The Phys-Can observational study: adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with a reduction whereas physical activity level before start of treatment is associated with maintenance of maximal oxygen uptake in patients with cancer.
ABSTRACT: Background:Adjuvant therapy may cause multiple sideeffects on long term health, including reduced cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in patients with breast cancer (1, 2). However, there is currently limited knowledge regarding the effect of different types of adjuvant cancer treatment on CRF in other cancer populations. The primary objective of the present study was to assess whether previously known correlates (age, diagnosis, initial CRF, physical activity level), type of adjuvant treatment and cancer-related fatigue were associated with changes in V?O2max in patients with breast, prostate or colorectal cancer. Methods:Prospective study with two time points of assessment, 85 patients scheduled for adjuvant cancer treatment were included. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by V?O2max during a maximal incremental exercise test on a treadmill before start of adjuvant therapy and again six months later. Physical activity level was recorded with a physical activity monitor (Sense Wear™ Mini) at baseline as average minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) per day. Physical fatigue at baseline was reported using the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20 questionaire. Results:In multivariate linear regression analysis, 30?min higher daily MVPA at baseline was associated with a 5% higher V?O2max at six months follow up when adjusted for adjuvant treatment (P?=?0.010). Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy had a mean decline in V?O2max of 10% (-?19, -?1; 95% confidence interval) compared to patients receiving adjuvant endocrine treatment (P?=?0.028). Adjuvant radiotherapy, fatigue, age and diagnosis were not significantly associated with changes in V?O2max . Conclusion:The results of the present study indicate that adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with a subsequent reduction in V?O2max in patients with cancer whereas MVPA before start of adjuvant treatment is positively associated with a higher V?O2max after end of adjuvant treatment.
Project description:Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment. During and after radiotherapy breast cancer patients often suffer from CRF which frequently impairs quality of life (QoL). Despite the high prevalence of CRF in breast cancer patients and the severe impact on the physical and emotional well-being, effective treatment methods are scarce.Physical activity for breast cancer patients has been reported to decrease fatigue, to improve emotional well-being and to increase physical strength. The pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms of CRF and the molecular-biologic changes induced by exercise, however, are poorly understood.In the BEST trial we aim to assess the effects of resistance training on fatigue, QoL and physical fitness as well as on molecular, immunological and inflammatory changes in breast cancer patients during adjuvant radiotherapy.The BEST study is a prospective randomized, controlled intervention trial investigating the effects of a 12-week supervised progressive resistance training compared to a 12-week supervised muscle relaxation training in 160 patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. To determine the effect of exercise itself beyond potential psychosocial group effects, patients in the control group perform a group-based progressive muscle relaxation training. Main inclusion criterion is histologically confirmed breast cancer stage I-III after lumpectomy or mastectomy with indication for adjuvant radiotherapy. Main exclusion criteria are acute infectious diseases, severe neurological, musculosceletal or cardiorespiratory disorders. The primary endpoint is cancer-related fatigue; secondary endpoints include immunological and inflammatory parameters analyzed in peripheral blood, saliva and urine. In addition, QoL, depression, physical performance and cognitive capacity will be assessed.The BEST study is the first randomized controlled trial comparing progressive resistance training with muscle relaxation training in breast cancer patients during adjuvant radiotherapy. Based on the analysis of physiological, immunological and inflammatory parameters it will contribute to a better understanding of the physiological and psychosocial effects and the biological mechanisms of resistance training. The ultimate goal is the implementation of optimized intervention programs to reduce fatigue, improve quality of life and potentially the prognosis after breast cancer.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01468766.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a common and distressing symptom of cancer and/or cancer treatment that persists for years after treatment completion in approximately one third of cancer survivors. Exercise is beneficial for the management of CRF, and general exercise guidelines for cancer survivors are available. There are multiple potential pathways by which exercise improves CRF, and cancer survivors with CRF are diverse with respect to cancer type, treatments and experienced side effects. While the general exercise guidelines are likely sufficient for most cancer survivors, tailoring of exercise interventions may be more effective in those with persistent fatigue. The primary aim of this research is to investigate the effect of a traditional vs. tailored exercise intervention on CRF severity in cancer survivors with persistent CRF.<h4>Methods/design</h4>Cancer survivors (? 3 months and???5 years since primary treatment) who score???34 on the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue Scale (FACIT-F) will be randomly allocated to one of two parallel treatment arms: traditional (active control) and tailored exercise. Participants in the traditional exercise group will engage in aerobic and resistance exercise that is consistent with exercise guidelines for cancer survivors. The tailored exercise group will be prescribed an intervention designed to address individual deficits identified at baseline, such as loss of muscular strength, cardiorespiratory deconditioning or sleep disturbance. Participants will be assessed before and after the intervention for CRF severity and other patient-reported outcomes, neuromuscular function and fatigue in response to whole-body exercise, sleep quantity and quality, physical activity levels, cardiorespiratory fitness and blood biomarkers.<h4>Discussion</h4>To our knowledge, this will be the first study to compare the effects of a traditional vs. tailored exercise intervention on CRF severity in cancer survivors with persistent CRF. Using physiological, behavioural and patient-reported outcomes, this study will add to the current knowledge about both the factors contributing to CRF, and the potential reduction in CRF severity with an exercise intervention.<h4>Trial registration</h4>The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03049384 ), February, 2017.
Project description:Cardiorespiratory fitness is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and shortened life expectancy in breast cancer survivors. This randomised controlled trial (n?=?153) was designed for patients with a physically inactive lifestyle prediagnosis and concurrently referred to adjuvant chemotherapy. We compared two 12-week exercise interventions aimed at physiological and patient-reported outcomes (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, metabolic markers, physical activity, pain, fatigue), including a 39-week follow-up. A supervised hospital-based moderate to high intensity group exercise intervention was compared to an instructed home-based individual pedometer intervention. The two 12-week interventions included oncologists' recommendations and systematic health counselling. Outcomes were measured at baseline and week 6, 12 and 39. Primary outcome cardiorespiratory fitness declined significantly during chemotherapy and was restored in both interventions at follow-up. The interventions effectively engaged breast cancer patients in sustaining physical activities during and following adjuvant treatment. A composite metabolic score improved significantly. Positive cardiorespiratory fitness responders had improved clinical effects on fatigue, pain and dyspnoea versus negative responders. We conclude that a loss of cardiorespiratory fitness among physically inactive breast cancer patients may be restored by early initiated interventions and by adapting to physical activity recommendations, leading to a decreased cardiovascular risk profile in breast cancer survivors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The purpose was to explore whether baseline sociodemographic and physical characteristics moderated effects of an intervention on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), percent body fat, body mass index z-score, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) at post intervention, relative to the control condition. METHODS:A secondary analysis of data from a group randomized trial including 24 schools (12 intervention and 12 control; N?=?1519 girls) was conducted. Age, ethnicity, race, socioeconomic status, and pubertal stage were assessed via survey. Height, weight, MVPA (min/h), percent body fat, and CRF were measured. Mixed-effects linear models were performed. RESULTS:Compared to the control, the intervention increased overweight and obese girls' CRF (b?=?0.28, p?=?0.049; b?=?0.31, p?< 0.01, respectively), but not healthy weight girls' CRF (b?=?0.04, p?=?0.706). Pre- to mid-puberty girls in the intervention group had slightly lower post-intervention MVPA than those in the control (3.04 vs. 3.31, p?=?0.055), while late to post-puberty intervention and control girls' post-intervention MVPA was similar (3.12 vs. 3.04, p?=?0.542). CONCLUSIONS:A PA intervention can improve overweight and obese girls' CRF, possibly attenuating their cardiovascular risk. Effective strategies are needed to assist adolescent girls, especially those in pre- to mid-puberty, in maintaining their MVPA after an intervention ends. IMPACT:Moderators of physical activity intervention effects among adolescent girls are important to identify because the effectiveness of these interventions to date in this population has been limited. This article contributes to the notable gap in knowledge regarding moderators in physical activity interventions involving adolescent girls, particularly baseline characteristics that may moderate their responses to physical activity interventions. Awareness of the moderators can be useful for determining the type of intervention that may be successful in subgroups of adolescent girls and for tailoring a physical activity intervention to optimally meet each girl's needs to achieve maximal effects. Findings show that weight status moderated the intervention effects on cardiorespiratory fitness. Compared to the control condition, the intervention increased overweight and obese, but not healthy weight, girls' cardiorespiratory fitness. A physical activity intervention can improve overweight and obese girls' cardiorespiratory fitness, possibly attenuating their cardiovascular risk. Therefore, it is essential to include overweight and obese girls in PA interventions to help them reap this important benefit.
Project description:Background:Exercise improves cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and reduces depressive symptoms in people with depression. It is unclear if changes in CRF are a predictor of the antidepressant effect of exercise in people with depression. Aims:To investigate whether an increase in CRF is a predictor of depression severity reduction after 12 weeks of exercise (trial registration: DRKS study ID, DRKS00008745). Method:The present study includes participants who took part in vigorous (n = 33), moderate (n = 38) and light (n = 39) intensity exercise and had CRF information (as predicted maximal oxygen uptake, V?O2max) collected before and after the intervention. Depression severity was measured with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). V?O2max (L/min) was assessed with the Åstrand-Rhyming submaximal cycle ergometry test. The main analysis was conducted pooling all exercise intensity groups together. Results:All exercise intensities improved V?O2max in people with depression. Regardless of frequency and intensity of exercise, an increase in post-treatment V?O2max was significantly associated with reduced depression severity at follow-up (B = -3.52, 95% CI -6.08 to -0.96); adjusting for intensity of exercise, age and body mass index made the association stronger (B = -3.89, 95% CI -6.53 to -1.26). Similarly, increased V?O2max was associated with higher odds (odds ratio = 3.73, 95% CI 1.22-11.43) of exercise treatment response (?50% reduction in MADRS score) at follow-up. Conclusions:Our data suggest that improvements in V?O2max predict a greater reduction in depression severity among individuals who were clinically depressed. This finding indicates that improvements in V?O2max may be a marker for the underpinning biological pathways for the antidepressant effect of exercise. Declaration of interest:None.
Project description:Background: Very few studies have evaluated the independent and combined associations of sedentary behavior (SB), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on obesity. Our recent work has evaluated this paradigm in the adult population,but no study has evaluated this paradigm in the child population, which was the purpose of this study. Methods: A national sample of children (N=680, 6-11 years) were evaluated via the National Youth Fitness Survey; this study was conducted in 2012, employing a nationally representative sample, occurring across 15 different geographic regions in the United States. SB and MVPA were assessed via parental recall, with CRF objectively measured via a treadmill-based aerobic test. Obesity was determined for measured body mass index. A PACS (Physical Activity Cardiorespiratory Sedentary) score was created ranging from 0-3, indicating each child's number of positive characteristics (PA, CRF, SB). Results: Meeting MVPA guidelines (OR adjusted=0.47; 95% CI: 0.29-0.77) and above-median CRF (OR adjusted=0.12; 95% CI: 0.07-0.21), but not SB (OR adjusted=0.62; 95% CI: 0.35-1.10),were associated with reduced odds of obesity. Compared to those with a PACS score of 0, the odds of obesity for PACS scores of 1-3, respectively, were: 0.31 (0.18-0.53), 0.12 (0.04-0.34), and 0.05 (0.02-0.10). Conclusion: These findings highlight the need for public health strategies to promote child MVPA and CRF, and to reduce SB.
Project description:We aimed to study the independent associations of sedentary time (ST), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with clustered cardio-metabolic risk and its individual components (waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure). We also investigated whether any associations between MVPA or ST and clustered cardio-metabolic risk were mediated by CRF. MVPA, ST, CRF and individual cardio-metabolic components were measured in a population-based sample of 341 adults (age 53.8 ± 8.9 years; 61% men) between 2012 and 2014. MVPA and ST were measured with the SenseWear pro 3 Armband and CRF was measured with a maximal exercise test. Multiple linear regression models and the product of coefficients method were used to examine independent associations and mediation effects, respectively. Results showed that low MVPA and low CRF were associated with a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (? = -0.26 and ? = -0.43, both p<0.001, respectively). CRF explained 73% of the variance in the association between MVPA and clustered cardio-metabolic risk and attenuated this association to non-significance. After mutual adjustment for MVPA and ST, CRF was the most important risk factor for a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (? = -0.39, p<0.001). In conclusion, because of the mediating role of CRF, lifestyle-interventions need to be feasible yet challenging enough to lead to increases in CRF to improve someone's cardio-metabolic health.
Project description:Sedentary time (ST), light (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) constitute the range of school day activity behaviours. This study investigated whether the composition of school activity behaviours was associated with health indicators, and the predicted changes in health when time was reallocated between activity behaviours. Accelerometers were worn for 7-days between October and December 2010 by 318 UK children aged 10-11, to provide estimates of school day ST, LPA, and MVPA. BMI z-scores and percent waist-to-height ratio were calculated as indicators of adiposity. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was assessed using the 20-m shuttle run test. The PedsQL™ questionnaire was completed to assess psychosocial and physical health-related quality of life (HRQL). Log-ratio multiple linear regression models predicted health indicators for the mean school day activity composition, and for new compositions where fixed durations of time were reallocated from one activity behaviour to another, while the remaining behaviours were unchanged. The school day activity composition significantly predicted adiposity and CRF (p?=?0.04-0.002), but not HRQL. Replacing MVPA with ST or LPA around the mean activity composition predicted higher adiposity and lower CRF. When ST or LPA were substituted with MVPA, the relationships with adiposity and CRF were asymmetrical with favourable, but smaller predicted changes in adiposity and CRF than when MVPA was replaced. Predicted changes in HRQL were negligible. The school day activity composition significantly predicted adiposity and CRF but not HRQL. Reallocating time from ST and LPA to MVPA is advocated through comprehensive school physical activity promotion approaches.ISRCTN03863885.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To examine the independent, joint, and fully combined associations of sedentary behavior (SB), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with the odds of poor sleep quality (SQ). METHODS:We performed a secondary data analysis on 757 working adults (male = 345) in Singapore, with an average age of 35.2 years. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess SQ. Objectively measured MVPA and SB were each obtained using an accelerometer. A non-exercise prediction equation was used to estimate CRF. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations. RESULTS:In total, 13.2% of the sample (n = 100) was identified as having poor SQ. After adjusting for study covariates, independent analyses revealed a clear inverse association for higher CRF and lower odds of poor SQ (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.28-0.91). SB and MVPA demonstrated no independent associations. Joint associations revealed that odds of having poor SQ for those with low CRF was higher regardless of SB level and was further deteriorated by lower MVPA in the fully combined model. The fully combined model also demonstrated that those with lower SB, higher MVPA, and higher CRF had the lowest odds of having poor SQ (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.10-0.78). CONCLUSIONS:Physical activity/exercise training programs that aim to improve CRF may be useful in lowering the odds or poor SQ in working adults.
Project description:In contrast to leisure time physical activity (LTPA), occupational physical activity (OPA) does not have similar beneficial health effects. These differential health effects might be explained by dissimilar effects of LTPA and OPA on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). This study investigated cross-sectional associations between different physical behaviours during both work and leisure time and CRF by using a Compositional Data Analysis approach. Physical behaviours were assessed by two accelerometers among 309 workers with various manual jobs. During work time, more sedentary behaviour (SB) was associated with higher CRF when compared relatively to time spent on other work behaviours, while more SB during leisure time was associated with lower CRF when compared to other leisure time behaviours. Reallocating more time to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) from the other behaviours within leisure time was positively associated with CRF, which was not the case for MVPA during work. The results of our study are in line with the physical activity health paradox and we call for further study on the interaction between LTPA and OPA by implementing device-worn measures in a longitudinal design. Our results highlight the need for recommendations to take into account the different effects of OPA and LTPA on CRF.