Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Beef Quality Tool to Predict Consumer Acceptance.
ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict beef consumers' perceptions. Photographs of 200 raw steaks were taken, and NIRS data were collected (transmittance and reflectance). The steak photographs were used to conduct a face-to-face survey of 400 beef consumers. Consumers rated beef color, visible fat, and overall appearance, using a 5-point Likert scale (where 1 indicated "Dislike very much" and 5 indicated "Like very much"), which later was simplified in a 3-point Likert scale. Factor analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to generate a beef consumer index. A partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to predict beef consumers' perceptions using NIRS data. SEM was used to validate the index, with root mean square errors of approximation ?0.1 and comparative fit and Tucker-Lewis index values <0.9. PLS-DA results for the 5-point Likert scale showed low prediction (accuracy < 42%). A simplified 3-point Likert scale improved discrimination (accuracy between 52% and 55%). The PLS-DA model for purchasing decisions showed acceptable prediction results, particularly for transmittance NIRS (accuracy of 76%). Anticipating beef consumers' willingness to purchase could allow the beef industry to improve products so that they meet consumers' preferences.
Project description:Few works to date have reported the application of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the characterization and authentication of cephalopods. This study investigated the feasibility of a portable NIRS instrument for the non-destructive freshness evaluation of fresh (F) and frozen-thawed (FT) cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis). Samples were examined by chemical, microbiological and sensorial analyses, during 13 days of conservation at 3 °C. The spectral data were collected on lateral mantle of cuttlefish, and different partial least squares discriminant analyses (PLS-DA) were applied for classification purposes. The interpretation of spectra was also investigated by applying the specific water coordinates, using aquaphotomics. Few significant differences in the wet chemistry and microbiological data were detected between F and FT during storage. The quality index method and microbiological analyses suggested similar behavior between F and FT samples until to near 9 days of shelf life. PLS-DA models with the spectral range 900-1650 nm achieved a classification precision of 0.91 between F and FT, while the performances for the prediction of storage days were less effective. The results of aquaphotomics plotted in aquagrams were suitable for the interpretation of the main physicochemical changes of cuttlefish throughout the shelf life. The water coordinates suggested a different molecular conformation of water species in the FT than F samples, with more free water molecules and a lower amount of bound species and the water solvation shell, respectively.
Project description:Telerehabilitation (TR) services for assistive technology evaluation and training have the potential to reduce travel demands for consumers and assistive technology professionals while allowing evaluation in more familiar, salient environments for the consumer. Sixty-five consumers received TR services for augmentative and alternative communication or alternative computer access, and consumer satisfaction was compared with twenty-eight consumers who received exclusively in-person services. TR recipients rated their TR services at a median of 6 on a 6-point Likert scale TR satisfaction questionnaire, although individual responses did indicate room for improvement in the technology. Overall satisfaction with AT services was rated highly by both in-person (100% satisfaction) and TR (99% satisfaction) service recipients.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIMS:The effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) in Asian functional dyspepsia (FD) patients has not been well established as in Westerncountries. DA-9701, a novel prokinetic agent, stimulates gastric emptying and modulates visceral hypersensitivity in vivo and in human studies. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of DA-9701 with a conventional PPI in mono or combination therapy in patients with FD. METHODS:In this double-blind, randomized, non-inferiority trial, 389 patients diagnosed with FD using Rome III criteria were allocated among3 groups: 30-mg DA-9701 t.i.d (means 3 times a day), 40-mg pantoprazole, and 30-mg DA-9701 t.i.d + 40-mg pantoprazole. Theprimary efficacy end-point was a global assessment of the patient binary response or response on a 5-Likert scale after 4 weeks. RESULTS:The global symptomatic improvement was 60.5% in the DA-9701 group, 65.6% in the pantoprazole group, and 63.5% in the DA-9701 + pantoprazole group using a 5-Likert scale at week 4 with no significant difference among 3 groups (P = 0.685). Symptomimprovement measured by binary outcome was significantly achieved in each of the 3 groups, but not different among groups.Patients in all treatment groups reported significant improvement in the response rate and symptoms according to FD subtypes anddyspepsia-related quality of life (P < 0.001), but there were no significant differences among the 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS:DA-9701 improves global and individual symptoms and increases dyspepsia-specific quality of life in patients with FD. The efficacyof DA-9701 monotherapy is comparable with pantoprazole and there is no additive effect with combination of DA-9701 andpantoprazole in patients with FD.
Project description:Carob samples from seven different Mediterranean countries (Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Spain, Turkey, Jordan and Palestine) were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Seed and flesh samples of indigenous and foreign cultivars, both authentic and commercial, were examined. The spectra were recorded in transmittance mode from KBr pellets. The data were compressed and further processed statistically using multivariate chemometric techniques, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Cluster Analysis (CA), Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA). Specifically, unsupervised PCA framed the importance of the variety of carobs, while supervised analysis highlighted the contribution of the geographical origin. Best classification models were achieved with PLS regression on first derivative spectra, giving an overall correct classification. Thus, the applied methodology enabled the differentiation of carobs flesh and seed per their origin. Our results appear to suggest that this method is a rapid and powerful tool for the successful discrimination of carobs origin and type.
Project description:Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) in combination with chemometric analysis were applied to discriminate the geographical origin of grapevine leaves belonging to the variety "Touriga Nacional" during different vegetative stages. Leaves were collected from plants of two different wine regions in Portugal (Dão and Douro) over the grapes maturation period. A sampling plan was designed in order to obtain the most variability within the vineyards taking into account variables such as: solar exposition, land inclination, altitude and soil properties, essentially. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract relevant information from the spectral data and presented visible cluster trends. Results, both with NIRS and MIRS, demonstrate that it is possible to discriminate between the two geographical origins with an outstanding accuracy. Spectral patterns of grapevine leaves show significant differences during grape maturation period, with a special emphasis between the months of June and September. Additionally, the quantification of total chlorophyll and total polyphenol content from leaves spectra was attempted by both techniques. For this purpose, partial least squares (PLS) regression was employed. PLS models based on NIRS and MIRS, both demonstrate a statistically significant correlation for the total chlorophyll (R2P?=?0.92 and R2P?=?0.76, respectively). However, the PLS model for the total polyphenols, may only be considered as a screening method, because significant prediction errors, independently of resourcing on NIRS, MIRS or both techniques simultaneously, were obtained.
Project description:Sea cucumber is the major tonic seafood worldwide, and geographical origin traceability is an important part of its quality and safety control. In this work, a non-destructive method for origin traceability of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) from northern China Sea and East China Sea using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multivariate analysis methods was proposed. Total fat contents of 189 fresh sea cucumber samples were determined and partial least-squares (PLS) regression was used to establish the quantitative NIRS model. The ordered predictor selection algorithm was performed to select feasible wavelength regions for the construction of PLS and identification models. The identification model was developed by principal component analysis combined with Mahalanobis distance and scaling to the first range algorithms. In the test set of the optimum PLS models, the root mean square error of prediction was 0.45, and correlation coefficient was 0.90. The correct classification rates of 100% were obtained in both identification calibration model and test model. The overall results indicated that NIRS method combined with chemometric analysis was a suitable tool for origin traceability and identification of fresh sea cucumber samples from nine origins in China.
Project description:Species identification-of importance for most biological disciplines-is not always straightforward as cryptic species hamper traditional identification. Fibre-optic near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a rapid and inexpensive method of use in various applications, including the identification of species. Despite its efficiency, NIRS has never been tested on a group of more than two cryptic species, and a working routine is still missing. Hence, we tested if the four morphologically highly similar, but genetically distinct ant species Tetramorium alpestre, T. caespitum, T. impurum, and T. sp. B, all four co-occurring above 1,300 m above sea level in the Alps, can be identified unambiguously using NIRS. Furthermore, we evaluated which of our implementations of the three analysis approaches, partial least squares regression (PLS), artificial neural networks (ANN), and random forests (RF), is most efficient in species identification with our data set. We opted for a 100% classification certainty, i.e., a residual risk of misidentification of zero within the available data, at the cost of excluding specimens from identification. Additionally, we examined which strategy among our implementations, one-vs-all, i.e., one species compared with the pooled set of the remaining species, or binary-decision strategies, worked best with our data to reduce a multi-class system to a two-class system, as is necessary for PLS. Our NIRS identification routine, based on a 100% identification certainty, was successful with up to 66.7% of unambiguously identified specimens of a species. In detail, PLS scored best over all species (36.7% of specimens), while RF was much less effective (10.0%) and ANN failed completely (0.0%) with our data and our implementations of the analyses. Moreover, we showed that the one-vs-all strategy is the only acceptable option to reduce multi-class systems because of a minimum expenditure of time. We emphasise our classification routine using fibre-optic NIRS in combination with PLS and the one-vs-all strategy as a highly efficient pre-screening identification method for cryptic ant species and possibly beyond.
Project description:Consumer satisfaction with the acute-care experience could reasonably be expected to be higher amongst those treated in the private sector compared to those treated in the public sector given the former relies on high-level satisfaction of its consumers and their subsequent recommendations to thrive. The primary aims of this study were to determine, in a knee or hip arthroplasty cohort, if surgery in the private sector predicts greater overall satisfaction with the acute-care experience and greater likelihood to recommend the same hospital. A secondary aim was to determine whether satisfaction across a range of service domains is also higher in the private sector.A telephone survey was conducted 35 days post-surgery. The hospital cohort comprised eight public and seven private high-volume arthroplasty providers. Consumers rated overall satisfaction with care out of 100 and likeliness to recommend their hospital on a 5-point Likert scale. Additional Likert-style questions were asked covering specific service domains. Generalized estimating equation models were used to analyse overall satisfaction (dichotomised as ? 90 or < 90) and future recommendations for care (dichotomised as 'definitely recommend' or 'other'), whilst controlling for covariates. The proportions of consumers in each sector reporting the best Likert response for each individual domain were compared using non-parametric tests.457 survey respondents (n = 210 private) were included. Less patient-reported joint impairment pre-surgery [OR 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.05)] and absence of an acute complication (OR 2.13 95% CI 1.41-3.23) significantly predicted higher overall satisfaction. Hip arthroplasty [OR 1.84 (1.1-2.96)] and an absence of an acute complication [OR 2.31 (1.28-4.17] significantly predicted greater likelihood for recommending the hospital. The only care domains where the private out-performed the public sector were hospitality (46.7 vs 35.6%, p <0.01) and frequency of surgeon visitation (76.4 vs 65.8%, p = 0.03).Arthroplasty consumers treated in the private sector are not more satisfied with their acute-care experience nor are they more likely to recommend their hospital provider. Rather, avoidance of complications in either sector appears to result in improved satisfaction as well as a greater likelihood that patients would recommend their hospital provider.
Project description:Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) is a PLS regression method with a special binary 'dummy' y-variable and it is commonly used for classification purposes and biomarker selection in metabolomics studies. Several statistical approaches are currently in use to validate outcomes of PLS-DA analyses e.g. double cross validation procedures or permutation testing. However, there is a great inconsistency in the optimization and the assessment of performance of PLS-DA models due to many different diagnostic statistics currently employed in metabolomics data analyses. In this paper, properties of four diagnostic statistics of PLS-DA, namely the number of misclassifications (NMC), the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUROC), Q(2) and Discriminant Q(2) (DQ(2)) are discussed. All four diagnostic statistics are used in the optimization and the performance assessment of PLS-DA models of three different-size metabolomics data sets obtained with two different types of analytical platforms and with different levels of known differences between two groups: control and case groups. Statistical significance of obtained PLS-DA models was evaluated with permutation testing. PLS-DA models obtained with NMC and AUROC are more powerful in detecting very small differences between groups than models obtained with Q(2) and Discriminant Q(2) (DQ(2)). Reproducibility of obtained PLS-DA models outcomes, models complexity and permutation test distributions are also investigated to explain this phenomenon. DQ(2) and Q(2) (in contrary to NMC and AUROC) prefer PLS-DA models with lower complexity and require higher number of permutation tests and submodels to accurately estimate statistical significance of the model performance. NMC and AUROC seem more efficient and more reliable diagnostic statistics and should be recommended in two group discrimination metabolomic studies. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-011-0330-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Project description:To examine consumers' confidence in their own, and also in other people's, over-the-counter (OTC) skills and to describe their attitude towards the availability of OTC painkillers. Moreover we examined the association between confidence in OTC skills and attitudes.Cross-sectional survey. Mixed methods (postal and electronic) self-administered questionnaire.Members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel.Consumers' confidence in their own, and in other people's, OTC skills was examined. Confidence was measured by three questions regarding obtaining information on, choosing and using OTC medication. Consumers' attitudes towards availability were assessed using six safety profiles, by asking which channel consumers prefer for each profile.The response rate was 68% (n=972). Consumers feel confident about their own OTC skills (mean 3.74; 95% CI 3.69 to 3.79, on a 5-point Likert scale), but have less confidence in OTC skills of others (mean 2.92; 95% CI 2.88 to 2.96). Consumers are conservative in their attitudes towards the availability of OTC painkillers. Most consumers prefer painkillers to be available exclusively in pharmacies (41-71% per profile indicated pharmacy only). Moreover, there is an association between confidence in OTC skills and attitudes (p=0.005; ?=-0.114). Consumers who are more confident about their own OTC skills prefer OTC painkillers to be more generally available.Consumers feel confident about their own OTC skills. However, they would prefer painkillers with safety profiles resembling those currently available OTC, to be available as OTC in pharmacies exclusively. Consumers' confidence in the OTC skills of others is more consistent with their attitudes towards availability of OTC painkillers. Until consumers themselves realise that they are also one of the others, they may overestimate their own OTC skills, which may entail health risks.