HADSCs derived extracellular vesicles inhibit NLRP3inflammasome activation and dry eye.
ABSTRACT: The present study was set out to address the therapeutic efficacy of human adipose tissue stem cells derived extracellular vesicles (hADSC-Evs) in a mouse model of dry eye disease and to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved. hADSC-Evs eye drops were topically administered to mice that subjected to desiccating stress (DS). Clinical parameters of ocular surface damage were assessed with fluorescein staining, tear production and PAS staining. For in vitro studies, cell viability assay and TUNEL staining were performed in human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) treated with hADSC-Evs under hyperosmotic media. In addition, immunofluorescent staining, Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blots were used to evaluated NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, and IL-1? expression levels. Compared with vehicle control mice, topical hADSC-Evs treated mice showed decreased corneal epithelial defects, increased tear production, decreased goblet cell loss, as well as reduced inflammatory cytokines production. In vitro, hADSC-Evs could protect HCECs against hyperosmotic stress-induced cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, hADSC-Evs treatment suppressed the DS induced rises in NLRP3 inflammasome formation, caspase-1 activation and IL-1? maturation. In conclusion, hADSC-Evs eye drops effectively suppress NLRP3 inflammatory response and alleviate ocular surface damage in dry eye disease.
Project description:Blueberries have been recognized to possess protective properties from inflammation and various diseases, but not for eye and ocular disorders. This study explores potential benefits of pterostilbene (PS), a natural component of blueberries, in preventing ocular surface inflammation using an in vitro culture model of human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) exposed to hyperosmotic medium at 450 mOsM. Gene expression was detected by RT-qPCR, and protein production or activity was determined by ELISA, zymography, Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured using DCFDA kit. The addition of PS significantly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, TNF-α, IL-1 β, IL-6, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in HCECs exposed to hyperosmotic medium. Pre-treatment with PS (5 to 20 μM) suppressed ROS overproduction in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, PS significantly decreased the levels of oxidative damage biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), aconitase-2 and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Importantly, PS was found to rebalance homeostasis between oxygenases and anti-oxidative enzymes by decreasing cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression and restoring the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and peroxiredoxin-4 (PRDX4) during hyperosmotic stress. Our findings demonstrate that PS protects human cornea from hyperosmolarity-induced inflammation and oxidative stress, suggesting protective effects of PS on dry eye.
Project description:In a previous study, we demonstrated that topical D-beta-hydroxybutyrate ameliorates corneal epithelial erosion and superficial punctate keratopathy in a rat model of dry eye disease. In the current investigation, we performed a prospective, randomized, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the safety and efficacy of 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate eye drops in patients with dry eye disease. A total of 65 patients were randomly assigned to either the placebo group or the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group, and the treatments were administered 6 times a day for 4 weeks. We then evaluated corneal fluorescein staining, corneal and conjunctival rose Bengal staining, tear film break-up time (BUT), Schirmer score, and subjective symptoms. At both 2 and 4 weeks, the corneal rose Bengal score was significantly better in the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group than in the placebo group. Among patients with an initial Schirmer score of ≤5 mm, the corneal fluorescein staining score was significantly better in the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group than in the placebo group at two weeks. Mild ocular symptoms occurred in both groups, and these spontaneously resolved. The present study suggested that 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate eye drops are safe and effective in treating ocular surface disorders in patients with tear-deficient dry eye disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dry eye may be caused or exacerbated by deficient lipid secretion. Recently, lipid-containing artificial tears have been developed to alleviate this deficiency. Our study compared the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of lipid-containing eye drops with that of aqueous eye drops. METHODS:A non-inferiority, randomized, parallel-group, investigator-masked multicenter trial was conducted. Subjects with signs and symptoms of dry eye were randomized to use one of two lipid-containing artificial tears, or one of two aqueous artificial tears. Subjects instilled assigned drops in each eye at least twice daily for 30 days. The primary efficacy analysis tested non-inferiority of a preservative-free lipid tear formulation (LT UD) to a preservative-free aqueous tear formulation (AqT UD) for change in Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score from baseline at day 30. Secondary measures included OSDI at day 7, tear break-up time (TBUT), corneal and conjunctival staining, Schirmer's test, acceptability and usage questionnaires, and safety assessments. RESULTS:A total of 315 subjects were randomized and included in the analyses. Subjects reported instilling a median of three doses of study eye drops per day in all groups. At days 7 and 30, all groups showed statistically significant improvements from baseline in OSDI (P<0.001) and TBUT (P?0.005). LT UD was non-inferior to AqT UD for mean change from baseline in OSDI score at day 30. No consistent or clinically relevant differences for the other efficacy variables were observed. Acceptability was generally similar across the groups and there was a low incidence of adverse events. CONCLUSION:In this heterogeneous population of dry eye subjects, there were no clinically significant differences in safety, effectiveness, and acceptability between lipid-containing artificial tears and aqueous eye drops. The results suggest that lipid-containing artificial tears can be used to counteract lipid deficiency that is common in dry eye, without compromising overall acceptability.
Project description:PURPOSE:To assess the safety and efficacy of multi-ingredient sacha inchi microemulsion (SIME) eye drops designed to target (1) tear film instability, (2) tear hyperosmolarity, and (3) ocular surface damage and inflammation in moderate or severe dry eye. METHODS:This randomized, quadruple-masked, active-controlled parallel study in 64 adult patients comprised three parts. Part 1 (n = 3): one eye was treated with SIME for one day. Part 2 (n = 9): randomized eyes were treated with SIME and 0.2% hyaluronic acid (HA) control eye drops 3 times a day for 10 days. Part 3 (n = 26 + 26): randomized treatment was applied on both eyes 3 times a day for 30 days. OSDI change was tested for superiority of SIME over HA. Ocular assessments were performed at baseline and after the last dose. RESULTS:Both treatments were well tolerated without adverse device effects. Tear film break-up time (p = 0.0025) and ocular protection index (p = 0.0026; change vs. HA, p = 0.047) increased significantly with SIME after 30 days. Tear osmolarity decreased more in SIME than in the HA group and significantly with both eye drops in hyperosmolar subgroups. Corneal (p = 0.014) and nasal conjunctival staining (p = 0.043) were reduced with SIME in per-protocol patients (n = 24). Conjunctival (p = 0.001) and lid redness (p = 0.012) decreased with SIME in all patients (n = 26). Symptoms decreased by about 25 OSDI units with both treatments (p < 0.0001) and with nonsignificant difference between treatments. CONCLUSIONS:Sacha inchi microemulsion (SIME) proved safe and efficacious in improving each aetiologic factor for dry eye as revealed through objective tests. Hyperosmolar stress dominating blink cycles must be disrupted by biophysical protection of the ocular surface to facilitate resolution of cellular damage and inflammation, and relief of ocular symptoms.
Project description:Purpose:Lipid-containing eye drops is increasingly popular in eye clinics to treat dry eye. Tear lipid layer thickness (LLT) changes after instillation of lipid eye drops have not been characterized. We aim to evaluate these changes of LLT using a noninvasive interferometry-based method. Methods:This prospective clinical study was conducted on staff and patients from Singapore National Eye Centre with ad hoc recruitment. Noninvasive tear break up time was measured using the Keratographer 5M. LLTs were measured using a tear interferometer machine before and at 1, 5, and 15 minutes after instillation of lipid-containing drops, either Cationorm unidose or Artelac Lipids. Fluorescein clearance (tear clearance rate) and Schirmer tests were conducted. The tear clearance rate of fluorescein dye was based on the visual examination of the color of a Schirmer strip after 5 minutes, compared against color standards. Results:This study included a total of 84 participants aged ?21 years. Many were female (92.8%) and Chinese (89.2%). A tear clearance rate of 1/16 was most common (35.7%), whereas 1/128 and 1/32 were uncommon (3.57% each). Schirmer results were 6.5 ± 8.1 mm, and noninvasive tear break up times were 8.12 ± 6.25 mm. Participants with baseline LLT <60 nm had greater changes in LLT after Cationorm instillation, compared with those with an LLT of >60 nm. LLT changes over 15 minutes were not associated with tear clearance rate. Similar results were obtained when using Artelac Lipids. Conclusions:Our results showed that participants' initial LLT affected their responsiveness to lipid-containing eye drops more than other factors. Translational Relevance:Doctors may choose to measure the baseline LLT of patients before deciding whether to prescribe lipid eye drops to patients.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of glycine thymosin ?4 (Gly-T?4) eye drops, and to compare the efficacy of topical Gly-T?4 with Cyclosporine A (CsA) in a mouse model of experimental dry eye (EDE). Eye drops consisting of balanced salt solution (BSS), 0.1% Gly-T?4 or 0.05% CsA were used for treatment of EDE. Tear volume, tear film break-up time and corneal staining scores were measured after 7 and 14 days. Periodic acid-Schiff staining for conjunctival gobleT cells, TUNEL assay for corneal apoptotic positive cells, multiplex immunobead assay for interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-? and interferon-? levels, and flow cytometry for CD4+/CCR5+ T cells were performed after 14 days. All clinical parameters showed improvement in the Gly-T?4 and CsA groups (all P<0.05). Significantly increased conjunctival gobleT cells and decreased corneal TUNEL positive cells were observed in the Gly-T?4 and CsA groups. The Gly-T?4 and CsA treated groups showed significantly reduced inflammatory cytokine levels and T cells in the conjunctiva compared with the EDE and BSS groups (all P<0.05). However, there were no significant differences observed in the inflammatory and clinical parameters between the Gly-T?4 and CsA treatment groups. Topical application of 0.1% Gly-T?4 significantly reduced inflammation on the ocular surface, as well as clinical parameters of EDE, with a similar efficacy to that of 0.05% CsA emulsions, suggesting that Gly-T?4 eye drops may be used as a therapeutic agent for treatment of dry eye disease.
Project description:PURPOSE: Benzalkonium chloride (BAK), the most commonly used preservative in eye drops, is known to induce ocular irritation symptoms and dry eye in long-term treated patients and animal models. As tear film hyperosmolarity is diagnostic of some types of dry eye disease, we determined in vitro on conjunctival epithelial cells the cytoxicity of BAK in hyperosmolar conditions through cell viability, apoptosis, and oxidative stress assays. METHODS: The Wong Kilbourne derivative of Chang conjunctival epithelial cells were cultured for 24 h or 48 h either in NaCl-induced hyperosmolar conditions (400-425-500 mOsM), in low concentrations of BAK (10(-4)%, 3.10(-4)%, and 5.10(-4)%), or in combination of both. We investigated cell viability through lysosomal integrity evaluation, cell death (cell membrane permeability and chromatin condensation), and oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species, superoxide anion) using spectrofluorimetry. Immunohistochemistry was performed for cytoskeleton shrinkage (phalloidin staining), mitochondrial permeability transition pore (cytochrome c release), the apoptosis effector active caspase-3, and the caspase-independent apoptosis factor AIF. We also observed early effects induced by the experimental conditions on the conjunctival cell layers using phase contrast imaging of live cells. RESULTS: As compared to standard culture solutions, hyperosmolar stress potentiated BAK cytotoxicity on conjunctival cells through the induction of oxidative stress; reduction of cell viability; cell membrane permeability increase; cell shrinkage with cell blebbing, as shown in phase contrast imaging of live cells; and chromatin condensation. Like BAK, but to a much lesser extent, hyperosmolarity increased cell death in a concentration-dependent manner through a caspase-dependent apoptosis characterized by a release of cytochrome c in the cytoplasm from mitochondria and the activation of caspase-3. Moreover, the caspase-independent apoptosis factor AIF was found translocated from mitochondria to the nucleus in both conditions. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed increased cytotoxic effects of BAK in hyperosmotic conditions, with characteristic cell death processes, namely caspase-dependent and independent apoptosis and oxidative stress. As BAK is known to disrupt tear film, which could promote evaporative dry eye and tear hyperosmolarity, BAK could promote the conditions enhancing its own cytotoxicity. This in vitro hyperosmolarity model thus highlights the risk of inducing a vicious cycle and the importance of avoiding BAK in patients with dry eye conditions.
Project description:PURPOSE:The activation of ROS-NLRP3-IL-1? signaling axis induced by hyperosmotic stress (HS) has been recognized as a key priming stage of epithelial inflammation in dry eye pathogenesis. The current study aims to investigate whether calcitriol, the active metabolite of vitamin D3, could protect cells against HS-induced inflammation through modulating this critical step. METHODS:Human corneal epithelial cells (iHCECs) were cultured in hyperosmotic medium (450 mOsM) with various concentrations of calcitriol. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to knock down the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in iHCECs. NLRP3 activation and IL-1? generation were detected by RT-qPCR or ELISA, respectively. Oxidative stress markers including ROS and 8-OHdG were examined by fluorometric analysis. The nuclear translocation of NRF2 was assessed by western blotting. RESULTS:Calcitriol could protect cells against HS-induced injury through inhibiting ROS-NLRP3-IL-1? signaling axis. Calcitriol remarkably suppressed the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome related genes and the production of IL-1? in cells that were exposed to HS. It could also significantly attenuate HS-induced oxidative stress, shown as the reduced intracellular ROS generation and 8-OHdG staining cells after calcitriol treatment. Calcitriol induced the translocation of NRF2 to the nucleus, and thereby triggered the expression of several antioxidant enzymes. CONCLUSION:The current study indicated that calcitriol could inhibit the priming stage of HS-induced cellular inflammation, highlighting its potential capacity to prevent and mitigate dry eye related corneal inflammation at an earlier stage.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) possess the proangiogenic potential for ischaemic diseases. Thus, our study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of hADSC-EVs on fat grafting and explore the mechanism of hADSC-EVs promoting angiogenesis. The EVs released by hADSCs incubated under normal or hypoxic conditions were employed to supplement fat grafting in a nude mouse model. The proliferation, migration, tube formation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion of vascular endothelial cells co-cultured with two kinds of hADSC-EVs were analysed. MicroRNA sequencing was performed to reveal the species and content of microRNAs in hADSC-EVs, the key microRNAs were blocked, and their effect in promoting angiogenesis was detected via above protocols as a reverse proof. The results demonstrate that hADSC-EVs could improve the survival of fat grafts by promoting exogenous angiogenesis and enhance the proliferation, migration, tube formation and VEGF secretion of vascular endothelial cells. In addition, the pro-angiogenic effect of hADSC-EVs in vivo and vitro could be enhanced by hypoxic pre-treatment. We found that the let-7 family, a kind of hypoxic-related microRNA, is enriched in hypoxic hADSC-EVs that contribute to angiogenesis via the let-7/argonaute 1 (AGO1)/VEGF signalling pathway.
Project description:Dry eye syndrome is caused by a reduction in the volume or quality of tears. Here, we show that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-null mice develop dry eye-like symptoms such as corneal keratinization and tear reduction. PACAP immunoreactivity is co-localized with a neuronal marker, and PACAP receptor (PAC1-R) immunoreactivity is observed in mouse infraorbital lacrimal gland acinar cells. PACAP eye drops stimulate tear secretion and increase cAMP and phosphorylated (p)-protein kinase A levels in the infraorbital lacrimal glands that could be inhibited by pre-treatment with a PAC1-R antagonist or an adenylate cyclase inhibitor. Moreover, these eye drops suppress corneal keratinization in PACAP-null mice. PACAP eye drops increase aquaporin 5 (AQP5) levels in the membrane and pAQP5 levels in the infraorbital lacrimal glands. AQP5 siRNA treatment of the infraorbital lacrimal gland attenuates PACAP-induced tear secretion. Based on these results, PACAP might be clinically useful to treat dry eye disorder.