median 3 months) and OS (median 10 months). Concurrent aberration of TP53 and CDKN2A is a new, simple, and relevant index of chemoresistance in MCL. Patients with concurrent aberration of TP53 and CDKN2A should be offered innovative anti-lymphoma therapy and upfront consolidation with allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Project description:Although recent advances in molecular genetics have enabled improved risk classification of follicular lymphoma (FL) using, for example, the m7-FLIPI score, the impact on treatment has been limited. We aimed to assess the prognostic significance of copy-number aberrations (CNAs) and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (cnLOH) identified by chromosome genomic-array testing (CGAT) at FL diagnosis using prospectively collected clinical trial specimens from 255 patients enrolled in the SWOG study S0016. The impact of genomic aberrations was assessed for early progression (progressed or died within 2 years after registration), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). We showed that increased genomic complexity (ie, the total number of aberration calls) was associated with poor outcome in FL. Certain chromosome arms were critical for clinical outcome. Prognostic CNAs/cnLOH were identified: whereas early progression was correlated with 2p gain (<i>P</i> = .007; odds ratio [OR] = 2.55 [1.29, 5.03]) and 2p cnLOH (<i>P</i> = .005; OR = 10.9 [2.08, 57.2]), 2p gain specifically encompassing <i>VRK2</i> and <i>FANCL</i> predicted PFS (<i>P</i> = .01; hazard ratio = 1.80 [1.14, 2.68]) as well as OS (<i>P</i> = .005; 2.40 [1.30, 4.40]); <i>CDKN2A/B</i> (9p) deletion correlated with worse PFS (<i>P</i> = .004, 3.50 [1.51, 8.28]); whereas <i>CREBBP</i> (16p) (<i>P</i> < .001; 6.70 [2.52, 17.58]) and <i>TP53</i> (17p) (<i>P</i> < .001; 3.90 [1.85, 8.31]) deletion predicted worse OS. An independent cohort from the m7-FLIPI study was explored, and the prognostic significance of aberration count, and <i>TP53</i> and <i>CDKN2A</i>/<i>B</i> deletion were further validated. In conclusion, assessing genomic aberrations at FL diagnosis with CGAT improves risk stratification independent of known clinical parameters, and provides a framework for development of future rational targeted therapies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aggressive biology of cancers arising in adolescent and young adult (AYA; ages 15-39 years) patients is thought to contribute to poor survival outcomes. METHODS:We used clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS) results to examine the molecular alterations and diverse biology of cancer in AYA patients referred to the Phase 1 program at UT MD Anderson Cancer Center. RESULTS:Among the 28 patients analyzed (14 female and 14 male), 12 had pediatric-type cancers, six had adult-type cancers, and ten had orphan cancers. Unique, hitherto unreported aberrations were identified in all types of cancers. Aberrations in TP53, NKX2-1, KRAS, CDKN2A, MDM4, MCL1, MYC, BCL2L2, and RB1 were demonstrated across all tumor types. Five patients harbored TP53 aberrations; three patients harbored MYC, MCL1, and CDKN2A aberrations; and two patients harbored NKX2-1, KRAS, MDM4, BCL2L2, and RB1 alterations. Several patients had multiple aberrations; a patient with wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumor harbored five alterations (MDM4, MCL1, KIT, AKT3, and PDGRFA). CONCLUSIONS:This preliminary report of NGS of cancer in AYA patients reveals diverse and unique aberrations. Further molecular profiling and a deeper understanding of the biology of these unique aberrations are warranted and may lead to targeted therapeutic interventions.
Project description:In order to gain a better understanding of the underlying biology of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), we tested the hypothesis that SCC originating from different organs may possess common molecular alterations. SCC samples (N = 361) were examined using clinical-grade targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS). The most frequent SCC tumor types were head and neck, lung, cutaneous, gastrointestinal and gynecologic cancers. The most common gene alterations were TP53 (64.5% of patients), PIK3CA (28.5%), CDKN2A (24.4%), SOX2 (17.7%), and CCND1 (15.8%). By comparing NGS results of our SCC cohort to a non-SCC cohort (N = 277), we found that CDKN2A, SOX2, NOTCH1, TP53, PIK3CA, CCND1, and FBXW7 were significantly more frequently altered, unlike KRAS, which was less frequently altered in SCC specimens (all P < 0.05; multivariable analysis). Therefore, we identified "squamousness" gene signatures (TP53, PIK3CA, CCND1, CDKN2A, SOX2, NOTCH 1, and FBXW7 aberrations, and absence of KRAS alterations) that were significantly more frequent in SCC versus non-SCC histologies. A multivariable co-alteration analysis established 2 SCC subgroups: (i) patients in whom TP53 and cyclin pathway (CDKN2A and CCND1) alterations strongly correlated but in whom PIK3CA aberrations were less frequent; and (ii) patients with PIK3CA alterations in whom TP53 mutations were less frequent (all P ? 0 .001, multivariable analysis). In conclusion, we identified a set of 8 genes altered with significantly different frequencies when SCC and non-SCC were compared, suggesting the existence of patterns for "squamousness." Targeting the PI3K-AKT-mTOR and/or cyclin pathway components in SCC may be warranted.
Project description:Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is genetically characterized by the t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation and a high number of secondary chromosomal alterations. However, only a limited number of target genes have been identified. We have studied 10 MCL cell lines and 28 primary tumors with a combination of a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism array and gene expression profiling. We detected highly altered genomes in the majority of the samples with a high number of partial uniparental disomies (UPDs). The UPD at 17p was one of the most common, and it was associated with TP53 gene inactivation. Homozygous deletions targeted 4 known tumor suppressor genes (CDKN2C, BCL2L11, CDKN2A, and RB1) and 6 new genes (FAF1, MAP2, SP100, MOBKL2B, ZNF280A, and PRAME). Gene amplification coupled with overexpression was identified in 35 different regions. The most recurrent amplified regions were 11q13.3-q13.5, 13q31.3, and 18q21.33, which targeted CCND1, C13orf25, and BCL2, respectively. Interestingly, the breakpoints flanking all the genomic alterations, including UPDs, were significantly associated with genomic regions enriched in copy number variants and segmental duplications, suggesting that the recombination at these regions may play a role in the genomic instability of MCL. This integrative genomic analysis has revealed target genes that may be potentially relevant in MCL pathogenesis.
Project description:Acquired resistance to chemotherapy is an important clinical problem and can also occur without detectable cytogenetic aberrations or gene mutations. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is molecularly well characterized and has been elemental for establishing central paradigms in oncology. This prompted us to check whether specific epigenetic changes at the level of DNA methylation might underlie development of treatment resistance. We used Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips to obtain DNA methylation profiles of 71 CLL patients with differential responses. Thirty-six patients were categorized as relapsed/refractory after treatment with fludarabine or bendamustine and 21 of them had genetic aberrations of TP53. The other 35 patients were untreated at the time of sampling and 15 of them had genetic aberration of TP53. Although we could not correlate chemoresistance with epigenetic changes, the patients were comprehensively characterized regarding relevant prognostic and molecular markers (e.g. IGHV mutation status, chromosome aberrations, TP53 mutation status, clinical parameters), which makes our dataset a unique and valuable resource that can be used by researchers to test alternative hypotheses.
Project description:Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a mature B-cell neoplasm initially driven by CCND1 rearrangement with 2 molecular subtypes, conventional MCL (cMCL) and leukemic non-nodal MCL (nnMCL), that differ in their clinicobiological behavior. To identify the genetic and epigenetic alterations determining this diversity, we used whole-genome (n = 61) and exome (n = 21) sequencing (74% cMCL, 26% nnMCL) combined with transcriptome and DNA methylation profiles in the context of 5 MCL reference epigenomes. We identified that open and active chromatin at the major translocation cluster locus might facilitate the t(11;14)(q13;32), which modifies the 3-dimensional structure of the involved regions. This translocation is mainly acquired in precursor B cells mediated by recombination-activating genes in both MCL subtypes, whereas in 8% of cases the translocation occurs in mature B cells mediated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase. We identified novel recurrent MCL drivers, including CDKN1B, SAMHD1, BCOR, SYNE1, HNRNPH1, SMARCB1, and DAZAP1. Complex structural alterations emerge as a relevant early oncogenic mechanism in MCL, targeting key driver genes. Breakage-fusion-bridge cycles and translocations activated oncogenes (BMI1, MIR17HG, TERT, MYC, and MYCN), generating gene amplifications and remodeling regulatory regions. cMCL carried significant higher numbers of structural variants, copy number alterations, and driver changes than nnMCL, with exclusive alterations of ATM in cMCL, whereas TP53 and TERT alterations were slightly enriched in nnMCL. Several drivers had prognostic impact, but only TP53 and MYC aberrations added value independently of genomic complexity. An increasing genomic complexity, together with the presence of breakage-fusion-bridge cycles and high DNA methylation changes related to the proliferative cell history, defines patients with different clinical evolution.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Low-grade serous ovarian cancer (LGSOC) is a rare subtype of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Limited data regarding the molecular-genetic background exist beyond mutations in the RAS signaling pathway. There is a growing need to better characterize these tumors due to chemoresistance and limited therapeutic options in advanced or recurrent disease. METHODS:We performed genome-wide copy number aberration (CNA) profiles and mutation hotspot screening (KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, ERBB2, PIK3CA, TP53) in 38 LGSOC tumor samples. RESULTS:We detected mutations in the RAS-signaling pathway in 36.8% of cases, including seven KRAS, four BRAF, and three NRAS mutations. We identified two mutations in PIK3CA and one mutation in MAP3K1, EGFR, and TP53. CNAs were detected in 86.5% of cases. None of the focal aberrations was correlated with specific clinical characteristics. The most frequently detected CNA was loss of 1p36.33 in 54.1% of cases, with a trend towards lower progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with 1p36.33 loss. CONCLUSIONS:Activating RAS mutations were dominant in our series, with supplementary detection of two PIK3CA mutations which may lead to therapeutic options. Furthermore, we detected 1p36.33 deletions in half of the cases, indicating a role in tumorigenesis, and these deletions may serve as a prognostic marker.
Project description:Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a distinct subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by the t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation leading to cyclin D1 overexpression and cell cycle dysregulation. Molecular profiling with gene expression and deep sequencing analyses has identified genomic and epigenomic alterations in pathways regulating the cell cycle, DNA damage response, proliferation, and survival, which contribute to disease progression with important prognostic and therapeutic implications. Clinically, the nonnodal MCL subset is notable for leukemic presentation, indolent behavior, and association with hypermutated IGHV and lack of SOX11 expression, which differentiates it from the conventional nodal MCL. In addition to the Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index score and proliferative gene signatures, 17p/TP53 and 9p/CDKN2A alterations, and genomic complexity have emerged as clinically useful biomarkers of high-risk disease associated with aggressive disease behavior, resistance to chemotherapy, and poor overall survival. Although intensive chemoimmunotherapy regimens that incorporate high-dose cytarabine and stem cell transplantation have improved survival in young and fit MCL patients, the introduction of Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors and other novel agents has made effective outpatient-based treatment accessible to nearly all MCL patients. Optimizing combinations of novel agents in the relapsed setting and moving novel agents to the first-line setting have the potential to fundamentally change the MCL therapeutic landscape for the better, especially for patients ineligible for chemotherapy or those with high-risk mutations that are resistant to chemotherapy.
Project description:Our analysis of the tumors of 57 women with metastatic breast cancer with next generation sequencing (NGS) demonstrates that each patient's tumor is unique in its molecular fingerprint. We observed 216 somatic aberrations in 70 different genes, including 131 distinct aberrations. The most common gene alterations (in order of decreasing frequency) included: TP53, PIK3CA, CCND1, MYC, HER2 (ERBB2), MCL1, PTEN, FGFR1, GATA3, NF1, PIK3R1, BRCA2, EGFR, IRS2, CDH1, CDKN2A, FGF19, FGF3 and FGF4. Aberrations included mutations (46%), amplifications (45%), deletions (5%), splices (2%), truncations (1%), fusions (0.5%) and rearrangements (0.5%), with multiple distinct variants within the same gene. Many of these aberrations represent druggable targets, either through direct pathway inhibition or through an associated pathway (via 'crosstalk'). The 'molecular individuality' of these tumors suggests that a customized strategy, using an "N-of-One" model of precision medicine, may represent an optimal approach for the treatment of patients with advanced tumors.
Project description:The molecular pathology of thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) is largely unknown. Using array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), we evaluated 59 TETs and identified recurrent patterns of copy number (CN) aberrations in different histotypes. GISTIC algorithm revealed the presence of 126 significant peaks of CN aberration, which included 13 cancer-related genes. Among these peaks, CN gain of BCL2 and CN loss of CDKN2A/B were the only genes in the respective regions of CN aberration and were associated with poor outcome. TET cell lines were sensitive to siRNA knockdown of the anti-apoptotic molecules BCL2 and MCL1. Gx15-070, a pan-BCL2 inhibitor, induced autophagy-dependent necroptosis in TET cells via a mechanism involving mTOR pathways, and inhibited TET xenograft growth. ABT263, an inhibitor of BCL2/BCL-XL/BCL-W, reduced proliferation in TET cells when administered in combination with sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor able to downregulate MCL1. Immunohistochemistry on 132 TETs demonstrated that CN loss of CDKN2A correlated with lack of expression of its related protein p16(INK4) and identified tumors with poor prognosis. The molecular markers BCL2 and CDKN2A may be of potential value in diagnosis and prognosis of TETs. Our study provides the first preclinical evidence that deregulated anti-apoptotic BCL2 family proteins may represent suitable targets for TET treatment.