Tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 interacts with CD44, which is involved in fate-change of hepatic stellate cells.
ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 protein (TSG-6) is a cytokine secreted by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and regulates MSC stemness. We previously reported that TSG-6 changes primary human hepatic stellate cells (pHSCs) into stem-like cells by activating yes-associated protein-1 (YAP-1). However, the molecular mechanism behind the reprogramming action of TSG-6 in pHSCs remains unknown. Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) is a transmembrane protein that has multiple functions depending on the ligand it is binding, and it is involved in various signaling pathways, including the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. Given that ?-catenin influences stemness and acts downstream of CD44, we hypothesized that TSG-6 interacts with the CD44 receptor and stimulates ?-catenin to activate YAP-1 during TSG-6-mediated transdifferentiation of HSCs. Immunoprecipitation assays showed the interaction of TSG-6 with CD44, and immunofluorescence staining analyses revealed the colocalization of TSG-6 and CD44 at the plasma membrane of TSG-6-treated pHSCs. In addition, TSG-6 treatment upregulated the inactive form of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3?, which is a negative regulator of ?-catenin, and promoted nuclear accumulation of active/nonphosphorylated ?-catenin, eventually leading to the activation of YAP-1. However, CD44 suppression in pHSCs following CD44 siRNA treatment blocked the activation of ?-catenin and YAP-1, which inhibited the transition of TSG-6-treated HSCs into stem-like cells. Therefore, these findings demonstrate that TSG-6 interacts with CD44 and activates ?-catenin and YAP-1 during the conversion of TSG-6-treated pHSCs into stem-like cells, suggesting that this novel pathway is an effective therapeutic target for controlling liver disease. [BMB Reports 2020; 53(8): 425-430].
Project description:Gene expression studies from hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) populations purified to variable degrees have defined a set of stemness genes. The present study describes the construction and comparative molecular analysis of l-phage cDNA libraries from highly purified primitive HSCs (PHSCs) which retained their long term repopulating activities (LTRAs), and from maturing HSCs (MHSCs) which were largely depleted of LTRAs. Library inserts were amplified and tagged by a T7 RNA polymerase promoter and used to generate biotinylated cRNA for Microarray hybridization. Microarray analysis of the libraries confirmed previous results but also revealed an unforseen preferential expression of translation and metabolism associated genes in the PHSCs. Therefore these data indicate that HSCs are quiescent only in regard of proliferative activities, but are in a state of readiness to provide the metabolic and translational activities required following induction of proliferation by factors which induce differentiation and exit from the HSC pool. We used microarrays to detail the global programme of gene expression distinguishing primitive and maturing hematopoietic stem cells from mouse bone marrow and identified distinct classes of up- and down-regulated genes. Experiment Overall Design: To compare the transcriptosomes of primitive and maturing hematopoietic stem cells from mouse bone marrow, cDNA libraries were generated from RNA isolated from highly purified stem cell populations and used to generate biotinylated cRNA for Affymetrix microarray analysis.
Project description:Regulation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) by bone marrow (BM) niches has been extensively studied; however, whether and how HSC subpopulations are distinctively regulated by BM niches remain unclear. Here, we functionally distinguished reserve HSCs (rHSCs) from primed HSCs (pHSCs) based on their response to chemotherapy and examined how they are dichotomously regulated by BM niches. Both pHSCs and rHSCs supported long-term hematopoiesis in homeostasis; however, pHSCs were sensitive but rHSCs were resistant to chemotherapy. Surviving rHSCs restored the HSC pool and supported hematopoietic regeneration after chemotherapy. The rHSCs were preferentially maintained in the endosteal region that enriches N-cadherin+ (N-cad+) bone-lining cells in homeostasis and post-chemotherapy. N-cad+ cells were functional bone and marrow stromal progenitor cells (BMSPCs), giving rise to osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes in vitro and in vivo. Finally, ablation of N-cad+ niche cells or deletion of SCF from N-cad+ niche cells impaired rHSC maintenance during homeostasis and regeneration.
Project description:Transition from pluripotency to differentiation is a pivotal yet poorly understood developmental step. Here, we show that the tumour suppressor RASSF1A is a key player driving the early specification of cell fate. RASSF1A acts as a natural barrier to stem cell self-renewal and iPS cell generation, by switching YAP from an integral component in the ?-catenin-TCF pluripotency network to a key factor that promotes differentiation. We demonstrate that epigenetic regulation of the Rassf1A promoter maintains stemness by allowing a quaternary association of YAP-TEAD and ?-catenin-TCF3 complexes on the Oct4 distal enhancer. However, during differentiation, promoter demethylation allows GATA1-mediated RASSF1A expression which prevents YAP from contributing to the TEAD/?-catenin-TCF3 complex. Simultaneously, we find that RASSF1A promotes a YAP-p73 transcriptional programme that enables differentiation. Together, our findings demonstrate that RASSF1A mediates transcription factor selection of YAP in stem cells, thereby acting as a functional "switch" between pluripotency and initiation of differentiation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cell division cycle 20 (CDC20) is frequently overexpressed in malignant tumours and involved in the differentiation process of hematopoietic stem cells. However, the role of CDC20 in prostate cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) remains poorly understood. METHODS:The expression of CDC20, CD44, β-catenin were examined in prostate cancer specimens by immunohistochemistry assay, the role of CDC20 on the stem-like properties of prostate CSCs was accessed by real-time quantitive PCR, spheroid formation, in vitro and in vivo limiting dilution assay. FINDING:CDC20 was associated with malignant progression of prostate cancer, the patients with both high expression CDC20 and CD44 or β-catenin were associated with more aggressive clinicopathological features and poor prognosis. CDC20 was usually enriched in CD44+ prostate CSCs. Knockdown of CDC20 could inhibit the expression of stemness-related genes, self-renewal ability, chemo-resistance, invasion capability and tumorigenicity of CD44+ prostate CSCs. Mechanistically, CDC20 promoted degradation of Axin1, the core member of β-catenin destruction complex, sequentially reduced the phosphorylation of β-catenin, promoting the latter into the nucleus, thereby enhancing the self-renewal capacity of CD44+ prostate CSCs. INTERPRETATION:Our results indicated that CDC20 maintains the self-renewal ability of CD44+ prostate CSCs by promoting nuclear translocation and trans-activation of β-catenin. In addition, CDC20 combined with CD44 or β-catenin can serve as an important indicator for prognosis of patients with prostate cancer.
Project description:Dihydrotanshinone I (DHI), a lipophilic component of traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has various therapeutic effects. We investigated the anti-fibrotic effect of DHI and its underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo.Rats subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL) were treated with DHI (25 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 , i.p.) for 14 days. Serum biochemical and liver tissue morphological analyses were performed. The human hepatic stellate cell line LX-2 served as a liver fibrosis model in vitro. Liver fibrogenic genes, yes-associated protein (YAP) downstream genes and autophagy markers were examined using western blot and real-time PCR analyses. Similar analyses were done in rat primary hepatic stellate cells (pHSCs). Autophagy flux was assessed by immunofluorescence.In BDL rats, DHI administration attenuated liver necrosis, bile duct proliferation and collagen accumulation and reduced the expression of genes associated with fibrogenesis, including Tgfb1, Mmp-2, Acta2 and Col1a1. DHI (1, 5, 10 ?mol·L-1 ) time- and dose-dependently suppressed the protein level of COL1A1, TGF?1 and ?-SMA in LX-2 cells and rat pHSCs. Furthermore, DHI blocked the nuclear translocation of YAP, which inhibited the YAP/TEAD2 interaction and its downstream fibrogenic genes, connective tissue growth factor, SOX4 and survivin. This stimulated autophagic flux and accelerated the degradation of liver collagen.DHI exerts anti-fibrotic effects in BDL rats, LX-2 cells and rat pHSCs by inhibiting the YAP and TEAD2 complex and stimulating autophagy. These findings indicate that DHI may be a potential therapeutic for the treatment of liver fibrosis.
Project description:Some evidences show that residual tumor after thermal ablation will progress rapidly. However, its mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we assessed whether activated HSCs could regulate stem cell-like property of residual tumor after incomplete thermal ablation to promote tumor progression. Human HCC cell lines were exposed to sublethal heat treatment to simulate the peripheral zone of thermal ablation. After residual HCC cells were cultured with conditional medium (CM) from activated HSCs, parameters of the stem cell-like phenotypes were analyzed. Nude mice bearing heat-exposed residual HCC cells and HSCs were subjected to metformin treatment to thwarter tumor progression. CM from activated primary HSCs or LX-2 cells significantly induced the stem cell-like phenotypes of residual HCC cells after heat treatment. These effects were significantly abrogated by neutralizing periostin (POSTN) in the CM. POSTN regulated the stemness of heat-exposed residual HCC cells via activation of integrin ?1/AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin/TCF4/Nanog signaling pathway. Metformin significantly inhibited in vivo progression of heat-exposed residual HCC via suppressing POSTN secretion and decreasing cancer stem cell marker expression. Our data propose a new mechanism of activated HSCs promoting the stemness traits of residual HCC cells after incomplete thermal ablation and suggest metformin as a potential drug to reverse this process.
Project description:Therapeutic applications of tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are hindered by their limited expansion ability and variation across donors. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived MSCs show greater expandability and therefore offer potential for use in tissue repair therapies. Here we explored the regenerative effects of iPSC-MSCs and the mechanisms by which iPSC-MSCs promote mucosal healing via tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6) in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Human iPSCs were induced to differentiate into MSCs following a clinically compliant protocol. The iPSC-MSC treatment promoted mucosal healing in colitic mice, accompanied by increased epithelial cell proliferation, CD44-positive cells, and Lgr5-positive cells. TSG-6 knockdown in iPSC-MSCs or blocking of hyaluronan-CD44 interactions by PEP-1 abrogated the therapeutic effects of iPSC-MSCs, whereas use of recombinant TSG-6 showed therapeutic effects similar to those of iPSC-MSCs. A mouse or patient-derived organoid culture system was developed. Organoids co-cultured with iPSC-MSCs showed increased epithelial cell proliferation, CD44-positive cells, and Lgr5-positive cells, which was abolished by TSG-6 knockdown. TSG-6-induced promoting effects in organoids were dependent on Akt activation and abrogated by the anti-CD44 antibody or MK2206. In conclusion, iPSC-MSCs promoted epithelial cell proliferation to accelerate mucosal healing in a murine colitis model via TSG-6 through hyaluronan-CD44 interactions in an Akt-dependent manner, demonstrating a patient-specific "off-the-shelf" format for IBD treatment.
Project description:Cancer-associated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are critically involved in tumor development and progression. However, the mechanisms of action for MSCs in cancer remain largely unknown. Herein, we reported that the expression of Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) was higher in gastric cancer derived mesenchymal stem cells (GC?MSCs) than that in bone marrow derived MSCs (BM?MSCs). YAP knockdown not only inhibited the growth, migration and invasion, and stemness of GC?MSCs, but also suppressed their promoting effect on gastric cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the interference of YAP expression in GC?MSCs also attenuated the promoting role of gastric cancer cells in endothelial cell tube formation and migration. Mechanistically, YAP knockdown reduced the activation of ?-catenin and its target genes in gastric cancer cells by GC?MSCs. Taken together, these findings suggest that YAP activation in GC?MSCs plays an important role in promoting gastric cancer progression, which may represent a potential target for gastric cancer therapy.
Project description:Serglycin is a proteoglycan that was first found to be secreted by hematopoietic cells. As an extracellular matrix (ECM) component, serglycin promotes nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) metastasis and serves as an independent, unfavorable NPC prognostic indicator. The detailed mechanism underlying the roles of serglycin in cancer progression remains to be clarified. Here, we report that serglycin knockdown in NPC cells inhibited cell sphere formation and tumor seeding abilities. Serglycin downregulation enhanced high-metastasis NPC cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. It has been reported that serglycin is a novel ligand for the stem cell marker CD44. Interestingly, we found a positive correlation between serglycin expression and CD44 in nasopharyngeal tissues and NPC cell lines. Further study revealed that CD44 was an ERK-dependent downstream effector of serglycin signaling, and serglycin activated the MAPK/?-catenin axis to induce CD44 receptor expression in a positive feedback loop. Taken together, our novel findings suggest that ECM serglycin upregulated CD44 receptor expression to maintain NPC stemness by interacting with CD44 and activating the MAPK/?-catenin pathway, resulting in NPC cell chemoresistance. These findings suggest that the intervention of serglycin/CD44 axis and downstream signaling pathway is a rational strategy for targeting NPC cancer stem cell therapy.
Project description:The switch between stem/progenitor cell expansion and differentiation is critical for organ homeostasis. The mammalian Hippo pathway effector and oncoprotein YAP expands undifferentiated stem/progenitor cells in various tissues. However, the YAP-associated transcription factors and downstream targets underlying this stemness-promoting activity are poorly understood. Here we show that the SRF-IL6 axis is the critical mediator of YAP-induced stemness in mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer. Specifically, serum response factor (SRF)-mediated binding and recruitment of YAP to mammary stem cell (MaSC) signature-gene promoters induce numerous MaSC signature genes, among which the target interleukin (IL)-6 is critical for YAP-induced stemness. High SRF-YAP/TAZ expression is correlated with IL6-enriched MaSC/basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Finally, we show that this high SRF expression enables YAP to more efficiently induce IL6 and stemness in BLBC compared with luminal-type breast cancer. Collectively, our results establish the importance of SRF-YAP-IL6 signalling in promoting MaSC-like properties in a BLBC-specific manner.