Transcriptomic analysis of a Clostridium thermocellum strain engineered to utilize xylose: responses to xylose versus cellobiose feeding.
ABSTRACT: Clostridium (Ruminiclostridium) thermocellum is recognized for its ability to ferment cellulosic biomass directly, but it cannot naturally grow on xylose. Recently, C. thermocellum (KJC335) was engineered to utilize xylose through expressing a heterologous xylose catabolizing pathway. Here, we compared KJC335's transcriptomic responses to xylose versus cellobiose as the primary carbon source and assessed how the bacteria adapted to utilize xylose. Our analyses revealed 417 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with log2 fold change (FC)?>|1| and 106 highly DEGs (log2 FC?>|2|). Among the DEGs, two putative sugar transporters, cbpC and cbpD, were up-regulated, suggesting their contribution to xylose transport and assimilation. Moreover, the up-regulation of specific transketolase genes (tktAB) suggests the importance of this enzyme for xylose metabolism. Results also showed remarkable up-regulation of chemotaxis and motility associated genes responding to xylose feeding, as well as widely varying gene expression in those encoding cellulosomal enzymes. For the down-regulated genes, several were categorized in gene ontology terms oxidation-reduction processes, ATP binding and ATPase activity, and integral components of the membrane. This study informs potentially critical, enabling mechanisms to realize the conceptually attractive Next-Generation Consolidated BioProcessing approach where a single species is sufficient for the co-fermentation of cellulose and hemicellulose.
Project description:Clostridium (Ruminiclostridium) thermocellum is recognized for its ability to ferment cellulosic biomass directly, but it cannot naturally grow on xylose. Recently, C. thermocellum (KJC335) was engineered to utilize xylose through expressing a heterologous xylose catabolizing pathway. Here, we compared KJC335’s transcriptomic responses to xylose versus cellobiose as the primary carbon source and assessed how the bacteria adapted to utilize xylose. Our analyses revealed 372 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with log2 fold change (FC) > |1| and 113 highly DEGs (log2 FC > |2|). Among the DEGs, two putative sugar transporters, cbpC and cbpD, were up-regulated, suggesting their contribution to xylose transport and assimilation. Moreover, the up-regulation of specific transketolase genes (tktAB) suggests the importance of this enzyme for xylose metabolism. Results also showed remarkable up-regulation of chemotaxis and motility associated genes responding to xylose feeding, as well as widely varying gene expression in those encoding cellulosomal enzymes. For the down-regulated genes, several were categorized in gene ontology terms oxidation-reduction processes, ATP binding and ATPase activity, and integral components of the membrane. This study informs potentially critical, enabling mechanisms to realize the conceptually attractive Next-Generation Consolidated BioProcessing approach where a single species is sufficient for the co-fermentation of cellulose and hemicellulose. KJC355 unevolved Overall design: Here, we compared KJC335’s transcriptomic responses to xylose versus cellobiose as the primary carbon source and assessed how the bacteria adapted to utilize xylose. 3 biologically replicates were carried out for xylose and cellobiose growth, respectively.
Project description:Clostridium thermocellum could potentially be used as a microbial biocatalyst to produce renewable fuels directly from lignocellulosic biomass due to its ability to rapidly solubilize plant cell walls. While the organism readily ferments sugars derived from cellulose, pentose sugars from xylan are not metabolized. Here, we show that non-fermentable pentoses inhibit growth and end-product formation during fermentation of cellulose-derived sugars. Metabolomic experiments confirmed that xylose is transported intracellularly and reduced to the dead-end metabolite xylitol. Comparative RNA-seq analysis of xylose-inhibited cultures revealed several up-regulated genes potentially involved in pentose transport and metabolism, which were targeted for disruption. Deletion of the ATP-dependent transporter, CbpD partially alleviated xylose inhibition. A putative xylitol dehydrogenase, encoded by Clo1313_0076, was also deleted resulting in decreased total xylitol production and yield by 41% and 46%, respectively. Finally, xylose-induced inhibition corresponds with the up-regulation and biogenesis of a cyclical AgrD-type, pentapeptide. Medium supplementation with the mature cyclical pentapeptide also inhibits bacterial growth. Together, these findings provide new foundational insights needed for engineering improved pentose utilizing strains of C. thermocellum and reveal the first functional Agr-type cyclic peptide to be produced by a thermophilic member of the Firmicutes.
Project description:Two novel endophytic yeast strains, WP1 and PTD3, isolated from within the stems of poplar (Populus) trees, were genetically characterized with respect to their xylose metabolism genes. These two strains, belonging to the species Rhodotorula graminis and R. mucilaginosa, respectively, utilize both hexose and pentose sugars, including the common plant pentose sugar, D-xylose. The xylose reductase (XYL1) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XYL2) genes were cloned and characterized. The derived amino acid sequences of xylose reductase (XR) and xylose dehydrogenase (XDH) were 32%?41% homologous to those of Pichia stipitis and Candida. spp., two species known to utilize xylose. The derived XR and XDH sequences of WP1 and PTD3 had higher homology (73% and 69% identity) with each other. WP1 and PTD3 were grown in single sugar and mixed sugar media to analyze the XYL1 and XYL2 gene regulation mechanisms. Our results revealed that for both strains, the gene expression is induced by D-xylose, and that in PTD3 the expression was not repressed by glucose in the presence of xylose.
Project description:It is important to understand if, and to what extent, the pig can utilize xylose as an energy source if xylanase releases free xylose in the small intestine. The experimental objectives were to determine the effects of industry-relevant dietary xylose concentrations and adaptation time on xylose retention efficiency and metabolism, diet digestibility and energy value, nitrogen balance, and hindgut fermentation. Forty-eight pigs were housed in metabolism crates and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with increasing D-xylose levels (n = 12/treatment) in 2 replications of a 22-d experiment with 3 collection periods. The control diet was xylose-free (0%), to which either 2, 4, or 8% D-xylose was added. Adaptation effects were assessed during three fecal and urine collection periods: d 5-7, 12-14, and 19-21. On d 22, pigs from the 0 and 8% treatments were euthanized; cecal and colon digesta were collected. Dietary xylose did not affect the total tract digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, or crude protein (P>0.10). Digesta short chain fatty acids concentrations and molar proportions and cecal pH were not different (P>0.10). This experiment utilized a targeted metabolomics approach to characterize and quantify urine xylose and metabolite excretion. Xylose retention decreased from 60% to 47% to 41% when pigs were fed diets containing 2, 4, or 8% xylose, respectively. In the 4 and 8% treatments, xylose retention was greater in the 2nd and 3rd collection periods compared to the 1st. A comprehensive pathway for xylose metabolism was proposed and D-threitol was confirmed as the major urinary metabolite of xylose. In conclusion, pigs can metabolize xylose, but with considerably lower efficiency than glucose, and may be able to adapt with time to utilize xylose more efficiently.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Many Firmicutes bacteria, including solvent-producing clostridia such as Clostridium acetobutylicum, are able to utilize xylose, an abundant carbon source in nature. Nevertheless, homology searches failed to recognize all the genes for the complete xylose and xyloside utilization pathway in most of them. Moreover, the regulatory mechanisms of xylose catabolism in many Firmicutes except Bacillus spp. still remained unclear. RESULTS: A comparative genomic approach was used to reconstruct the xylose and xyloside utilization pathway and analyze its regulatory mechanisms in 24 genomes of the Firmicutes. A novel xylose isomerase that is not homologous to previously characterized xylose isomerase, was identified in C. acetobutylicum and several other Clostridia species. The candidate genes for the xylulokinase, xylose transporters, and the transcriptional regulator of xylose metabolism (XylR), were unambiguously assigned in all of the analyzed species based on the analysis of conserved chromosomal gene clustering and regulons. The predicted functions of these genes in C. acetobutylicum were experimentally confirmed through a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques. XylR regulons were reconstructed by identification and comparative analysis of XylR-binding sites upstream of xylose and xyloside utilization genes. A novel XylR-binding DNA motif, which is exceptionally distinct from the DNA motif known for Bacillus XylR, was identified in three Clostridiales species and experimentally validated in C. acetobutylicum by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided comprehensive insights to the xylose catabolism and its regulation in diverse Firmicutes bacteria especially Clostridia species, and paved ways for improving xylose utilization capability in C. acetobutylicum by genetic engineering in the future.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Atrial fibrillation (AF) is at least partially heritable, affecting 2-3% of the population in Europe and the USA. However, a substantial proportion of heritability is still lacking. In the present study, we aim to identify potential crucial genes associated with AF through bioinformatic analyses of public datasets. METHODS:Microarray data sets of GSE115574, GSE31821, GSE79768, GSE41177 and GSE14975 from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were retrieved. After merging all microarray data and adjusting batch effect, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Functional enrichment analyses based on Gene Ontology (GO) resource, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) resource, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), Reactome Pathway Database and Disease Ontology (DO) were carried out. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using the STRING database. Combined with aforementioned significant bioinformatics information, potential crucial genes were subsequently selected. The comparative toxicogenomics database (CTD) was used to explore the interaction between potential crucial genes and AF. RESULT:We identified 27 of DEGs with gene expression fold change (FC)???1.5 or???2/3 (|log2 FC|???0.58) and 5 with FC???2 or???0.5 (|log2 FC|???1) of AF patients compared with sinus rhythm controls. The most significantly enriched pathway was regulation of insulin-like growth factor transport and uptake by insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. IGFBP2, C1orf105, FHL2, CHGB, ATP1B4, IGFBP3, SLC26A9, CXCR4 and HTR2B were considered the potential crucial genes. CTD showed CXCR4, IGFBP2, IGFBP3 and FHL2 had higher scores with AF. CONCLUSIONS:The 9 potential crucial genes, especially CXCR4, IGFBP2, IGFBP3 and FHL2, may be associated with risk of AF. Our study provided new insights of AF into genetics, molecular pathogenesis and new therapeutic targets.
Project description:Potato crop requires high dose of nitrogen (N) to produce high tuber yield. Excessive application of N causes environmental pollution and increases cost of production. Hence, knowledge about genes and regulatory elements is essential to strengthen research on N metabolism in this crop. In this study, we analysed transcriptomes (RNA-seq) in potato tissues (shoot, root and stolon) collected from plants grown in aeroponic culture under controlled conditions with varied N supplies i.e. low N (0.2 milli molar N) and high N (4 milli molar N). High quality data ranging between 3.25 to 4.93?Gb per sample were generated using Illumina NextSeq500 that resulted in 83.60-86.50% mapping of the reads to the reference potato genome. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were observed in the tissues based on statistically significance (p???0.05) and up-regulation with???2 log2 fold change (FC) and down-regulation with???-2 log2 FC values. In shoots, of total 19730 DEGs, 761 up-regulated and 280 down-regulated significant DEGs were identified. Of total 20736 DEGs in roots, 572 (up-regulated) and 292 (down-regulated) were significant DEGs. In stolons, of total 21494 DEG, 688 and 230 DEGs were significantly up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. Venn diagram analysis showed tissue specific and common genes. The DEGs were functionally assigned with the GO terms, in which molecular function domain was predominant in all the tissues. Further, DEGs were classified into 24 KEGG pathways, in which 5385, 5572 and 5594 DEGs were annotated in shoots, roots and stolons, respectively. The RT-qPCR analysis validated gene expression of RNA-seq data for selected genes. We identified a few potential DEGs responsive to N deficiency in potato such as glutaredoxin, Myb-like DNA-binding protein, WRKY transcription factor 16 and FLOWERING LOCUS T in shoots; high-affinity nitrate transporter, protein phosphatase-2c, glutaredoxin family protein, malate synthase, CLE7, 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase and transcription factor in roots; and glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator 2, BTB/POZ domain-containing protein, F-box family protein and aquaporin TIP1;3 in stolons, and many genes of unknown function. Our study highlights that these potential genes play very crucial roles in N stress tolerance, which could be useful in augmenting research on N metabolism in potato.
Project description:Though highly efficient at fermenting hexose sugars, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has limited ability to ferment five-carbon sugars. As a significant portion of sugars found in cellulosic biomass is the five-carbon sugar xylose, S. cerevisiae must be engineered to metabolize pentose sugars, commonly by the addition of exogenous genes from xylose fermenting fungi. However, these recombinant strains grow poorly on xylose and require further improvement through rational engineering or evolutionary adaptation. To identify unknown genes that contribute to improved xylose fermentation in these recombinant S. cerevisiae, we performed genome-wide synthetic interaction screens to identify deletion mutants that impact xylose utilization of strains expressing the xylose isomerase gene XYLA from Piromyces sp. E2 alone or with an additional copy of the endogenous xylulokinase gene XKS1. We also screened the deletion mutant array to identify mutants whose growth is affected by xylose. Our genetic network reveals that more than 80 nonessential genes from a diverse range of cellular processes impact xylose utilization. Surprisingly, we identified four genes, ALP1, ISC1, RPL20B, and BUD21, that when individually deleted improved xylose utilization of both S. cerevisiae S288C and CEN.PK strains. We further characterized BUD21 deletion mutant cells in batch fermentations and found that they produce ethanol even the absence of exogenous XYLA. We have demonstrated that the ability of laboratory strains of S. cerevisiae to utilize xylose as a sole carbon source is suppressed, which implies that S. cerevisiae may not require the addition of exogenous genes for efficient xylose fermentation.
Project description:The two metabolically versatile actinobacteria Rhodococcus opacus PD630 and R. jostii RHA1 can efficiently convert diverse organic substrates into neutral lipids mainly consisting of triacylglycerol (TAG), the precursor of energy-rich hydrocarbon. Neither, however, is able to utilize xylose, the important component present in lignocellulosic biomass, as the carbon source for growth and lipid accumulation. In order to broaden their substrate utilization range, the metabolic pathway of d-xylose utilization was introduced into these two strains. This was accomplished by heterogenous expression of two well-selected genes, xylA, encoding xylose isomerase, and xylB, encoding xylulokinase from Streptomyces lividans TK23, under the control of the tac promoter with an Escherichia coli-Rhodococcus shuttle vector. The recombinant R. jostii RHA1 bearing xylA could grow on xylose as the sole carbon source, and additional expression of xylB further improved the biomass yield. The recombinant could consume both glucose and xylose in the sugar mixture, although xylose metabolism was still affected by the presence of glucose. The xylose metabolic pathway was also introduced into the high-lipid-producing strain R. opacus PD630 by expression of xylA and xylB. Under nitrogen-limited conditions, the fatty acid composition was determined, and lipid produced from xylose by recombinants of R. jostii RHA1 and R. opacus PD630 carrying xylA and xylB represented up to 52.5% and 68.3% of the cell dry weight (CDW), respectively. This work demonstrates that it is feasible to produce lipid from the sugars, including xylose, derived from renewable feedstock by genetic modification of rhodococcus strains.
Project description:Fermentation of the pentose sugar xylose to ethanol in lignocellulosic biomass would make bioethanol production economically more competitive. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an efficient ethanol producer, can utilize xylose only when expressing the heterologous genes XYL1 (xylose reductase) and XYL2 (xylitol dehydrogenase). Xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase convert xylose to its isomer xylulose. The gene XKS1 encodes the xylulose-phosphorylating enzyme xylulokinase. In this study, we determined the effect of XKS1 overexpression on two different S. cerevisiae host strains, H158 and CEN.PK, also expressing XYL1 and XYL2. H158 has been previously used as a host strain for the construction of recombinant xylose-utilizing S. cerevisiae strains. CEN.PK is a new strain specifically developed to serve as a host strain for the development of metabolic engineering strategies. Fermentation was carried out in defined and complex media containing a hexose and pentose sugar mixture or a birch wood lignocellulosic hydrolysate. XKS1 overexpression increased the ethanol yield by a factor of 2 and reduced the xylitol yield by 70 to 100% and the final acetate concentrations by 50 to 100%. However, XKS1 overexpression reduced the total xylose consumption by half for CEN.PK and to as little as one-fifth for H158. Yeast extract and peptone partly restored sugar consumption in hydrolysate medium. CEN.PK consumed more xylose but produced more xylitol than H158 and thus gave lower ethanol yields on consumed xylose. The results demonstrate that strain background and modulation of XKS1 expression are important for generating an efficient xylose-fermenting recombinant strain of S. cerevisiae.