A New Laccase of Lac 2 from the White Rot Fungus Cerrena unicolor 6884 and Lac 2-Mediated Degradation of Aflatoxin B1.
ABSTRACT: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a known toxic human carcinogen and can be detoxified by laccases, which are multicopper oxidases that convert several environmental pollutants and toxins. In this study, a new laccase that could catalyze AFB1 degradation was purified and identified from the white-rot fungus Cerrena unicolor 6884. The laccase was purified using (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and anion exchange chromatography, and then identified as Lac 2 through zymogram and UHPLC-MS/MS based on the Illumina transcriptome analysis of C. unicolor 6884. Six putative laccase protein sequences were obtained via functional annotation. The lac 2 cDNA encoding a full-length protein of 512 amino acids was cloned and sequenced to expand the fungus laccase gene library for AFB1 detoxification. AFB1 degradation by Lac 2 was conducted in vitro at pH 7.0 and 45 °C for 24 h. The half-life of AFB1 degradation catalyzed by Lac 2 was 5.16 h. Acetosyringone (AS), Syrinagaldehyde (SA) and [2,2' -azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (ABTS) at 1 mM concentration seemed to be similar mediators for strongly enhancing AFB1 degradation by Lac 2. The product of AFB1 degradation catalyzed by Lac 2 was traced and identified to be Aflatoxin Q1 (AFQ1) based on mass spectrometry data. These findings are promising for a possible application of Lac 2 as a new aflatoxin oxidase in degrading AFB1 present in food and feeds.
Project description:Three bioactive fractions, extracellular laccase (ex-LAC), crude endopolysaccharides (c-EPL), and a low molecular subfraction of secondary metabolites (ex-LMS), were isolated from the idiophasic cultures of the white rot fungus Cerrena unicolor. For the first time, we determined the antioxidant properties of these samples by chemiluminometric measurement (a) and assessment of the scavenging effect on ABTS (b) and the DPPH reduction rate (c). The highest reducing capability was found for the ex-LMS fraction: 39-90% for (a), 20-90% for (b), and 10-59% for (c) at the concentration of 6.25-800 µg/mL. The scavenging abilities of the C. unicolor c-EPL were between 36 and 70% for (a), 2 and 60% for (b), and 28 and 32% for (c) at the concentration of 6.25-800 µg/mL. A very high prooxidative potential was observed for the ex-LAC probes. The preliminary toxicity tests were done using the Microtox system and revealed the following percentage of the toxic effect against Vibrio fischeri: 85.37% for c-EPL, 50.67% for ex-LAC, and 99.8% for ex-LMS, respectively. The ex-LAC sample showed the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, c-EPL against Staphylococcus aureus, and ex-LMS against both bacterial strains, respectively, but the stronger inhibitory effect was exerted on S. aureus.
Project description:Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most commonly observed adult hematological malignancy in Western countries. Despite the fact that recent improvements in CLL treatment have led to an increased percentage of complete remissions, CLL remains an incurable disease. Cerrena unicolor is a novel fungal source of highly active extracellular laccase (ex-LAC) that is currently used in industry. However, to the best of our knowledge, no reports regarding its anti-leukemic activity have been published thus far. In the present study, it was hypothesized that C. unicolor ex-LAC may possess cytotoxic activity against leukemic cell lines and CLL primary cells. C. unicolor ex-LAC was separated using anion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl cellulose-Sepharose and Sephadex G-50 columns. The cytotoxic effects of ex-LAC upon 24- and 48-h treatment on HL-60, Jurkat, RPMI 8226 and K562 cell lines, as well as CLL primary cells of nine patients with CLL, were evaluated using 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining of Jurkat cells treated with ex-LAC was used to investigate apoptosis via flow cytometry. Ex-LAC induced changes in Jurkat and RPMI 8226 cells, as visualized by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XTT assay revealed high cytotoxic rates following treatment with various concentrations of ex-LAC on all the cell lines and CLL primary cells analyzed, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.4 to 1.1 µg/ml. Fluorescence microscopy and SEM observations additionally revealed apoptotic changes in Jurkat and RPMI 8226 cells treated with ex-LAC, compared with control cells. These results were in agreement with the apoptosis analysis of Jurkat cells on flow cytometry. In conclusion, C. unicolor ex-LAC was able to significantly induce cell apoptosis, and may represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of various hematological neoplasms.
Project description:In this study, a laccase LAC-Yang1 was successfully purified from a white-rot fungus strain <i>Pleurotus ostreatus</i> strain yang1 with high laccase activity. The enzymatic properties of LAC-Yang1 and its ability to degrade and detoxify chlorophenols such as 2,6-dichlorophenol and 2,3,6-trichlorophenol were systematically studied. LAC-Yang1 showed a strong tolerance to extremely acidic conditions and strong stability under strong alkaline conditions (pH 9-12). LAC-Yang1 also exhibited a strong tolerance to different inhibitors (EDTA, SDS), metal ions (Mn<sup>2+</sup>, Cu<sup>2+</sup>, Mg<sup>2+</sup>, Na<sup>+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup>, Zn<sup>2+</sup>, Al<sup>3+</sup>, Co<sup>2+</sup>, and metal ion mixtures), and organic solvents (glycerol, propylene glycol). LAC-Yang1 showed good stability in the presence of Mg<sup>2+</sup>, Mn<sup>2+</sup>, glycerol, and ethylene glycol. Our results reveal the strong degradation ability of this laccase for high concentrations of chlorophenols (especially 2,6-dichlorophenol) and chlorophenol mixtures (2,6-dichlorophenol + 2,3,6-trichlorophenol). LAC-Yang1 displayed a strong tolerance toward a variety of metal ions (Na<sup>2+</sup>, Zn<sup>2+</sup>, Mn<sup>2+</sup>, Mg<sup>2+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup> and metal ion mixtures) and organic solvents (glycerol, ethylene glycol) in its degradation of 2,6-dichlorophenol and 2,3,6-trichlorophenol. The phytotoxicity of 2,6-dichlorophenol treated by LAC-Yang1 was significantly reduced or eliminated. LAC-Yang1 demonstrated a good detoxification effect on 2,6-dichlorophenol while degrading this compound. In conclusion, LAC-Yang1 purified from <i>Pleurotus ostreatus</i> has great application value and potential in environmental biotechnology, especially the efficient degradation and detoxification of chlorophenols.
Project description:Laccases are a class of multi-copper oxidases with important industrial values. A thermotolerant laccase produced by a basidiomycete fungal strain Cerrena unicolor CGMCC 5.1011 was studied. With glycerin and peptone as the carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, a maximal laccase activity of 121.7 U/mL was attained after cultivation in the shaking flask for 15 days. Transcriptomics analysis revealed an expressed laccase gene family of 12 members in C. unicolor strain CGMCC 5.1011, and the gene and cDNA sequences were cloned. A glycosylated laccase was purified from the fermentation broth of Cerrena unicolor CGMCC 5.1011 and corresponded to Lac2 based on MALDI-TOF MS/MS identification. Lac2 was stable at pH 5.0 and above, and was resistant to organic solvents. Lac2 displayed remarkable thermostability, with half-life time of 1.67 h at 70 ºC. Consistently, Lac2 was able to completely decolorize malachite green (MG) at high temperatures, whereas Lac7 from Cerrena sp. HYB07 resulted in accumulation of colored MG transformation intermediates. Molecular dynamics simulation of Lac2 was conducted, and possible mechanisms underlying Lac2 thermostability were discussed. The robustness of C. unicolor CGMCC 5.1011 laccase would not only be useful for industrial applications, but also provide a template for future work to develop thermostable laccases.
Project description:To elucidate the light-dependent gene expression in Cerrena unicolor FCL139, the transcriptomes of the fungus growing in white, blue, green, and red lighting conditions and darkness were analysed. Among 10,413 all-unigenes detected in C. unicolor, 7762 were found to be expressed in all tested conditions. Transcripts encoding putative fungal photoreceptors in the C. unicolor transcriptome were identified. The number of transcripts uniquely produced by fungus ranged from 20 during its growth in darkness to 112 in the green lighting conditions. We identified numerous genes whose expression differed substantially between the darkness (control) and each of the light variants tested, with the greatest number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (454 up- and 457 down-regulated) observed for the white lighting conditions. The DEGs comprised those involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, autophagy, nucleotide repair systems, signalling pathways, and carotenoid metabolism as defined using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. The analysis of the expression profile of genes coding for lignocellulose-degrading enzymes suggests that the wood-degradation properties of C. unicolor may be independent of the lighting conditions and may result from the overall stimulation of fungal metabolism by daylight.
Project description:Cerrena unicolor is a wood-degrading basidiomycete with ecological and biotechnological importance. Comprehensive Biolog-based analysis was performed to assess the metabolic capabilities and sensitivity to chemicals of C. unicolor FCL139 growing in various sawdust substrates and light conditions. The metabolic preferences of the fungus towards utilization of specific substrates were shown to be correlated with the sawdust medium applied for fungus growth and the light conditions. The highest catabolic activity of C. unicolor was observed after fungus precultivation on birch and ash sawdust media. The fungus growing in the dark showed the highest metabolic activity which was indicated by capacity to utilize a broad spectrum of compounds and the decomposition of 74/95 of the carbon sources. In all the culture light conditions, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid was the most readily metabolized compound. The greatest tolerance to chemicals was also observed during C. unicolor growth in darkness. The fungus was the most sensitive to nitrogen compounds and antibiotics, but more resistant to chelators. Comparative analysis of C. unicolor and selected wood-decay fungi from different taxonomic and ecological groups revealed average catabolic activity of the fungus. However, C. unicolor showed outstanding capabilities to catabolize salicin and arbutin. The obtained picture of C. unicolor metabolism showed that the fungus abilities to decompose woody plant material are influenced by various environmental factors.
Project description:Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZEN) exert deleterious effects to human and animal health. In this study, the ability of a CotA laccase from Bacillus subtilis (BsCotA) to degrade these two mycotoxins was first investigated. Among the nine structurally defined chemical compounds, methyl syringate was the most efficient mediator assisting BsCotA to degrade AFB1 (98.0%) and ZEN (100.0%). BsCotA could also use plant extracts, including the Epimedium brevicornu, Cucumis sativus L., Lavandula angustifolia, and Schizonepeta tenuifolia extracts to degrade AFB1 and ZEN. Using hydra and BLYES as indicators, it was demonstrated that the degraded products of AFB1 and ZEN using the laccase/mediator systems were detoxified. Finally, a laccase of fungal origin was also able to degrade AFB1 and ZEN in the presence of the discovered mediators. The findings shed light on the possibility of using laccases and a mediator, particularly a natural plant-derived complex mediator, to simultaneously degrade AFB1 and ZEN contaminants in food and feed.
Project description:Recent transcriptomic and biochemical studies have revealed that light influences the global gene expression profile and metabolism of the white-rot fungus Cerrena unicolor. Here, we aimed to reveal the involvement of proteases and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by the 26S proteasome in the response of this fungus to white, red, blue and green lighting conditions and darkness. The changes in the expression profile of C. unicolor genes putatively engaged in proteolysis were found to be unique and specific to the applied wavelength of light. It was also demonstrated that the activity of proteases in the culture fluid and mycelium measured using natural and synthetic substrates was regulated by light and was substrate-dependent. A clear influence of light on protein turnover and the qualitative and quantitative changes in the hydrolytic degradation of proteins catalyzed by various types of proteases was shown. The analysis of activity associated with the 26S proteasome showed a key role of ATP-dependent proteolysis in the initial stages of adaptation of fungal cells to the stress factors. It was suggested that the light-sensing pathways in C. unicolor are cross-linked with stress signaling and secretion of proteases presumably serving as regulatory molecules.
Project description:Light influences developmental pathways in fungi. Recent transcriptomic and biochemical analyses have demonstrated that light influences the metabolism of a white-rot basidiomycete Cerrena unicolor. However, the expression profile of genes involved in the growth and development, or micromorphological observations of the mycelium in response to variable lighting and culturing media, have not performed. We aim to reveal the effect of light and nutrients on C. unicolor growth and a potential relationship between the culture medium and lighting conditions on fungus micromorphological structures. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were employed for morphological observations of C. unicolor mycelium cultivated in red, blue, green, and white light and darkness on mineral and sawdust media. A comprehensive analysis of C. unicolor differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was employed to find global changes in the expression profiles of genes putatively involved in light-dependent morphogenesis. Both light and nutrients influenced C. unicolor growth and development. Considerable differences in the micromorphology of the mycelia were found, which were partially reflected in the functional groups of DEGs observed in the fungus transcriptomes. A complex cross-interaction of nutritional and environmental signals on C. unicolor growth and morphology was suggested. The results are a promising starting point for further investigations of fungus photobiology.
Project description:Laccases have great potential for industrial applications due to their green catalytic properties and broad substrate specificities, and various studies have attempted to improve the catalytic performance of these enzymes. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we firstly report the directed evolution of a homodimeric laccase from Cerrena unicolor BBP6 fused with ?-factor prepro-leader that was engineered through random mutagenesis followed by in vivo assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three evolved fusion variants selected from ~3500 clones presented 31- to 37-fold increases in total laccase activity, with better thermostability and broader pH profiles. The evolved ?-factor prepro-leader enhanced laccase expression levels by up to 2.4-fold. Protein model analysis of these variants reveals that the beneficial mutations have influences on protein pKa shift, subunit interaction, substrate entrance, and C-terminal function.