Desaturase Activity and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Artery Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study.
ABSTRACT: Estimated ?5-desaturase (D5D) and ?6-desaturase (D6D) are key enzymes in metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and have been associated with cardiometabolic risk; however, causality needs to be clarified. We applied two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach using a representative sub-cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study and public data from DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) and Coronary ARtery DIsease Genome wide Replication and Meta-analysis (CARDIoGRAM) genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Furthermore, we addressed confounding by linkage disequilibrium (LD) as all instruments from FADS1 (encoding D5D) are in LD with FADS2 (encoding D6D) variants. Our univariable MRs revealed risk-increasing total effects of both, D6D and D5D on type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk; and risk-increasing total effect of D6D on risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). The multivariable MR approach could not unambiguously allocate a direct causal effect to either of the individual desaturases. Our results suggest that D6D is causally linked to cardiometabolic risk, which is likely due to downstream production of fatty acids and products resulting from high D6D activity. For D5D, we found indication for causal effects on T2DM and CAD, which could, however, still be confounded by LD.
Project description:The reactions catalyzed by the delta-5 and delta-6 desaturases (D5D/D6D), key enzymes responsible for highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) synthesis, regenerate NAD+ from NADH. Here, we show that D5D/D6D provide a mechanism for glycolytic NAD+ recycling that permits ongoing glycolysis and cell viability when the cytosolic NAD+/NADH ratio is reduced, analogous to lactate fermentation. Although lesser in magnitude than lactate production, this desaturase-mediated NAD+ recycling is acutely adaptive when aerobic respiration is impaired in vivo. Notably, inhibition of either HUFA synthesis or lactate fermentation increases the other, underscoring their interdependence. Consistent with this, a type 2 diabetes risk haplotype in SLC16A11 that reduces pyruvate transport (thus limiting lactate production) increases D5D/D6D activity in vitro and in humans, demonstrating a chronic effect of desaturase-mediated NAD+ recycling. These findings highlight key biologic roles for D5D/D6D activity independent of their HUFA end products and expand the current paradigm of glycolytic NAD+ regeneration.
Project description:Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) correlate with risk of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. Fatty acid desaturase (FADS) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) modulate circulating PUFA concentrations. This study examined influence of FADS1 and FADS2 genetic variants on desaturase activities and blood lipid concentrations in type 2 diabetes patients, and further assessed their interrelationships. Selected SNPs (FADS1: rs174547, rs174548, rs174550; FADS2: rs174575, rs174576, rs174583, rs498793 and rs2727270) were genotyped in 820 type 2 diabetes patients and compared with those reported in the HapMap. Patient subgroups (n = 176) without taking lipid-lowering medicine were studied to assess influence of tag SNPs including rs174547, rs174575, rs498793 and rs2727270 on delta-5 desaturase (D5D: 20:4 (n-6)/20:3 (n-6)) and delta-6 desaturase (D6D:18:3 (n-6)/18:2 (n-6)) activities, and blood lipids. FADS1 rs174547 TT/TC/CC and FADS2 rs2727270 CC/CT/TT were significantly (p for trend < 0.05) associated with reduced HDL-C, D5D and D6D activities. Upon adjustment for confounders, D5D (p = 0.006) correlated significantly and D6D marginally (p = 0.07) correlated with increased HDL-C levels, whereas rs174547 and rs2727270 polymorphisms were not associated. D6D andD5D activities may play a role in modulating HDL-C levels in type 2 diabetes. Future studies with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate how FADS genetic variations interact with desaturase activities or PUFAs in the metabolism of lipoproteins in diabetic patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aim was to investigate if fatty acid profile and estimated desaturase activities; stearoyl CoA-desaturase (SCD), delta-5-desaturase and delta-6-desaturase (D5D; D6D), differ between individuals with metabolically healthy (MH) and unhealthy (MU) phenotypes. We also explored these associations according to BMI categories. METHODS:Men and women at moderately elevated risk of cardiovascular disease were included in this cross-sectional study (n?=?321). If subjects met ?4 out of 5 criteria (elevated triglycerides, total and LDL-cholesterol, HbA1c and low HDL-cholesterol), they were classified as MU (n?=?52). If levels were within reference ranges for ?3 of the same criteria, subjects were classified as MH (n?=?150). Utilizing the entire population, a score ranging from 0 to 5 denoting the number of MU criteria met was computed. Estimated desaturase activities were calculated as product-to-precursor ratio of fatty acids in whole blood (SCD16 [16:1n7/16:0], SCD18 [18:1n9/18:0], D5D [18:3n6/18:2n6], D6D [20:4n6/20:3n6]). RESULTS:Individuals with MH had lower estimated SCD16 and SCD18 activities, whereas estimated D6D activity was higher compared to MU. Similar, SCD16 and SCD18 increased, whereas D6D decreased with increasing criteria of MU. Trends were similar across BMI categories. CONCLUSIONS:This study supports the notion of estimated desaturase activities as possible novel biomarkers of metabolic health irrespectively of BMI.
Project description:We aimed to investigate the cross-sectional associations of serum fatty acid (FA) and related ?-desaturase with hypertension among 2,447 community-dwellers aged 35-79 years living in Zhejiang Province, China. Individual FA was determined in serum, ?(5)-desaturase (D5D) and ?(6)-desaturase (D6D) activities were indirectly estimated by FA product/precursor ratios. Participants in the highest quartile of D5D component scores (20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, 22:6n-3 and D5D) have significantly lower odds of hypertension compared with individuals in the lowest (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR)?=?0.68, 95%?CI: 0.46-0.98). When further stratified by gender, high D5D component scores were significantly associated with lower odds of hypertension in women (OR?=?0.53, 95%?CI: 0.35-0.80), but not in men (OR?=?0.78, 95%?CI: 0.52-1.18). Multivariate-adjusted prevalent OR for an interquartile increment of individual FA and estimated desaturase was 1.27 (95%?CI: 1.08-1.50) for 16:0, 1.15 (95%?CI: 1.01-1.30) for 16:1n-7, 0.89 (95%?CI: 0.80-0.99) for 22:6n-3, 1.32 (95%?CI: 1.01-1.72) for D6D (18:3n-6/18:2n-6), and 0.74 (95%?CI: 0.56, 0.98) for D5D (20:4n-6/20:3n-6). Present findings suggested that high serum 22:6n-3 and D5D as well as low 16:0, 16:1n-7 and D6D were associated with a low prevalence of hypertension in this Chinese population.
Project description:Background:In this study, we investigated the associations of erythrocytes fatty acid composition, activities of delta-5 desaturase (D5D) and delta-6 desaturase (D6D), and other metabolic risk factors, with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk to determine if rs174583 polymorphism of FADS2 gene had any effect on these associations. Materials and Methods:Fatty acid profile of erythrocytes was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 95 T2D patients and 95 apparently healthy participants. The genotypes of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FADS2 gene were determined using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Other biochemical parameters were measured in the serum using standard analytical procedures. Results:D6D activity was increased (P < 0.001) and D5D activity was decreased in T2D patients (P < 0.001) compared to controls. Homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was positively correlated with D6D (r = 0.34, P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with D5D (r = -0.19, P = 0.02). Palmitic acid (P < 0.001) and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (P = 0.03) were higher and linoleic acid (P < 0.001) and arachidonic acid (AA) (P < 0.001) were lower in T2D patients. The distribution of rs174583 genotypes which includes C/T, C/C, and T/T was not different in the two groups (P = 0.63). Conclusion:In the population studied, there was a strong association in the erythrocytes fatty acid composition, D5D and D6D activities and other metabolic risk factors between non-T2D and T2D patients. In addition, there was a strong association in erythrocytes DGLA and AA contents and D5D activities between rs174583 genotypes in all participants. However, the distribution of rs174583 genotypes did not differ significantly between T2D patient and controls, and it did not appear to be an association between rs174583 SNP and incident of T2D.
Project description:Background:?-5 and ?-6 desaturases (D5D and D6D) catalyze the endogenous conversion of n-3 (?-3) and n-6 (?-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Their activities are negatively and positively associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), respectively, by unclear mechanisms. Elevated plasma apoB-lipoproteins (measured as plasma apoB), which can be reduced by n-3 PUFA intake, promote T2D risk factors. Objective:The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the association of D5D and D6D activities with T2D risk factors is dependent on plasma apoB. Methods:This is a pooled analysis of 2 populations recruited for 2 different metabolic studies. It is a post hoc analysis of baseline data of these subjects [n = 98; 60% women (postmenopausal); mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2): 32.8 ± 4.7; mean ± SD age: 57.6 ± 6.3 y]. Glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) and insulin sensitivity (IS) were measured using Botnia clamps. Plasma clearance of a high-fat meal (600 kcal/m2, 66% fat) and white adipose tissue (WAT) function (storage of 3H-triolein-labeled substrate) were assessed in a subpopulation (n = 47). Desaturase activities were estimated from plasma phospholipid fatty acids. Associations were examined using Pearson and partial correlations. Results:While both desaturase activities were positively associated with percentage of eicosapentaenoic acid, only D5D was negatively associated with plasma apoB (r = -0.30, P = 0.003). Association of D5D activity with second-phase GIIS (r = -0.23, P = 0.029), IS (r = 0.33, P = 0.015, in women) and 6-h area-under-the-curve (AUC6h) of plasma chylomicrons (apoB48, r = -0.47, P = 0.020, in women) was independent of age and adiposity, but was eliminated after adjustment for plasma apoB. D6D activity was associated in the opposite direction with GIIS (r = 0.24, P = 0.049), IS (r = -0.36, P = 0.004) and AUC6h chylomicrons (r = 0.52, P = 0.004), independent of plasma apoB. Both desaturases were associated with plasma interleukin-1-receptor antagonist (D5D: r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women; D6D: r = -0.33, P = 0.007) and WAT function (trend for D5D: r = 0.30, P = 0.05; D6D: r = 0.39, P = 0.027) independent of any adjustment. Conclusions:Association of D5D activity with IS, lower GIIS, and plasma chylomicron clearance is dependent on plasma apoB in overweight and obese adults.
Project description:Membrane-bound desaturases are physiologically and industrially important enzymes that are involved in the production of diverse fatty acids such as polyunsaturated fatty acids and their derivatives. Here, we identified amino acid residues that determine the substrate specificity of rat ?6 desaturase (D6d) acting on linoleoyl-CoA by comparing its amino acid sequence with that of ?5 desaturase (D5d), which converts dihomo-?-linolenoyl-CoA. The N-terminal cytochrome b5-like domain was excluded as a determinant by domain swapping analysis. Substitution of eight amino acid residues (Ser209, Asn211, Arg216, Ser235, Leu236, Trp244, Gln245, and Val344) of D6d with the corresponding residues of D5d by site-directed mutagenesis switched the substrate specificity from linoleoyl-CoA to dihomo-?-linolenoyl-CoA. In addition, replacement of Leu323 of D6d with Phe323 on the basis of the amino acid sequence of zebra fish ?5/6 bifunctional desaturase was found to render D6d bifunctional. Homology modeling of D6d using recent crystal structure data of human stearoyl-CoA (?9) desaturase revealed that Arg216, Trp244, Gln245, and Leu323 are located near the substrate-binding pocket. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the structural basis of the substrate specificity of a mammalian front-end fatty acid desaturase, which will aid in efficient production of value-added fatty acids.
Project description:Delta-5 and delta-6 desaturases (D5D and D6D) are key enzymes in endogenous synthesis of long-chain PUFAs. In this sample of healthy subjects (n = 310), genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs174537, rs174561, and rs3834458 in the FADS1-FADS2 gene cluster were strongly associated with proportions of LC-PUFAs and desaturase activities estimated in plasma and erythrocytes. Minor allele carriage associated with decreased activities of D5D (FADS1) (5.84 × 10(-19) ≤ P ≤ 4.5 × 10(-18)) and D6D (FADS2) (6.05 × 10(-8) ≤ P ≤ 4.20 × 10(-7)) was accompanied by increased substrate and decreased product proportions (0.05 ≤ P ≤ 2.49 × 10(-16)). The significance of haplotype association with D5D activity (P = 2.19 × 10(-17)) was comparable to that of single SNPs, but haplotype association with D6D activity (P = 3.39 × 10(-28)) was much stronger. In a randomized controlled dietary intervention, increasing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) intake significantly increased D5D (P = 4.0 × 10(-9)) and decreased D6D activity (P = 9.16 × 10(-6)) after doses of 0.45, 0.9, and 1.8 g/day for six months. Interaction of rs174537 genotype with treatment was a determinant of D5D activity estimated in plasma (P = 0.05). In conclusion, different sites at the FADS1-FADS2 locus appear to influence D5D and D6D activity, and rs174537 genotype interacts with dietary EPA+DHA to modulate D5D.
Project description:Delta-5 desaturase (D5D) catalyzes the conversion from dihomo-gamma linoleic acid (DGLA) to arachidonic acid (AA). DGLA and AA are common precursors of anti- and pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, respectively, making D5D an attractive drug target for inflammatory-related diseases. Despite several reports on D5D inhibitors, their biochemical mechanisms of action (MOAs) remain poorly understood, primarily due to the difficulty in performing quantitative enzymatic analysis. Herein, we report a radioligand binding assay to overcome this challenge and characterized T-3364366, a thienopyrimidinone D5D inhibitor, by use of the assay. T-3364366 is a reversible, slow-binding inhibitor with a dissociation half-life in excess of 2.0 h. The long residence time was confirmed in cellular washout assays. Domain swapping experiments between D5D and D6D support [(3)H]T-3364366 binding to the desaturase domain of D5D. The present study is the first to demonstrate biochemical MOA of desaturase inhibitors, providing important insight into drug discovery of desaturase enzymes.
Project description:Obesity, in particular abdominal obesity, alters the composition of plasma and tissue fatty acids (FAs), which contributes to inflammation and insulin resistance. FA metabolism is modulated by desaturases and may affect adipokine and insulin secretion. Therefore, we examined relationships between adipokines, a marker of insulin production, and plasma FA desaturase enzyme activity estimates (EAEs) in obesity. Plasma phospholipid (PPL) FAs were isolated from 126 males (ages 48 to 65 years), derivatized, and analyzed using gas chromatography. Delta-6 desaturase (D6D) and delta-5 desaturase (D5D) EAEs were calculated as the ratio of PPL 20:3/18:2 and 20:4/20:3, respectively. In body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) adjusted polytomous logistic regression analyses, PPL FAs and FA desaturase EAEs were associated with C-peptide and adiponectin. Individuals with elevated D6D EAEs were less likely (OR 0.33) to have serum adiponectin concentrations > 5.37 ?g/mL, compared with adiponectin concentrations ? 3.62 ?g/mL. Individuals with increased D5D EAEs were less likely (OR 0.8) to have C-peptide concentrations ? 3.32 ng/mL, and > 1.80 and ? 3.29 ng/mL, compared with those with C-peptide ? 1.76 ng/mL. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) was positively associated with C-peptide, but TNF-? was not associated with the D5D EAE. C-peptide and adiponectin concentrations are associated with specific PPL FAs and FA desaturase EAEs. The relationship between C-peptide concentrations and D5D EAEs remained significant after adjusting for BMI, WC, and TNF-?. Thus, future research should investigate whether D5D inhibition may occur through a C-peptide mediated pathway.