Antiangiogenesis effect of timosaponin AIII on HUVECs in vitro and zebrafish embryos in vivo.
ABSTRACT: Timosaponin AIII (Timo AIII) is a natural steroidal saponin isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge with proved effectiveness in the treatment of numerous cancers. However, whether Timo AIII suppresses tumor angiogenesis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenesis effects of Timo AIII and the underlying mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro and zebrafish embryos in vivo. We showed that treatment with Timo AIII (0.5-2?µM) partially disrupted the intersegmental vessels (ISVs) and subintestinal vessels (SIVs) growth in transgenic zebrafish Tg(fli-1a: EGFP)y1. Timo AIII (0.5-4?µM) dose-dependently inhibited VEGF-induced proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation of HUVECs, but these inhibitory effects were not due to its cytotoxicity. We further demonstrated that Timo AIII treatment significantly suppressed the expression of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) and the phosphorylation of Akt, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2 in HUVECs. Timo AIII treatment also significantly inhibited VEGF-triggered phosphorylation of VEGFR2, Akt, and ERK1/2 in HUVECs. Moreover, we conducted RNA-Seq and analyzed the transcriptome changes in both HUVECs and zebrafish embryos following Timo AIII treatment. The coexpression network analysis results showed that various biological processes and signaling pathways were enriched including angiogenesis, cell motility, cell adhesion, protein serine/threonine kinase activity, transmembrane signaling receptor activity, growth factor activity, etc., which was consistent with the antiangiogenesis effects of Timo AIII in HUVECs and zebrafish embryos. We conclude that the antiangiogenesis effect of Timo AIII is mediated through VEGF/PI3K/Akt/MAPK signaling cascade; Timo AIII potentially exerts antiangiogenesis effect in cancer treatment.
Project description:Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge is a famous Chinese Materia Medica and has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for more than two thousand years. Steroidal saponins are important active components isolated from A. asphodeloides Bunge. Among which, the accumulation of numerous experimental studies involved in Timosaponin AIII (Timo AIII) draws our attention in the recent decades. In this review, we searched all the scientific literatures using the key word "timosaponin AIII" in the PubMed database update to March 2020. We comprehensively summarized the pharmacological activity, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity of Timo AIII. We found that Timo AIII presents multiple-pharmacological activities, such as anti-cancer, anti-neuronal disorders, anti-inflammation, anti-coagulant, and so on. And the anti-cancer effect of Timo AIII in various cancers, especially hepatocellular cancer and breast cancer, is supposed as its most potential activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of Timo AIII is also beneficial to many diseases. Moreover, VEGFR, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI1), thromboxane (Tx) A2 receptor, mTOR, NF-?B, COX-2, MMPs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and so on are identified as the crucial pharmacological targets of Timo AIII. Furthermore, the hepatotoxicity of Timo AIII was most concerned, and the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of Timo AIII need further studies in diverse animal models. In conclusion, Timo AIII is potent as a compound or leading compound for further drug development while still needs in-depth studies.
Project description:Interfering with interactions of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) with their receptors (VEGFRs) effectively inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth. We designed an antagonist peptide of VEGF-A and VEGF-B reproducing two discontinuous receptor binding regions of VEGF-B (loop 1 and loop3) covalently linked together by a receptor binding region of VEGF-A (loop3). The designed peptide (referred to as VGB4) was able to bind to both VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 on the Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) surface and inhibited VEGF-A driven proliferation, migration and tube formation in HUVECs through suppression of ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation. The whole-animal fluorescence imaging demonstrated that fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-VGB4 accumulated in the mammary carcinoma tumors (MCTs). Administration of VGB4 led to the regression of 4T1 murine MCT growth through decreased expression of p-VEGFR1 and p-VEGFR2 and abrogation of ERK1/2 and AKT activation followed by considerable decrease of tumor cell proliferation (Ki67 expression) and angiogenesis (CD31 and CD34 expression), induction of apoptosis (increased p53 expression, TUNEL staining and decreased Bcl2 expression), and suppression of metastasis (increased E-cadherin and decreased N-cadherin, NF-?B and MMP-9 expression). These findings indicate that VGB4 may be applicable for antiangiogenic and antitumor therapy.
Project description:Angiogenesis and invasion are highly related with tumor metastatic potential and recurrence prediction in the most aggressive brain cancer, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). For the first time, this study reveals that marine-sponge-derived stellettin B reduces angiogenesis and invasion. We discovered that stellettin B reduces migration of glioblastoma cells by scratch wound healing assay and invasion via chamber transwell assay. Further, stellettin B downregulates Akt/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (Akt/mTOR) and Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) signaling pathways, which are essential for invasion and angiogenesis in glioblastoma. This study further demonstrates that stellettin B affects filamentous actin (F-actin) rearrangement by decreasing the cross-linkage of phosphor-Girdin (p-Girdin), which attenuates glioblastoma cell invasion. Moreover, stellettin B blocks the expression and secretion of a major proangiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in glioblastoma cells. Stellettin B also reduces angiogenic tubule formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In vivo, we observed that stellettin B decreased blood vesicle formation in developmental zebrafish and suppressed angiogenesis in Matrigel plug transplant assay in mice. Decreased VEGF transcriptional expression was also found in stellettin B⁻treated zebrafish embryos. Overall, we conclude that stellettin B might be a potential antiangiogenic and anti-invasion agent for future development of therapeutic agents for cancer therapy.
Project description:VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) inhibitors, as efficient antiangiogenesis agents, have been applied in the cancer treatment. However, recently, most of these anticancer drugs have some adverse effects. Discovery of novel VEGFR2 inhibitors as anticancer drug candidates is still needed.We used ?-santalol and analyzed its inhibitory effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Prostate tumor cells (PC-3 or LNCaP) in vitro. Tumor xenografts in nude mice were used to examine the in vivo activity of ?-santalol.?-santalol significantly inhibits HUVEC proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation. Western blot analysis indicated that ?-santalol inhibited VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 kinase and the downstream protein kinases including AKT, ERK, FAK, Src, mTOR, and pS6K in HUVEC, PC-3 and LNCaP cells. ?-santalol treatment inhibited ex vivo and in vivo angiogenesis as evident by rat aortic and sponge implant angiogenesis assay. ?-santalol significantly reduced the volume and the weight of solid tumors in prostate xenograft mouse model. The antiangiogenic effect by CD31 immunohistochemical staining indicated that ?-santalol inhibited tumorigenesis by targeting angiogenesis. Furthermore, ?-santalol reduced the cell viability and induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells, which were correlated with the downregulation of AKT, mTOR and P70S6K expressions. Molecular docking simulation indicated that ?-santalol form hydrogen bonds and aromatic interactions within the ATP-binding region of the VEGFR2 kinase unit.?-santalol inhibits angiogenesis by targeting VEGFR2 regulated AKT/mTOR/P70S6K signaling pathway, and could be used as a potential drug candidate for cancer therapy.
Project description:As angiogenesis is required for tumor growth and metastasis, suppressing angiogenesis is a promising strategy in limiting tumor progression. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, a critical pro-angiogenic factor, has thus become an attractive target for therapeutic interventions in cancer. In this study, we explored the underlying mechanisms of a novel anthraquinone derivative DDA in suppressing angiogenesis. DDA inhibited VEGF-A-induced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). DDA also reduced VEGF-A-induced microvessel sprouting from aortic rings ex vivo and suppressed neovascularization in vivo. VEGF-A-induced VEGFR1, VEGFR2, FAK, Akt, ERK1/2 or STAT3 phosphorylation was reduced in the presence of DDA. In addition, NRP-1 siRNA reduced VEGF-A's enhancing effects in VEGFR2, FAK and Akt phosphorylation and cell proliferation in HUVECs. DDA disrupted VEGF-A-induced complex formation between NRP-1 and VEGFR2. Furthermore, systemic administration of DDA was shown to suppress tumor angiogenesis and growth in in vivo mouse xenograft models. Taken together, we demonstrated in this study that DDA exhibits anti-angiogenic properties through suppressing VEGF-A signaling. These observations also suggest that DDA might be a potential drug candidate for developing anti-angiogenic agent in the field of cancer and angiogenesis-related diseases.
Project description:Kaempferol is a major flavonoid in Ginkgo Folium and other edible plants, which is being proposed here to have roles in angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is important in both physiological and pathological development. Here, kaempferol was shown to bind with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), probably in the heparin binding domain of VEGF: this binding potentiated the angiogenic functions of VEGF in various culture models. Kaempferol potentiated the VEGF-induced cell motility in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), as well as the sub-intestinal vessel sprouting in zebrafish embryos and formation of microvascular in rat aortic ring. In cultured HUVECs, application of kaempferol strongly potentiated the VEGF-induced phosphorylations of VEGFR2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) in time-dependent and concentration-dependent manners, and in parallel the VEGF-mediated expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-2 and MMP-9, were significantly enhanced. In addition, the potentiation effect of kaempferol was revealed in VEGF-induced migration of skin cell and monocyte. Taken together, our results suggested the pharmacological roles of kaempferol in potentiating VEGF-mediated functions should be considered.
Project description:Their antiangiogenic effects make vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) inhibitors useful for cancer treatment. However, most of these drugs have unexpected adverse side effects. Here, we show that the novel VEGFR2 inhibitor YLL545 suppressed tumor angiogenesis and growth in triple-negative breast cancer without adverse effects. YLL545 treatment also markedly inhibited proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation by human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. These effects of YLL545 were equal to or greater than those seen with sorafenib. In addition, YLL545 inhibited VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and activation of downstream signaling regulators, such as phospho-STAT3 and phospho-ERK1/2, in HUVECs. Embryonic angiogenesis assays in zebrafish and Matrigel plug assays in mice demonstrated that YLL545 inhibits angiogenesis in vivo. YLL545 also inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, and 50 mg/kg/d YLL545 inhibited human tumor xenograft growth by more than 50% in BALB/c nude mice. These observations suggest YLL545 is a potentially useful anticancer drug candidate.
Project description:Piceatannol is also named as trans-3,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-stilbene, which is a natural analog of resveratrol and a polyphenol existing in red wine, grape and sugar cane. Piceatannol has been proved to possess activities of immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and anticancer. However, the effect of piceatannol on VEGF-mediated angiogenesis is not known. Here, the inhibitory effects of piceatannol on VEGF-induced angiogenesis were tested both in vitro and in vivo models of angiogenesis. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), piceatannol markedly reduced the VEGF-induced cell proliferation, migration, invasion, as well as tube formation without affecting cell viability. Furthermore, piceatannol significantly inhibited the formation of subintestinal vessel in zebrafish embryos in vivo. In addition, we identified the underlying mechanism of piceatannol in triggering the anti-angiogenic functions. Piceatannol was proposed to bind with VEGF, thus attenuating VEGF in activating VEGF receptor and blocking VEGF-mediated downstream signaling, including expressions of phosphorylated eNOS, Erk and Akt. Furthermore, piceatannol visibly suppressed ROS formation, as triggered by VEGF. Moreover, we further determined the outcome of piceatannol binding to VEGF in cancer cells: piceatannol significantly suppressed VEGF-induced colon cancer proliferation and migration. Thus, these lines of evidence supported the conclusion that piceatannol could down regulate the VEGF-mediated angiogenic functions with no cytotoxicity via decreasing the amount of VEGF binding to its receptors, thus affecting the related downstream signaling. Piceatannol may be developed into therapeutic agents or health products to reduce the high incidence of angiogenesis-related diseases.
Project description:Glycation of extracellular matrix proteins has been demonstrated to contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular complications. However, no previous report has shown the role of glycated fibronectin (FN) in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of glycated FN on VEGF signalling and to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved. FN was incubated with methylglyoxal (MGO) in vitro to synthesize glycated FN, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were seeded onto unmodified and MGO-glycated FN. Then, VEGF-induced angiogenesis and VEGF-induced VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) signalling activation were measured. The results demonstrated that normal FN-positive bands (260 kD) vanished and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) appeared in MGO-glycated FN and glycated FN clearly changed to a higher molecular mass. The glycation of FN inhibited VEGF-induced VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), Akt and ERK1/2 activation and VEGF-induced cell migration, proliferation and tube formation. The glycation of FN also inhibited the recruitment of c-Src to VEGFR-2 by sequestering c-Src through receptor for AGEs (RAGE) and the anti-RAGE antibody restored VEGF-induced VEGFR-2, Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, endothelial cell migration, proliferation and tube formation. Furthermore, the glycation of FN significantly inhibited VEGF-induced neovascularization in the Matrigel plugs implanted into subcutaneous tissue of mice. Taken together, these data suggest that the glycation of FN may inhibit VEGF signalling and VEGF-induced angiogenesis by uncoupling VEGFR-2-c-Src interaction. This may provide a novel mechanism for the impaired angiogenesis in diabetic ischaemic diseases.
Project description:Chemotherapeutics are sometimes administered with drugs, like antiangiogenic compounds, to increase their effectiveness. Melatonin exerts antitumoral actions through antiangiogenic actions. We studied if melatonin regulates the response of HUVECs to chemotherapeutics (docetaxel and vinorelbine). The inhibition that these agents exert on some of the processes involved in angiogenesis, such as, cell proliferation, migratory capacity or vessel formation, was enhanced by melatonin. Regarding to estrogen biosynthesis, melatonin impeded the negative effect of vinorelbine, by decreasing the activity and expression of aromatase and sulfatase. Docetaxel and vinorelbine increased the expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-3, ANG1 and/or ANG-2 and melatonin inhibited these actions. Besides, melatonin prevented the positive actions that docetaxel exerts on the expression of other factors related to angiogenesis like JAG1, ANPEP, IGF-1, CXCL6, AKT1, ERK1, ERK2, MMP14 and NOS3 and neutralized the stimulating actions of vinorelbine on the expression of FIGF, FGFR3, CXCL6, CCL2, ERK1, ERK2, AKT1, NOS3 and MMP14. In CAM assay melatonin inhibited new vascularization in combination with chemotherapeutics. Melatonin further enhanced the chemotherapeutics-induced inhibition of p-AKT and p-ERK and neutralized the chemotherapeutics-caused stimulatory effect on HUVECs permeability by modifying the distribution of VE cadherin. Our results confirm that melatonin blocks proangiogenic and potentiates antiangiogenic effects induced by docetaxel and vinorelbine enhancing their antitumor effectiveness.