A dichotomy of gene regulatory associations during the activated B-cell to plasmablast transition.
ABSTRACT: The activated B-cell (ABC) to plasmablast transition encompasses the cusp of antibody-secreting cell (ASC) differentiation. We explore this transition with integrated analysis in human cells, focusing on changes that follow removal from CD40-mediated signals. Within hours of input signal loss, cell growth programs shift toward enhanced proliferation, accompanied by ER-stress response, and up-regulation of ASC features. Clustering of genomic occupancy for IRF4, BLIMP1, XBP1, and CTCF with histone marks identifies a dichotomy: XBP1 and IRF4 link to induced but not repressed gene modules in plasmablasts, whereas BLIMP1 links to modules of ABC genes that are repressed, but not to activated genes. Between ABC and plasmablast states, IRF4 shifts away from AP1/IRF composite elements while maintaining occupancy at IRF and ETS/IRF elements. This parallels the loss of BATF expression, which is identified as a potential BLIMP1 target. In plasmablasts, IRF4 acquires an association with CTCF, a feature maintained in plasma cell myeloma lines. Thus, shifting occupancy links IRF4 to both ABC and ASC gene expression, whereas BLIMP1 occupancy links to repression of the activation state.
Project description:Blimp1 is an essential regulator of plasma cells. Here we studied its functions in early plasmablast differentiation by identifying regulated Blimp1 target genes. Blimp1 promoted plasmablast migration and adhesion by controlling many genes involved in these processes. It repressed several transcription factor genes and Aicda, thus silencing B-cell-specific gene expression, antigen presentation and class switch recombination in plasmablasts. It also directly activated genes, leading to increased expression of the plasma cell regulator IRF4 and proteins involved in immunoglobulin secretion. Blimp1 strongly induced immunoglobulin gene transcription by controlling the activity of Igh and Igk 3’ enhancers and regulated the posttranscriptional switch of expression from the membrane-bound to secreted immunoglobulin heavy-chain by activating Ell2. Notably, Blimp1 recruited chromatin-remodeling and histone-modifying complexes to regulate its target gene. Hence, many essential functions of plasma cells are under Blimp1 control. Overall design: 40 samples in total: A) 16 RNA-Seq samples in 5 cell types: Activated B cells (Act B cell, 2 replicates), Pre-Plasmablasts (Pre-PB, 3 genotypes, 2-4 replicates each), Plasmablasts (PB, 2 replicates), Plasma cells (2 replicates), Mature B cells (2 replicates); B) 19 ChIP-Seq samples in 3 cell types: Act B cell (IRF4, H3K9ac, H3K4me2, H3K4me3, 1 replicate each; H3K27me3, 2 genotypes, 2 and 1 replicates), Pre-PB (IRF4, 1 replicate; H3K27me3, 2 genotypes, 1 replicate each), PB ( PU.1, IRF4, H3K9ac, H3K4me2, H3K4me3, 1 replicate each; Blimp1, H3K27me3, 2 replicates each); C) 5 ATAC-Seq samples in 3 cell types: Act B cell (2 genotypes, 1 replicate each), Pre-PB (2 genotypes, 1 replicate each), PB (1 replicate).
Project description:Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is central to the transcriptional network of activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL), an aggressive lymphoma subgroup defined by gene expression profiling. Since cofactor association modifies transcriptional regulatory input by IRF4, we assessed genome occupancy by IRF4 and endogenous cofactors in ABC-DLBCL cell lines. IRF4 partners with SPIB, PU.1 and BATF genome-wide, but SPIB provides the dominant IRF4 partner in this context. Upon SPIB knockdown IRF4 occupancy is depleted and neither PU.1 nor BATF acutely compensates. Integration with ENCODE data from lymphoblastoid cell line GM12878, demonstrates that IRF4 adopts either SPIB- or BATF-centric genome-wide distributions in related states of post-germinal centre B-cell transformation. In primary DLBCL high-SPIB and low-BATF or the reciprocal low-SPIB and high-BATF mRNA expression links to differential gene expression profiles across nine data sets, identifying distinct associations with SPIB occupancy, signatures of B-cell differentiation stage and potential pathogenetic mechanisms. In a population-based patient cohort, SPIBhigh/BATFlow-ABC-DLBCL is enriched for mutation of MYD88, and SPIBhigh/BATFlow-ABC-DLBCL with MYD88-L265P mutation identifies a small subgroup of patients among this otherwise aggressive disease subgroup with distinct favourable outcome. We conclude that differential expression of IRF4 cofactors SPIB and BATF identifies biologically and clinically significant heterogeneity among ABC-DLBCL.
Project description:Transitioning from a metabolically quiescent naive B cell to an antibody-secreting plasmablast requires division-dependent cellular differentiation. Though cell division demands significant ATP and metabolites, the metabolic processes used for ATP synthesis during plasmablast formation are not well described. Here, the metabolic requirements for plasmablast formation were determined. Following T-independent stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, B cells increased expression of the oxidative phosphorylation machinery in a stepwise manner. Such activated B cells have increased capacity to perform oxidative phosphorylation but showed dependency on glycolysis. Plasmablasts displayed higher oxidative metabolism to support antibody secretion, as inhibiting oxidative ATP production resulted in decreased antibody titers. Differentiation by Blimp1 was required for this increase in oxidative metabolism, as Blimp1-deficient cells proliferate but do not upregulate oxidative phosphorylation. Together, these findings identify a shift in metabolic pathways as B cells differentiate, as well as the requirement for increased metabolic potential to support antibody production.
Project description:The transcriptional repressor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (BLIMP1) regulates gene expression and cell fate. The DNA motif bound by BLIMP1 in vitro overlaps with that of interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), which respond to inflammatory/immune signals. At such sites, BLIMP1 and IRFs can antagonistically regulate promoter activity. In vitro motif selection predicts that only a subset of BLIMP1 or IRF sites is subject to antagonistic regulation, but the extent to which antagonism occurs is unknown, since an unbiased assessment of BLIMP1 occupancy in vivo is lacking. To address this, we identified an extended set of promoters occupied by BLIMP1. Motif discovery and enrichment analysis demonstrate that multiple motif variants are required to capture BLIMP1 binding specificity. These are differentially associated with CpG content, leading to the observation that BLIMP1 DNA-binding is methylation sensitive. In occupied promoters, only a subset of BLIMP1 motifs overlap with IRF motifs. Conversely, a distinct subset of IRF motifs is not enriched amongst occupied promoters. Genes linked to occupied promoters containing overlapping BLIMP1/IRF motifs (e.g. AIM2, SP110, BTN3A3) are shown to constitute a dynamic target set which is preferentially activated by BLIMP1 knock-down. These data confirm and extend the competitive model of BLIMP1 and IRF interaction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Multiple myeloma (MM), characterized by cancerous proliferation of plasmablasts (PB) and plasma cells (PC), remains incurable in many patients. Differentially expressed molecules between MM PCs and healthy PCs have been explored in order to identify novel targets for treating MM. In the present study, we searched for novel MM therapeutic targets by comparing mRNA expression patterns between the Mus musculus myeloma plasmablast-like SP 2/0 cell line and LPS-induced PB/PC. METHODS:Gene expression profiles of LPS-induced PB/PC and SP 2/0 cells were determined using RNA-sequencing. A predicted gene (Gm40600) was found to be expressed at a low level in SP 2/0 cells. To study the role of Gm40600 in malignant PC, Gm40600 cDNA was cloned into a lentiviral vector (LV201) containing a puromycin selectable marker that was then transfected into SP 2/0 cells. Stable Gm40600-expressing SP 2/0 cells were selected using puromycin. The effect of Gm40600 on SP 2/0 cell proliferation, cell cycle/apoptosis, and tumor progression was assessed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK8), flow cytometry (FACS), and the SP 2/0 isograft mouse model, respectively. The effect of Gm40600 on mRNA and protein expression was evaluated by RNA-sequencing and western blotting, respectively. RESULTS:We found that SP 2/0 cells expressed lower level of Gm40600 mRNA as compared to LPS-induced PB/PC. Overexpression of Gm40600 significantly suppressed SP 2/0 cell proliferation and isograft tumor progression in an isograft mouse model by promoting apoptosis. In addition, Gm40600 overexpression suppressed transcription of the gene encoding Bcl2. Gm40600 overexpression also reduced the expression of PC-associated transcription factors Blimp1 and Xbp1, which promote transcription of the gene that encodes Bcl2. CONCLUSIONS:Gm40600 reduced SP 2/0 cell proliferation and isograft tumor growth and progression by suppressing Blimp1 and Xbp1-mediated Bcl2 transcription to induce apoptosis. Thus, regulation of a human homolog of Gm40600, or associated factors, may be a potential therapeutic approach for treating MM.
Project description:Plasma cell differentiation involves coordinated changes in gene expression and functional properties of B cells. Here, we study the role of Mzb1, a Grp94 cochaperone that is expressed in marginal zone (MZ) B cells and during the terminal differentiation of B cells to antibody-secreting cells. By analyzing Mzb1 -/- Prdm1 +/gfp mice, we find that Mzb1 is specifically required for the differentiation and function of antibody-secreting cells in a T cell-independent immune response. We find that Mzb1-deficiency mimics, in part, the phenotype of Blimp1 deficiency, including the impaired secretion of IgM and the deregulation of Blimp1 target genes. In addition, we find that Mzb1 -/- plasmablasts show a reduced activation of ?1-integrin, which contributes to the impaired plasmablast differentiation and migration of antibody-secreting cells to the bone marrow. Thus, Mzb1 function is required for multiple aspects of plasma cell differentiation.
Project description:Single transcription factors (TFs) regulate multiple developmental pathways, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we quantitatively characterized the genome-wide occupancy profiles of BLIMP1, a key transcriptional regulator for diverse developmental processes, during the development of three germ-layer derivatives (photoreceptor precursors, embryonic intestinal epithelium and plasmablasts) and the germ cell lineage (primordial germ cells). We identified BLIMP1-binding sites shared among multiple developmental processes, and such sites were highly occupied by BLIMP1 with a stringent recognition motif and were located predominantly in promoter proximities. A subset of bindings common to all the lineages exhibited a new, strong recognition sequence, a GGGAAA repeat. Paradoxically, however, the shared/common bindings had only a slight impact on the associated gene expression. In contrast, BLIMP1 occupied more distal sites in a cell type-specific manner; despite lower occupancy and flexible sequence recognitions, such bindings contributed effectively to the repression of the associated genes. Recognition motifs of other key TFs in BLIMP1-binding sites had little impact on the expression-level changes. These findings suggest that the shared/common sites might serve as potential reservoirs of BLIMP1 that functions at the specific sites, providing the foundation for a unified understanding of the genome regulation by BLIMP1, and, possibly, TFs in general.
Project description:The unfolded protein response (UPR) and activation of XBP1 is necessary for high secretory efficiency and functional differentiation of antibody secreting cells (ASCs). The UPR additionally includes a branch in which membrane-bound transcription factors, exemplified by ATF6, undergo intramembrane-proteolysis by the sequential action of site-1 (MBTPS1/S1P) and site-2 proteases (MBTPS2/S2P) and release of the cytoplasmic domain as an active transcription factor. Such regulation is shared with a family of CREB3-related transcription factors and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs). Of these, we identify that the CREB3 family member CREB3L2 is strongly induced and activated during the transition from B-cell to plasma cell state. Inhibition of site-1 protease leads to a profound reduction in plasmablast number linked to induction of autophagy. Plasmablasts generated in the presence of site-1 protease inhibitor segregated into CD38high and CD38low populations, the latter characterized by a marked reduction in the capacity to secrete IgG. Site-1 protease inhibition is accompanied by a distinctive change in gene expression associated with amino acid, steroid and fatty acid synthesis pathways. These results demonstrate that transcriptional control of metabolic programs necessary for secretory activity can be targeted via site-1 protease inhibition during ASC differentiation.
Project description:CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta), also known as nuclear factor-interleukin-6 (NF-IL6), is a transcription factor that plays an important role in the regulation of growth and differentiation of myeloid and lymphoid cells. Mice deficient in C/EBPbeta show impaired generation of B lymphocytes. We show that C/EBPbeta regulates transcription factors critical for proliferation and survival in multiple myeloma. Multiple myeloma cell lines and primary multiple myeloma cells strongly expressed C/EBPbeta, whereas normal B cells and plasma cells had little or no detectable levels of C/EBPbeta. Silencing of C/EBPbeta led to down-regulation of transcription factors such as IRF4, XBP1, and BLIMP1 accompanied by a strong inhibition of proliferation. Further, silencing of C/EBPbeta led to a complete down-regulation of antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) expression. In chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, C/EBPbeta directly bound to the promoter region of IRF4, BLIMP1, and BCL2. Our data indicate that C/EBPbeta is involved in the regulatory network of transcription factors that are critical for plasma cell differentiation and survival. Targeting C/EBPbeta may provide a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of multiple myeloma.
Project description:The ZFP36/Tis11 family of zinc-finger proteins regulate cellular processes by binding to adenine uridine rich elements in the 3' untranslated regions of various mRNAs and promoting their degradation. We show here that ZFP36L1 expression is largely extinguished during the transition from B cells to plasma cells, in a reciprocal pattern to that of ZFP36 and the plasma cell transcription factor, BLIMP1. Enforced expression of ZFP36L1 in the mouse BCL1 cell line blocked cytokine-induced differentiation while shRNA-mediated knock-down enhanced differentiation. Reconstruction of regulatory networks from microarray gene expression data using the ARACNe algorithm identified candidate mRNA targets for ZFP36L1 including BLIMP1. Genes that displayed down-regulation in plasma cells were significantly over-represented (P?=?<0.0001) in a set of previously validated ZFP36 targets suggesting that ZFP36L1 and ZFP36 target distinct sets of mRNAs during plasmacytoid differentiation. ShRNA-mediated knock-down of ZFP36L1 in BCL1 cells led to an increase in levels of BLIMP1 mRNA and protein, but not for mRNAs of other transcription factors that regulate plasmacytoid differentiation (xbp1, irf4, bcl6). Finally, ZFP36L1 significantly reduced the activity of a BLIMP1 3' untranslated region-driven luciferase reporter. Taken together, these findings suggest that ZFP36L1 negatively regulates plasmacytoid differentiation, at least in part, by targeting the expression of BLIMP1.